Corporate Power and the Sierra Club

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					Corporate
      Power
     and the
    Sierra
       Club
 Over our history the Sierra
Club has focused more on the
  environmental and public
health EFFECTS of corporate
       power, while…
     …focusing less on the
  INSTITUTIONS AND RULES
enabling corporations to apply
 that power to harm the Earth
      and its inhabitants.
      All the while, the
wealth & power of transnational
  corporations have grown.
  Corporations use trade and
 investment rules to dominate
    processes for managing
 commerce. In the U.S., legal
 doctrines such as “corporate
 personhood” have shifted the
  power to corporations over
       natural persons.
    The Consequences of
Concentrated Corporate Power
    ON THE ENVIRONMENT…
    Many corporations despoil our
    forests, degrade the land, pollute the
    air and water, and resist public
    health regulations.
    ON OUR CULTURE…
    Corporations promote consumption
    and materialism to the detriment of
    civic values.
    Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000
    The Consequences of
Concentrated Corporate Power
   IN THE EXCHANGE OF IDEAS…
   The concentration of corporate
   media ownership limits political
   debate, the diversity of viewpoints
   presented, and media access.

   ON GOVERNMENT…
   Large corporations wield enormous
   political and electoral power.
   Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000
    The Consequences of
Concentrated Corporate Power
     ON SOCIETY…
     Corporations are usurping civic
     space. Public functions are being
     privatized.

     ON THE MARKETPLACE…
     Mergers and monopolies eliminate
     competition and remove jobs.


   Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000
         Outline of Presentation

  I. Examine the nature of the
     corporation - legally, economically,
     and politically

  II. Explore the history of how
      corporations acquired such
      wealth and power

III.   Cite examples of how corporate
       power affects Sierra Club concerns
       Outline of Presentation

IV.   Review tactics that citizens and
      non-governmental organizations are
      using to hold corporations
      accountable and to redefine the
      relationship between citizens and
      corporations

V.    Identify corporate accountability
      challenges for the Sierra Club
  What is a Corporation?
LEGAL DEFINITION
• An ARTIFICIAL PERSON or LEGAL ENTITY,
• Created by or under authority of the laws
of a STATE OR NATION,
•Composed, in rare instances, of a single
person and successors. Ordinarily, an
ASSOCIATION OF NUMEROUS
INDIVIDUALS,
• Regarded as having a PERSONALITY and
EXISTENCE distinct from its members,
               Source: Black’s Law Dictionary
  What is a Corporation?
• Vested with the capacity of
CONTINUOUS SUCCESSION, irrespective
of changes in membership, in perpetuity,
or for a limited term of years,
• Acting as a UNIT OR SINGLE
INDIVIDUAL, in matters relating to the
common purpose of the association,
• Within the scope of POWERS AND
AUTHORITY conferred on such bodies
BY LAW.
              Source: Black’s Law Dictionary
    People v. Corporations
                                   HUMANS                       CORPORATIONS


                                 YES                                   YES
AWARDED RIGHTS
  OF NATURAL
   PERSONS

    CAN EXIST
    FOREVER                         NO                                 YES
                                    NO                                 YES
     OWNERS
   PERSONALLY
 PROTECTED FROM
FINANCIAL LIABILITY


         Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
    How Wealthy and Powerful
   Have Corporations Become?

   Size &                Merger Mania –
                         Consolidations
   Power
                          and Layoffs

              Influence of
                Money in
               Elections

 Corporate                   Tax Effort By
Pork Barrel                  Corporations
 Corporations Have Acquired
Tremendous Wealth and Power
              • In 2002, 52 of the world’s
              largest 100 economies
              were corporations.
              • Approximately 60% of
              all world trade is between
              firms within the same
              parent corporation.


     Sources: Institute for Policy Studies, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002 Reports, Global,Inc..
  Corporations Have Acquired
 Tremendous Wealth and Power

                         WALMART



With 2002 sales of $246 billion, WalMart is
    larger than 150 countries, including…




       Norway                  Poland                  and Greece
      $189 Billion           $187 Billion               $132 Billion

              Source: Institute for Policy Studies, 2005 Report.
  Corporations Have
 Acquired Tremendous
  Wealth and Power

•The gap between
average CEO pay and
worker pay has risen
from 42 to 1 in 1982
to 301 to 1 in 2003.
          Field Guide to the Global Economy, 2005
 Merger Mania Has Led to
Consolidations and Layoffs
   • In 1999, over 1/2 the sales of
                                  the
   largest 200 corporations were in just
   4 economic sectors.


