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					 Successful Practices for Providing
 Outreach and Culturally-Sensitive
 Services to Diverse Populations

                                        Ticket Partners Summit
                                                 March 12, 2008
Diverse Populations…
      Our Focus

         • African Americans
         • Hispanics/Latinos
 • Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders
      • People with Disabilities
 • Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual Persons
                                       The Numbers …

Today - More than 31% of the population represents the
emerging majority *

Today – Whites are now in the minority in nearly 1 in 10
US counties, and non-Hispanic Whites make up less than
½ the population in 303 of the US’s 3,141 counties.

By 2020 - 40% of the population *

By 2050 - Half of U.S. will be people of color *

(Source: Population projections are based on U.S. Census 2000* and 2006** data)
Our Beliefs Inform Our Philosophy

• Whether you are trying to increase sales, change behaviors, or
  influence policy, communicating with multicultural audiences is a
  business imperative, not an afterthought.

• Multicultural strategies are integrated holistically into public
  relations because the audiences we reach are inherently diverse.

• The holistic process should be complemented by research-based
  tactics and tools that allow us to effectively reach specific

• And not just communities of color but also…
   – Women                     - Children/Adolescents
   – Older Adults              - People with Disabilities
   – Underserved               - Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual
         We Believe…
 We’re More Alike Than Different
We live next door and celebrate Thanksgiving, too.
  We believe …
  • By sheer numbers alone, all audiences are multicultural.
  • Everyone’s needs, desires and ambitions are fundamentally the
  • How you engage/tap into those emotions will vary – some by
    message, most by messenger.
  • Our approach should include but go beyond demographics of age,
    race, gender and health status to consider

            » Socioeconomic dimensions
            » Psychology of the individual
            » Manner in which he or she lives
      Language and Culture
           in the U.S.
Hispanics who have recently migrated and speak only Spanish.
Asians who only speak their native language. Others remain
isolated by choice.

Hispanics and Asians who adopt or borrow customs or traits from
a different culture and are bilingual.

Hispanics who leave their culture and customs behind for
another. Assimilated Hispanics and Asians speak only English.

        Source: McKinsey Quarterly Analysis, 1998, based on Yankelovich Partners, SRC, and American Demographics.

How do you best reach these

•   Community-based organizations
•   Faith-based organizations
•   Media (English and in-language)
•   Fraternal organizations
•   Influential individuals
•   Family and friends
African Americans
                                      The Numbers
•    39.2 million Blacks in the U.S.

• 13.4     % of the total U.S. population*
    –      African Americans
    –      Black Hispanics
    –      Caribbeans, West Indians, Haitians, etc.

• Top cities where African Americans live
    – New York (3.808 mil)
    – Chicago (1.738 mil)
    – Los Angeles (1.497 mil)
    – Atlanta (1.399 mil)
    – Washington, DC (1.372 mil)
    – Philadelphia (1.372 mil)
    – Detroit (1.128 mil)
    – Houston (966)
    – Miami (853)
    – Dallas-Ft Worth (843)

    (Source: U.S. Census 2004 “Hispanics may be of any race, data for Blacks overlap with data for Hispanics.”)
                     Top 10 DMAs

Designated         General       Black       % of Total    % Black of
Market Area        Market     Population      US Black    Total Market
(DMA)               Rank     (in millions)   Population    Population
New York              1          3.808           10            18
Chicago               3          1.738           5             18
Los Angeles           2          1.497           4             9
Atlanta               9          1.399           4             24
Washington, DC        8          1.376           4             23
Philadelphia          4          1.372           4             18
Detroit              11          1.128           3             23
Houston              10          966             3             18
Miami                17          853             2             20
Dallas-Ft. Worth      7          843             2             13
Reaching African Americans

Approaches to reaching the Black community
     • Communications by word of mouth
         – Family
         – Friends
         – Church
         – Beauty salons and barbershops

     • Influential Organizations

     • Media
        – Print
        – Radio
        – Television
        – Online

     (Source: Strategy Research Corp. Target Market News – African American)
Hispanics and Latinos
                          Hispanic or Latino?
                                          “Hispanics” or “Latinos”?
                                            Hispanic                        Latino
                                       Derives from the Latin        (Latin in Spanish)
                                       word “Spain”                  which as an English
                                                                     word is a shortening of
                                                                     the Spanish word

