; Multiple Rescue Factors Within a Wolbachia Strain
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Multiple Rescue Factors Within a Wolbachia Strain


Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is expressed when infected males are crossed with either uninfected females or females infected with Wolbachia of different CI specificity. In diploid insects, CI results in embryonic mortality, apparently due to the the loss of the paternal set of chromosomes, usually during the first mitotic division. The molecular basis of CI has not been determined yet; however, several lines of evidence suggest that Wolbachia exhibits two distinct sex-dependent functions: in males, Wolbachia somehow "imprints" the paternal chromosomes during spermatogenesis (mod function), whereas in females, the presence of the same Wolbachia strain(s) is able to restore embryonic viability (resc function). On the basis of the ability of Wolbachia to induce the modification and/or rescue functions in a given host, each bacterial strain can be classified as belonging in one of the four following categories: mod^sup +^ resc^sup +^, mod^sup -^ resc^sup +^, mod^sup -^ resc^sup -^, and mod^sup +^ resc^sup -^. A so-called "suicide" mod^sup +^ resc^sup -^ strain has not been found in nature yet. Here, a combination of embryonic cytoplasmic injections and introgression experiments was used to transfer nine evolutionary, distantly related Wolbachia strains (wYak, wTei, wSan, wRi, wMel, wHa, wAu, wNo, and wMa) into the same host background, that of Drosophila simulans (STCP strain), a highly permissive host for CI expression. We initially characterized the modification and rescue properties of the Wolbachia strains wYak, wTei, and wSan, naturally present in the yakuba complex, upon their transfer into D. simulans. Confocal microscopy and multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) analysis were also employed for the evaluation of the CI properties. We also tested the compatibility relationships of wYak, wTei, and wSan with all other Wolbachia infections. So far, the cytoplasmic incompatibility properties of different Wolbachia variants are explained assuming a

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									Copyright Ó 2008 by the Genetics Society of America
DOI: 10.1534/genetics.107.086488

                         Multiple Rescue Factors Within a Wolbachia Strain

                    Sofia Zabalou,*,† Angeliki Apostolaki,*,‡ Savvas Pattas,† Zoe Veneti,*
                   Charalampos Paraskevopoulos,§ Ioannis Livadaras,* George Markakis,†
                          Terry Brissac,§ Herve Mercot‡,** and Kostas Bourtzis*,§,1
        *Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, FORTH, Vassilika Vouton, Heraklion 71110, Crete, Greece, †Technological
                Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion 71110, Crete, Greece, ‡UMR 7138, Equipe Genetique & Evolution,
                                                                                                   ´ ´
                    CNRS-Universite Paris 6, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France, §Department of Environmental and Natural
                       Resources Management, University of Ioannina, Ag
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