     •In AUTOS, the top 6 firms produce 75%
     of the world’s motor vehicles.


     • In ELECTRONICS, the top 5 firms have
     garnered over ½ the global sales.



           Source: www.inequality.org, Global Inc. 2003
           Merger Mania Has Led to
          Consolidations and Layoffs
                         •From 1998-2000 there were $3.7
                         trillion in mergers in the United
                         States.

                         •The total value of  cross-border
                         merger and acquisition
                         transactions in 2000 was $1.1
                         trillion, about 50% higher than in
                         1990.

Source: Too Much, Winter 2000, p.9; Jeff Gates, Shared Capitalism Institute, Jan. 16, 2000; Adbusters, Aug/Sept 2000, p. 40; www.inequality.org.
           Merger Mania Has Led to
          Consolidations and Layoffs

                 •In 1998, 678,000 Americans
                 were laid off from their jobs,
                 the highest total in a decade.

                 •In 2001, a total of986,424
                 people were laid off
                 worldwide from the top 500
                 U.S. companies.
Source: Too Much, Winter 2000, p.9; Jeff Gates, Shared Capitalism Institute, Jan. 16, 2000; Adbusters, Aug/Sept 2000, p. 40; www.inequality.org;
www.Forbes.com.
Corporate Pork Barrel v. Social Welfare
                               1994
 $ BILLIONS


                TAX BREAKS
                Credits
                Deductions
                Exclusions               Child Welfare
                                         Food Stamps
                                         Nutrition
                DIRECT
                                         Block Grants
                PAYMENTS
                                         Housing
                Subsidies
                                         Public
                Assistance
                                         Assistance



              CORPORATE                    SOCIAL
                $104.3                      $75.1
               Source: Office of Management and Budget, 1994.
Corporate Giants Adept at
     Avoiding Taxes


   •NONE of the 44 U.S. corporations
   in the year 2000 Institute of Policy
   Studies Top 200 Study paid the full
   corporate income tax rate from
   1996-98.



     Source: Institute of Policy Studies, 2000 and 2002
     Report. Field Guide to the Global Economy, 2005.
Percent of Federal Tax Collections from
 Individual & Corporate Income Taxes
                                                                                                      72%                     73%
                                                                              66%
                                                      57%
                              49%
      43%

33%                31%
                                           27%
                                                                   21%
                                                                                             15%                    15%



 40s                    50s                     60s                     70s                     80s                       90s
                      Corporations                                                 Individuals
      Source: Bartlett and Steele; America: Who Really Pays the Taxes?, p. 140 (The Growing Divide: Inequality and the Roots of
                                   Economic Insecurity, p. 19, United for a Fair Economy, May 2000).
 Corporations Have Used Their Wealth &
Power to Sway Elections and Lawmaking

        •In the 2000 federal election
        campaigns, corporations out-
        spent labor by 15-to-1.

        •In the 2004 federal election
        cycle, finance, insurance, and
        real estate corporations led all
        sectors, giving $331 million to
        federal candidates.

         Source: Center for Responsive Politics; Capital Eye, Vol. 6 No.4, www.crp.org.
Corporations Have Used Their Wealth
    & Power to Sway Elections
           and Lawmaking

        •Between 1998 and 2004,
        Verizon corporation and
        General Electric corporation
        spent over $100 million in
        lobbying expenditures.




            Source: www.publicdomainprogress.com
  Corporations Use Governments
   to Distort the Public Interest

• In June 2005, the U.S. Supreme Court
 approved the use of eminent domain for
 business development - making it legal for
 local governments to seize homes and
 businesses, against the owners’ will, for the
 construction of residential, commercial, and
 manufacturing developments by giant
 corporations such as Wal-Mart and Target.
 Eminent domain had previously been limited
 to development for public use, such as
 schools, roads, and bridges (Kelo v. City of New
 London (04-108)).
 Corporations are Increasingly
Usurping Civic Space/Democracy

               •The public sphere of  decision
               making is shrinking with the
               increasing privatization of services
               formerly provided through the public
               sector.
               •A September, 2000 Business
               Week/Harris Poll showed that 77% of
               U.S. adults believe corporations have
               gained too much power over American
               life.


Sources: Recent Trends in Wealth Ownership, Edward Wolff, April 2000; Business Week, Mar. 11,
 1996, p. 65; The End of Politics, Carl Boggs, 2000, p. 11; Institute of Policy Studies 2000 Report.
 Who Owns the News Media?
    Disney                                       Viacom
     owns                                         owns


      abc
                                                  CBS



AOL Time Warner                         General Electric
     owns                                   owns


     N
    CN                                            NBC


             Source: United for a Fair Economy
U.S. Labor Unions Have Historically
   Confronted Corporate Power.
           Percentage of the workforce represented
                 by a labor union. 1930-2002
40

35                    1947: Taft-
                      Hartley Act               Manufacturing
30                                              Declines in U.S.