                                       Refers to Spanish             Makes a specific
                                       speaking people of            geographical reference
                                       Central and South             to countries on central
                                       America as well as            or South America
                                       Spain and those born          (Latino America)
                                       in the U.S

                                       Emphasizes Spanish-           Refers to communities
                                       language as the               of Latin America origin,
                                       common denominator            which might not speak

Sources: Second Quarter 2003; Webster’s 3rd International Directory, Selig Center .
The American Heritage book of English usage . What It Means to Be Latino by Dr. Clara E. Rodríguez
        A Growing Population
Hispanics have become the biggest “minority” in the nation.

• There are now 40 million Hispanics living in the U.S. (14%)

• 1 in every 7 Americans is of Hispanic origin.

• By 2010, nearly 1 person out of every 6 living in the U.S.
  will be of Hispanic origin.

                              Source: The U.S. Census, updated as of July 2004 (Arbitron report, 2004)
        20 countries and many different races are
        represented, each with their own cultural

               Cuban           Dominican
 South          4%               3%               Other
Puerto Rican
Source: U.S. Census 2004 – “Hispanics may be of any race, data for Blacks overlap with data for Hispanics.”
     Cultural Values/Beliefs

• “La Familia” (family)
• Hard work
• “Respeto” (respect)
• “Personalismo (relationships)
• “Confianza” (trust)
• “Espiritu” (spirit), body and mind
• Pride
                The Community
• The Hispanic community is a very large, tight-knit group
  of people. Key influencers within the community have the
  ability to influence opinions of others such as their family,
  neighbors, and community.
• Hispanics are politically active and engaged and will take
  action to get issues important to them put on the agenda.
• Top policy issues for Hispanics today are:
   –   Healthcare: Heart disease, children’s health/diet and diabetes
   –   Education
   –   Employment
   –   Social Security
   –   Immigration

                                                      Source: Hispanic Opinion Tracker 2005
                    Consumer Habits
• Hispanics commonly group their family earnings to purchase a
  car and home.
   – 14% more likely to purchase a new car within the next two years than the
     general population.
   – 26% of Hispanics plan on purchasing a home within the next 12 months
     vs. 9% of the general population.

• Hispanics are purchasing the following at a higher rate than the
  general population:
   –   Groceries
   –   Footwear
   –   Men’s and boy’s clothing
   –   Gasoline and motor oil
   –   Household textiles
   –   Beauty products (hair, makeup and skincare)
          Source: Hispanic Opinion Tracker 2005; Selig Center for Economic Growth's The Multicultural Economy, 1990-2009
          Reaching Hispanics

• Messages and materials
• Media
• Community outlets
Asian Americans / Pacific Islanders
     What does “Asian/Pacific
        Islander” mean?
• Asian American
   – Someone who belongs to at least one of these 15 ethnic groups:
       •   Bangladesh                                      •   Laotians
       •   Cambodian                                       •   Malaysian
       •   Chinese                                         •   Pakistanis
       •   Filipino                                        •   Sri Lankan
       •   Indian                                          •   Taiwanese
       •   Indonesian                                      •   Thai
       •   Japanese                                        •   Vietnamese
       •   Korean

• Pacific Islander
   – Someone who is a native of the following:
       •   “Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander”
       •   Hawai’i
       •   Guam
       •   Samoa
       •   Other Pacific Islands (Fiji, Tonga)            Asian-American Market Profile, Magazine Publishers of America
    The Dominate Groups

• Top groups that represent the API
   – Chinese Americans
   – Filipino Americans
   – Indian Americans
Where Do Many of The APIs
• Largest Communities
  – California
  – New York
  – Hawai’i
• Emerging Communities
  –   Atlanta, GA
  –   Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN
  –   Houston, TX
  –   Las Vegas, NV
  –   Seattle, WA
  –   Chicago, IL
                                 U.S. Census (2000)
                Why is This Audience
     • Fastest population growth rate of any racial
       group in the U.S.
           – Rate of growth is 63% (Hispanics are next at 49%)
     • The Dollars
           – Higher levels of median income and business ownership
             (compared to other ethnic groups in the U.S.)

