It was finally stopped in 1973 by the US Department of Health, Education and Welfare only after its existence became public knowledge and a political embarrassment5. * The Declaration of Helsinki: in 1964, the World Medical Association (WMA) established recommendations guiding medical doctors in biomedical research which involved human subjects. The Declaration of Helsinki is divided into three sections: introduction,- basic principles for all medical research; and additional principles for medical research combined with medical care.\n Guidance notes and procedure for ethical approval for the Royal Liverpool University NHS Trust can be seen in Appendix III and the completed COREC form submitted for ethics approval can be seen in Appendix IV (both can be seen at www.sor.org/members/pubarchive/pub_search.htm). * Peer review: increasingly, ethics committees are now asking for all submissions to be peer reviewed.
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