25                 World War II                                     1981: Reagan
                                                                    Breaks PATCO
20           1937: Wagner Act
                                                                                        1998: 13.9%
15         1936: Sit-Down                                                                Unionized
          Strike in Flint, MI
10                                                                                           2002: 13.2%
                                                                                              Unionized
    5

    0
    0




                 0



                              0




                                            7




                                                         0




                                                                      0



                                                                                    0




                                                                                                 2
93




              94



                            95




                                         95




                                                      97




                                                                    98



                                                                                 99




                                                                                              00
1




             1



                          1




                                        1




                                                     1




                                                                  1



                                                                               1




                                                                                             2
    Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, published in The Growing Divide: Inequality and the Roots of
                     Economic Insecurity, United for a Fair Economy, March 2004.
         Global trade treaties favor
     corporations over the environment,
         workers, and communities
Trade treaties like NAFTA, GATT, CAFTA and
proposed FTAA set rules favoring corporations
resulting in:
•Well paying unionized US manufacturing jobs                                                      FOR
shifting to low-wage countries                                                                    SALE

•Lower wages and living standards everywhere
•Weakened worker rights in all nations
•Environmental damage domestically and in
other countries
•Cuts in social safety nets
     Source: The Growing Divide: Inequality and the Roots of Economic Insecurity, p. 19, United
                                  for a Fair Economy, May 2000.
 Unpopular global trade treaties
currently favor corporations over
 the environment, workers, and
          communities

•According to a 2004 University of Maryland
Survey, less than 20% of Americans think that
 The United States should actively promote
                 globalization.




             Field Guide to the Global Economy, 2005.
     Q: Why Has This Happened?
A: A Power Shift Led to Rule Changes
        The Power Shift since the 1980s
                    Who has been setting the agenda for
                           economic policies?

                   On the Rise:                                               In Decline:
                       Big                                                      Voters
                    Campaign
                   Contributors                                                 Labor
                                                                                Unions
                     Corporate
                     Lobbyists                                                   Wage
                                                                                Earners
                   Corporations
                                                                              Employees
                     Investors
                                                                                  Main
                    Wall Street                                                  Street




Source: The Growing Divide: Inequality and the Roots of Economic Insecurity, United for a Fair Economy, May 2000.
  HOW
   DID
  THIS
HAPPEN?
1500-1770: Joint Stock Companies and
Royal Charter Corporations Established
  Trade Monopolies for Colonization

     These Crown Corporations, such as the
     Massachusetts Bay Corporation, and
     Global Corporations, such as the East
     India Company
          •established vast systems of trade
          and governance
          •ravaged lands
          •killed and enslaved millions of
          people

     Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
These Corporations had Powers
 Like Dictatorial Governments

       Corporate Directors could:
       •wage war
       •seize the commons
       •force human labor
       •judge and punish
       •redefine the rights of the
       corporation
   Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
  These Corporations had Powers
   Like Dictatorial Governments

              No Rights were held by:
 NO
              •employees
              •subjects
              •neighbors
RIGHTS
              •victims


      Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
1776: The American Revolution

     The American Revolution
     dismantled the Crown
     Corporations and transformed
     them into states.


     •The Virginia Company, which ran
     the Virginia Colony, became the
     Commonwealth of Virginia.


   Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
    Following the American
          Revolution:

The people in each of the original 13
  states wrote state constitutions
         including rules on:
          •elections
          •lawmaking
          •judiciary
          •education

    Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
The People of the 13 States
Bestowed Limited Privileges
    Upon Corporations
 Under self government, corporate
      charters were limited:

 •States routinely revoked the charters
 of corporations that broke the law or
 abused their privileges.

  •Corporate charters were issued
  for only a limited time and were
  subject to periodic review by the
  state.
  Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
    The People of the 13 States
    Bestowed Limited Privileges
        Upon Corporations
        Under self government, corporate
             charters were limited:
 Not
 for
Sale!     •States had authority to govern the
          financial dealings of corporations (for
          example, corporations could not own
          other corporations).

           •Shareholders were personally liable
           for the debts of the corporations and
           the harms inflicted on the general
           welfare.

        Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
The People of the 13 States
Bestowed Limited Privileges
    Upon Corporations
 Under self government, corporate
      charters were limited:
     •Corporations were created to meet
     public purposes such as canal digging
     and building roads (upon completion
     of the prescribed tasks the
     corporations were dissolved).