Selig Center for Economic Grown; U.S. Census (2004 estimates)
                                  The Dollars
     • Though only 4% of total population, APIs account for 7% of the
       wealthiest population
     • $363 billion in purchasing power…and growing
           – Projected increase from 1990 to 2010 will be 397%--compared to 177%
             for overall U.S.
     • 12.5% poverty rate (same as national average)
     • 45% of APIs employed in management level jobs (compared to
       overall U.S. 34%)
     • Top industries that advertise to APIs:
           –   Financial Services
           –   Telecommunications
           –   Travel
           –   Automotive
           –   Health Insurance and Medical Facilities
           –   Apparel
           –   Beauty

U.S. Census (2000); Survey of Minority Owned Businesses
             API Challenges
• Can we treat this audience as one?
   – Diverse languages, cultures, backgrounds,
     communication methods
• Commonalities make the API audience relevant for
  marketing communication
• But dig deeper in order to communicate to your
  audiences appropriately
  Interesting data about
 language preferences…
        Percent of APIs Who Say They Speak English
                          By age

                                                        Very Well
                                                        Not Well
                                                        Not at All


     5-17 Years   18-64 Years      65+ Years
                                                     American Demographics (2002)
              Marketing to Chinese
   • Strong emphasis on family and education,
     reflected in high rates of multigenerational family
     living, professional degrees, and home ownership
   • Business dealings are generally relationship-
     oriented, referral-based
         – WOM tactics especially valuable for this audience
   • Service, value, convenience

Multicultural Marketing News
       Marketing to Filipino
• Use WOM and referral tactics
• Do use Filipino spokespeople wherever possible
• Multigenerational marketing
• Messages that praises the Fil-Ams for his ability to take
  care of his family
        Marketing to Indian
• Loyalty to strong brands
   – Mothers have strong influence

• Financial Services and Insurance
   – Commitment to taking care of family

• Indian American media outlets also offer prime access
  to major community event sponsorship opportunities
• Key Celebrations
   – Diwali – Hindu New Year
       • Late October or Early November
   – Navrathri
       • 20 days before Diwali
   – Holi
       • Spring time
People with Disabilities
              The Numbers
• 859 million people who have a disability

In the United States
• 54 million people with disabilities – 18% of population

            ……. Making them the single largest subgroup in America.
                            The Numbers
              • 2.7 million people use a wheelchair

              • 9.1 million people use an ambulatory aid such as a cane, crutches or

              • 1.8 million people are unable to see

              • 7.8 million people have difficulty hearing a normal conversation

              • 1 million people are unable to hear

              • 14.3 million people have limitations in cognitive functioning or a mental
                or emotional illness

* US Census, 2002.
                               The Numbers
    • 1 in 5 Americans likely will be affected by disability during his or her lifetime.

    • Between 1990-2000, the number of people with disabilities increased 25%*

    • Of nearly 70 million families in US, more than 20 million have at least one
      member with a disability.*

    • At least one half of all non-disabled adults have a disabled spouse, child,
      parent or friend.**

    • Only 15% of people with disabilities in the US was born with them.**

    • Life satisfaction for people with disabilities was 34% saying they are very
      satisfied compared to 61% of those without disabilities.*
* US Census, 2000.
** Source: FORTUNE magazine, March 1998.
                     The Buying Power
          In the United States, people with disabilities have*

          • $1 Trillion in spending power
          • $220 Billion in discretionary spending

          In the United States, of those with long-term disability**

          •   73%     are heads of households
          •   48%     are principal shoppers
          •   46%     are married
          •   77%     have no children
          •   58%     own their own homes

* Source: US Department of Labor
** Source: Simmons Market Research Bureau, 1998.
Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual
             Some Definitions
• Sexual Orientation
   – An individual’s romantic, affectional, or sexual attraction to the
     same sex, the opposite sex, or both.

