Top-down learning occurs because organizations want their employees to perform effectively and efficiently and because they appreciate that this depends, at least in part, on these employees possessing the appropriate knowledge and skills. Top-down learning is designed to fulfill the employer's objectives for improved performance, not the employees'. Top-down learning occurs in all four contexts: 1. incidental, 2. reactive, 3. proactive, and 4. formalized. In simple terms, top-down learning is needed to control risk. In exceptional cases, where there isn't that much to know and it doesn't change that often, it may be possible for all learning to be managed on top-down basis. However, this is completely unrealistic for the majority of organizations.