     •The charters limited many corporations
     to “not for profit” status.


  Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
      The People of the 13 States
      Bestowed Limited Privileges
          Upon Corporations
Corporations were not granted constitutional rights:

           •Corporations could not lobby.
           • Corporations could not donate money
           to political candidates.
           •Corporations could not claim 1st
           Amendment rights to free speech.
           •Corporations could not claim other Bill
           of Rights protections (i.e. from
           unreasonable search and seizure, etc.)
         Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
“I hope that we crush in its
birth the aristocracy of our
monied corporations which
 dare already to challenge
our government to a trial of
 strength, and bid defiance
to the laws of our country.”

   -Thomas Jefferson, 1816
 Throughout the 19th Century, a Struggle
  Ensued Between Commercial Interests
  Wishing to Expand Property Rights and
 People Seeking to Expand Human Rights
Corporations were the vehicle for consolidating
    and increasing privileged wealth at the
       expense of the broader society:

        •During the Civil War, fortunes were
        made by industrialists who had acquired
        corporations to provide war materials.
        • These “robber barons” used the
        judiciary to increase the power of
        corporations on behalf of their financial
        empires.
        Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
“I see in the near future a crisis approaching
that unnerves me and causes me to tremble
 for the safety of our country. As a result of
 the war, corporations have been enthroned
 and an era of corruption in high places will
 follow, and the money power of the country
will endeavor to prolong its reign by working
  upon the prejudices of the people until all
wealth is aggregated in a few hands, and the
Republic is destroyed. I feel at this moment
  more anxiety for the safety of my country
 than ever before, even in the midst of war.”

 -President Abraham Lincoln, November 12,
   1864, in a letter to Col. William F. Elkins
1886: A Turning Point
One of the most important Supreme Court
  cases you may never have heard of…

  Santa Clara County vs.
 Southern Pacific Railroad
          In 1886, the Supreme Court
             affirmed that a private
          corporation was a natural
         person, entitled to the same
         rights and protections as
       human beings under the Bill of
                  Rights.
       Source: 118 U.S. 394 (1886): 183, 323N.89 (56), 328N.110 (61).
       Then What Happened?
                 The Courts sided with corporations.
                 In 1886 alone, federal courts struck down
                 230 state laws regulating corporations.
                 Corporations took advantage of laws
                 written for human beings.
…and the
Corporations…
                 The 14th Amendment was passed to
                 protect freed slaves. Of the 307 14th
                 Amendment cases brought before the
                 Supreme Court between 1890 and 1910:
                            -19 dealt with African Americans
                            -288 dealt with corporations

                Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
   Then What Happened?
       The people lost control over corporations
       States could no longer tell corporations
       what they could and could not do.

BUY!   Advertising became “Free Speech.”


       The New Deal’s regulatory thrust shut off
       debate about the legitimacy of corporate
       power.



       Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
 Examples of
How Corporate
Power Affects
      the
 Environment
     Example #1: Corporate
         Personhood
THE PROBLEM
•Santa Clara v. Southern Pacific RR
(1886) gave corporations rights of natural
persons (personhood).
•Since Santa Clara, those rights and
privileges have been expanded to exceed
those of the natural persons creating
them.
     Example #1: Corporate
         Personhood
EXAMPLES
•Before Santa Clara, corporations could
not exercise 1st Amendment rights such
as lobbying or contributing to political
campaigns.
•Also, chemical corporations could not
claim the 4th Amendment right of
protection from unreasonable search or
seizure to withhold information about the
environmental impacts of their products
or production processes.
    Example #1: Corporate
        Personhood

