The value of plant genetic diversity to resource-poor farmers in Nepal and Vietnam

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					                                                                                                          doi:10.3763/ijas.2007.0291




The value of plant genetic diversity to resource-poor farmers
in Nepal and Vietnam
Bhuwon Sthapit1, Ram Rana2, Pablo Eyzaguirre3 and Devra Jarvis3
1Bioversity International (formally International Plant Genetic Resources Institute), Regional Office for Asia, the
Pacific and Oceania, 3–10 Dharmashila Buddha Marg, Nadipur Patan, Kaski, Pokhara-3, Nepal; 2Local Initiatives
for Biodiversity, Research and Development (LIBIRD), PO Box 324, Pokhara, Nepal; and 3Bioversity International
(IPGRI), Diversity for Livelihoods Programme, Via del Tre Denari 472/a, 00057 Maccarese, Rome, Italy




      Genetic resources for food and agriculture are the biological basis of world food and nutrition security;
      and they directly or indirectly support the livelihoods of over 2.5 billion people. Genetic diversity gives
      a species or a population the ability to adapt to changin
				
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Description: Genetic resources for food and agriculture are the biological basis of world food and nutrition security; and they directly or indirectly support the livelihoods of over 2.5 billion people. Genetic diversity gives a species or a population the ability to adapt to changing environments. For resource-poor farmers, adaptive animal breeds, crop varieties and cultivars adapted to particular micro-niches, stresses or uses are the main resources available to maintain or increase production and provide a secure livelihood. The economic value of genetic diversity for productivity and yield traits is discussed in the literature. However, it is difficult to value many other aspects of agricultural biodiversity as these have both direct and indirect values in terms of qualitative traits such as food, nutrition and environmental uses that include adaptation to low input conditions, co-adaptive complexes, yield stability and the consequent reduction of risk, specific niche adaptation, and in meeting socio-cultural needs. Together, the direct and indirect values of genetic resources for resource-poor farmers are expressed in a range of options in the form of the crop varieties and species they use for managing changing environments. The value of genetic diversity to resource-poor farmers is seldom captured by markets or addressed by the international research agenda. This paper presents lessons learned from our work over 5-10 years in the Asia and Pacific Ocean (APO) region on participatory crop improvement, home gardens and on-farm management of agricultural biodiversity. The lessons illustrate how farmers adapt genetic resources to suit local environmental conditions. The paper focuses on the value of genetic diversity of selected crop species to meet people's food and other needs. Genetic diversity valued by resource-poor farmers is often maintained, selected and exchanged by local social seed networks. Identification of such genetic resources and their custodians is important
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