Institute of Pure and Applied Chemistry Sustainability a topic for

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					                           Institute of Pure and
                           Applied Chemistry




            Sustainability –
   a topic for chemistry education




Ilka Parchmann, Kerstin Haucke                     Woudschoten 2008
              Leading questions


          Chemistry through education –
         and education through chemistry!


Two perspectives of sustainability:

- How sustainable is school education in chemistry,
  regarding understanding, interest and attitudes?

- (How) Can examples of sustainable chemistry be used
  to improve the sustainability of education?
                                               Pubs demanded articles that
                                               correct this statement.
                                               A supermarket complained about
                                               falling numbers of beer
                                               consumption.

                                               A brewery explained that their beer
                                               would definitely not contain
                                               ethanol.




Chemie im Spiegel der Tageszeitung, P. Haupt
Attitudes and application of knowledge?




                             „...must be free
                             of chemical
                             substances.“


Empirical data shows ...
• problems with the application of knowledge outside the
  classroom
          Students´ interests and attitudes?
        Results of the ROSE-study (S. Sjoberg)
                ”Science and technology are important for society”

 Uganda
  Philippi          Children in all countries agree
    Ghana
  Turkey              strongly that Science and
Trinidad             technology are important for
     Egypt                      society
  Iceland
   Russia
    Latvia
     Israel
   Ireland
  Poland
  Greece
  Estonia
  Norway
 Sweden
  Finland
Denmark
    Japan
 England
     Spain

              2,4       2,6        2,8         3,0         3,2         3,4            3,6   3,8
                          Mean G1. Science and technology are important for society
           Students´ interests and attitudes?
         Results of the ROSE-study (S. Sjoberg)
              ”I like school science better than most other subjects”
 Uganda
    Ghana
  Philippi
     Egypt
  Turkey
     Spain
   Russia
  Poland
    Latvia
  Estonia
  Greece
   Ireland                                                              In most countries,
    Japan                                                             science is less popular
 England
     Israel
                                                                     than most other subjects
  Iceland
  Finland
 Sweden                                                            In all countries, boys like
  Norway                                                           science better than girls .
Denmark

              1,6   1,8        2,0       2,2      2,4       2,6       2,8       3,0        3,2   3,4
                          Mean F5. I like school science better than most other subjects
           Students´ interests and attitudes?
         Results of the ROSE-study (S. Sjoberg)
                            ”I would like to become a scientist”

 Uganda
    Ghana
     Egypt
 Philippi
  Turkey
  Greece
     Spain
   Russia
  Poland
    Latvia
     Israel
   Ireland                                    Very few children
 Estonia                                       want to become
England                                      scientists (but boys
  Iceland
 Finland                                       much more than
 Sweden                                              girls!
 Norway
Denmark
    Japan

              1,4   1,6   1,8   2,0    2,2    2,4    2,6    2,8     3,0    3,2   3,4   3,6   3,8
                                 Mean F14. I would like to become a scientist
Can examples of sustainable chemistry
  support the learning of chemistry?




   Goals – topics – techniques – cooperations?
             1. Important goals

    What should your students learn from teaching
              sustainable development?


Demands of sustainable chemistry:
  Knowledge of goals and competence of judgement
  Understanding the system (multiple perspectives)
      Environment – economy – society
  Competencies to act in different contexts

      Equal principles for science education!

                                                (GDCh / RSC, 2000)
  Concepts of sustainable development


Principles of sustainable chemistry:
 Balance of atoms and substances
 (cyclic processes, atom economy, renewable resources)
  Properties of educts, products and other substances
  (e.g. solvents)
  Energy consumption


 Basic concepts in your science (chemistry) education?
                2. Relevant topcs:
       The discussion about climate change


                     CO2 and the climate discussion



                    Human beings heat the earth
Catastrophe??


                The higher concentration of CO2 in    Only politics??
                 the atmosphere is rather a result
                         than a reason.




                      Relevant questions,
                         Judgement?
The discussion about climate change:
      A complex phenomenon!
          It is not a new phenomenon!


