Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is employed in most quantitative research studies in health care. To determine the efficacy of a treatment, researchers will test the null hypothesis, which is typically defined as no effect of an experimental manipulation on a dependent variable (no treatment effect). Testing the null hypothesis involves calculation of a P value and comparison of the P value to a predetermined level of significance. The position adopted in this paper argues that when NHST is presented in physical therapy education, content related to the limitations of NHST and the use of alternative measures should be included. The rationale for this position is that there are several significant limitations associated with NHST. Null hypothesis significance testing is commonly misused and the P value is often misinterpreted in substantially fundamental ways. Null hypothesis significance testing should be viewed as just one of several components to consider when evaluating data. Application of other interpretation criteria, in addition to, or in lieu of, statistical significance, often provides a better description of results. Clinicians, students, and educators should be aware of the limitations of NHST and should be able to correctly interpret the P value. They should also consider additional measures, such as the confidence interval, effect size, and number needed to treat.