• Gay
   – Tendency or orientation of men to be attracted to other men
   – Homosexual used more in clinical, medical or sexual context

• Lesbian
   – Tendency or orientation of women who to be attracted to other
     women. Some women prefer to be called “gay” rather than

• Bisexual
   – An individual who finds emotional or sexual fulfillment with
     members of either sex
                                                  Source: NLGJA Stylebook
       The GLB Audience

People who self identify as gay, lesbian
or bisexual
  – Oriented towards - or with a preference for -
    relationships with members of their own
               The Numbers
• Estimated number of gays and lesbians
   – Approximately 15 million people. Could be as high as 22
   – Estimates at 6.7% of the U.S. population
• The 10% Issue
   – Undercount possible as people may not feel safe
     identifying in any survey/census
   – No mechanism for documenting single individuals
• A growing population: Number estimated to
  increase - as the U.S. population increases - to
  16.4 million by 2009

                                           Source: U.S. Census 2000
             Census 2000

• First time a Census captured same sex couples
  living together
• Almost 600,000 same sex couples identified via
  the census
• More than 99% of all U.S. counties had at least
  one household lead by unmarried partners of the
  same sex
Where do Many Gay Couples
• Data is for couples only
• Varies by gender, race, and age
• Top 5 States Overall
   1.   Vermont
   2.   California
   3.   Washington
   4.   Massachusetts
   5.   Oregon

                                    Source: U.S. Census 2000
Where do the Most Gay People
 Highest concentration of white, male couples
    1.   California
    2.   Nevada
    3.   Florida
    4.   New York
    5.   Georgia

 Highest concentration of white, female couples
    1.   Vermont
    2.   New Mexico
    3.   Oregon
    4.   Massachusetts
    5.   California

                                                Source: U.S. Census 2000
The GLB Marketing Challenge
• Diversity in all areas of the community means one
  message does NOT work for all.
   – Age
   – Race/ethnicity
   – Gender
   – Urban/rural
   – Income level
   – Education level
   – Sense of “community”
   Approaches to key decisions
      • “How do I define myself?”
         – Do not identify as GLB, yet demonstrate behavior
What’s Important To Know
• Certain areas of interest are particularly relevant
  for the GLB audience
   – Disposable income
   – Consumption habits: consumer goods, travel
   – Lifestyle
• Certain issues impact the GLB audience
   – Health issues
   – Political issues
• Job (in)security
   – It is legal to fire someone from their job for being gay or
     lesbian in 33 U.S. states
       • States with laws protecting jobs: CA, DC, IL, ME, MN, NM, RI,
  GLB Consumer Behavior

• Earning and affluence are important, but more
  important is gay/lesbian consumer:
   –   Patterns
   –   Purchasing behaviors
   –   Brand preferences
   –   Buying attitudes
   –   Brand loyalty
                Brand Loyalty
• Loyal to Companies that Support the Community
• Not just an ad here or there, but a commitment to
  an overall GLB program
• Examples of strong past GLB support.
   –   IKEA
   –   American Airlines
   –   Miller Brewing
   –   Coors
   –   Absolut
   –   Subaru
Ways to Reach GLB Persons
• Online
   – 32 percent of GLB people spend 24+ hours online per
     week, compared to 18 percent of heterosexuals.
   – 24 percent of GLB people read blogs, compared to 12
     percent of heterosexuals.
      • Queersighted; AmericaBlog; Andrew Sullivan; Keith Boykin
   – 36 percent of GLB people visit their favorite blogs every
     day, versus 19 percent of heterosexuals.
   – 27 percent of GLB people visit YouTube at least once a
     week, compared with 22 percent of heterosexuals.

                                                 - Harris Interactive
Ways to Reach GLB Persons
• Places where we congregate to be together
   –   Neighborhoods
   –   Bars/clubs
   –   Social organizations: sports, activities, interests
   –   Faith Institutions
   –   Clinics and other organizations that serve our community
• Through popular culture
• Gay media
   – National
   – Local
• Traditional media
  Influencer Organizations
• National
  – General: Human Rights Campaign (HRC); National Gay &
    Lesbian Task Force (NGLTF)
  – Health: Mautner Project the National Lesbian Health
    Network; Office on Women’s Health; Gay Men’s Health
  – Media: Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation
    (GLAAD); National Gay & Lesbian Journalist Association
  – Civil Rights: National Black Justice Coalition
  – Business: Gay & Lesbian Chamber of Commerce
  – Faith: MCC
  – Diversity: National Latino/a Coalition for Justice; The
    African American AIDS Policy & Training Institute