  The heat would leave
    the atmosphere
    without water …




   John Tyndall (1820 – 1893)
Reproduction of Tyndall´s idea




Experimental approaches in the past   (Parchmann et al., 1995)
Reproduction of Tyndall´s idea



            Rohr aus Dosen
            with openings
         Canmit Einfüllöffnungenfor gas filling



                                                  Detektor für
                                                    Heat
                                                  Wärmestrahlen
                                                  detector
             burner
             Bunsenbrenner


                                             °C
              Laborboy




   Experimental approaches with
        simple techniques
                                                          (Parchmann et al., 1995)
Upper secondary education:
   modern techniques




   Experimental approaches with
        modern techniques
Upper secondary education:
   modern techniques
 N2                        CO2


         sym. Streck-
         schwingung
          (IR-inaktiv)
        antisym. Streck-
          schwingung
            (IR-aktiv)

         Deformations-
          schwingung
           (IR-aktiv)


 Application of chemical concepts:
    Structures and properties
    The waves of heat move from our earth through
      the atmohere towards space. On their way,
       these waves hit molecules of nitrogen and
       oxygen, and also molecules of water [and
                   carbon dioxide].


   We did not believe, that those molecules of water
     [and carbon dioixide] in such small portions
       would be able to stop the waves of heat.


    Now, there is no doubt that such substances are
     barriers for waves of dark heat, especially for
    waves that have been sent from the earth after
               being heated by the sun…


(1820 – 1893)
Understanding of complex systems
   Why can´t we avoid products?

                                                    Relevant
                                                    questions

                    Crude Oil
        metaolism
        bacteria                         burnings


       „There is a connection dioxide
      Wood,              Carbon
      leafs etc.
   between educts and products!“
     metabolism                          photosynthesis

                     glucose


Cyclic thinking            (Schmidt & Parchmann, 2003; ChiK-Sets, 2003)
                                                  (Friedrich et al., 2005)
             The explanation:
From cyclic processes to the idea of atoms


   The idea of atoms
   “We can try to bring a new planet into the solar system or
   to destroy one, but we cannot produce or destroy an atom.
   Changes that we can produce are caused by the
   seperation of atoms that had been connected or by
   the connection of atoms that had been seperated
   before.“ John Dalton                         (Jansen, 1984)



          Introduction of chemical concepts:
                 Matter and particles
  The usefulness of the idea of atoms


The challenge: a fuel that does not produce carbon dioxide?
 • Possibilities in discussion:




        „CO2-neutral“?


Application of chemical concepts and competencies:
        balance of atoms, energy, judgement
             Some evaluation data



                           Trials of modules


First Results from Students Questionnaires
(N=110, year 11, 12, 13; contexts: rust, fuels, oceans, alcohol)

Factors that influence motivation
  Significant growth of perception of relevance
  Significant growth of perception of quality of instruction
              (e.g. “goal orientation”)

                                                             (Gräsel et al., 2005)
            3. Relevant techniques:
        The household microwave oven




                                             Microwave heating




  Hotplate                                          hot
                                                    cold


Application of chemical concepts:
      Energy Consumption            (GDCh / RSC, 2000; Lühken, 2004)
    Examples for a sustainable education:
      The use of alternative techniques
Comparison the heating rate of a curciblel by using
                     - a household mirowave oven (700 watt), ASC sytem
                     - an electric furnance (1000 watt)
  Temperature [°C]
   1500

   1250

   1000

    750

    500

    250

      0
          0    15       30    45     60    75    90    105    120
                                                        Time [min]
    Development of school experiments

ASC system:      activated carbon as a microwave-
                 susceptor can be used to produce
                 high temperatures in a crucible.



                     porcelain crucible
                     activated carbon
                     earthenware pot

                     mortar


                               (GDCh / RSC, 2000; Lühken, 2004)
    Chemistry in the
household microwave oven


      • Producing or recycling glass
        (e.g. lead-free borosilicate glass)

      • Producing alloys and metal melts,
        recycling of metals


      • Emaille

      • Melting of salts (e.g. NaCl)


                                       (A. Lühken, 2000)
Some „evaluation data“
Some „evaluation data“
   The household microwave oven –
     a technique for cabonization?




                                               (S. Jaeckel)


Application of chemical concepts and competencies:
        balance of atoms, energy, judgement
      4. Relevant cooperations:
   Additional learning opportunities




Continuous education!
School - university - company – partnerships:
            Transfer to daily-life?
   Students as time travellers




                                        (K. Haucke)
 School - university - company – partnerships:
             Transfer to daily-life?




Application of chemical concepts and competencies:
         Energy consumption, environment             (A. Flint et al.)
Can these examples of sustainable chemistry be used to
improve the sustainability of education?
        ⇒ Interest? Understanding? Judgement?

Where do you see chances and difficulties?



  ???                 Dankju wel!