THE CONSEQUENCES
• By granting “personhood” rights to
corporations, courts have allowed
them to grow and maximize profits
in ways that harm the environment,
public health, and democracy.
     Example #2: Corporate
   Manipulation of Government
      Regulatory Agencies
THE PROBLEM
•Corporations use their wealth and power
to get regulatory agencies to carry out
their will.
•Governments shield corporations from
and represent them over the public
interest, environmental quality, and the
public health.
     Example #2: Corporate
   Manipulation of Government
      Regulatory Agencies
AN EXAMPLE
•In 1986, Monsanto Corp. officials urged the
Reagan Ag. Dept., EPA, and FDA to issue rules
governing genetically modified food to reassure
the public about its safety.
•The Reagan Adm. complied and gave Monsanto
rules favored by industry.
•In 1992, Monsanto wanted to throw off the regs
and speed food to market. The Bush Adm.
created a generous policy of “self policing.”
    Example #2: Corporate
  Manipulation of Government
     Regulatory Agencies
THE CONSEQUENCES
•Public confidence in the government
regulatory process is diminished.
• Citizen energy has been exhausted while
popular outrage has been deflected from
the corporation to government.
Corporations get what they want while
escaping accountability.
    Example #3: Chapter 11,
   North American Free Trade
      Agreement (NAFTA)
WHAT IT DOES
•Expands the rights of property to include
intangible property rights, including
current and future profits.
•Gives corporations the right to sue
national governments to protect their
anticipated profits from nat’l, state, or
local gov’t actions, no matter how legal or
for what purpose they have been taken.
 Example #3: Chapter 11, North American
     Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
AN EXAMPLE
•Metalclad, a US-based waste-disposal corp.,
sued Mexico for $90 million under Chap. 11 after
the town of Guadalcazar in the Mexican state of
San Luis Potosi refused to issue a permit for a
waste-disposal facility on an alluvial stream,
deeming it a threat to the local water supply. In
Aug 2000, a NAFTA tribunal found that Mexico
had breached Chap. 11 and awarded Metalclad
$16.7 million. Metalclad then began
construction on the facility without having local
approvals, claiming assurances from Mexico. In
Oct 2001, the Mexican gov’t dropped its appeal of
the NAFTA tribunal’s decision.
 Example #3: Chapter 11, North
     American Free Trade
     Agreement (NAFTA)
THE CONSEQUENCES
•Threat of corporate lawsuits under
Chapter 11 can have a “chilling” effect on
state or local gov’ts considering passing
laws or regs to protect the environment
and public health.
•Allows polluting corporations to sue
gov’ts to protect their profits; violates the
concept of a free market economy; and
undercuts democratic decision making.
WHAT
CAN
 WE
 DO?
 Actions to Reassert Popular
Sovereignty Over Corporations
  Confront Corporate Crimes Directly
  Research, expose, and educate
  others about abuses of corporate
  power and behavior. Encourage
  corporate campaigns, shareholder
  actions, consumer boycotts, and
  socially responsible investment.

  End Corporate Pork Barrel
  Significantly restrict corporate tax
  breaks and subsidies.
  Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
 Actions to Reassert Popular
Sovereignty Over Corporations

 Encourage Tax Reform
 Shift tax burdens more fairly to
 corporations and off individual
 taxpayers.


 Encourage Campaign Finance Reform
 Enact substantive campaign finance
 reform legislation prohibiting
 corporate campaign donations.

  Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
 Actions to Reassert Popular
Sovereignty Over Corporations
Put the People in Charge of Defining
           Corporations

       •Write state/local laws defining and
        limiting the rights of corporations.
       •Establish and enforce social and
       environmental criteria for corporate
       charters.
       •Initiate state “Three Strikes and
       You’re Out” charter revocation laws.
       •Re-regulate corporate investment
       through anti-trust legislation.
   Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
         Actions to Reassert Popular
        Sovereignty Over Corporations
                Change Corporate Charters
                Amend state corporation codes to
                extend liability and revoke
 Corporate
  Charter

                charters of renegade corporations.

                Limit Personhood Rights for
                Corporations
                Challenge the Santa Clara US
                Supreme Court decision by
                denying corporate personhood at
…and the
Corporations…




                the local level and ultimately by a
                constitutional amendment or a
                Supreme Court challenge.
 Actions to Reassert Popular
Sovereignty Over Corporations
     Expand Human Rights in Relation to
     Corporations
     Grant Bill of Rights powers to include
     employees in corporations (free
     speech, freedom of assembly), citizens
     in shopping malls, etc.
     Reassert Citizen Sovereignty in Global
     Economy
     Take away corporate rights in trade
     agreements (NAFTA, GATT, CAFTA,
     FTAA) and re-structure global trade
     and financial institutions (WTO, IMF,
     World Bank).
   Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
 Actions to Reassert Popular
Sovereignty Over Corporations
       Encourage Grassroots
       Pro-Democracy Movement
       Go beyond tactics challenging one
       regulation or one corporation at a
       time to work with others
       nationally and internationally to
       challenge the rules giving
       corporations undue power and
       influence.

   Source: Challenging Corporate Rule, United for a Fair Economy, January 2000.
               Build Sustainable Local
                    Communities
Encourage:
•Democratic Discussions Promoting a Just Society and an
 Environmentally Sustainable Economy
•Local Currencies & Community Banking
•Community Organic Agriculture
•Holistic Health Practice
•Cooperative & Worker Owned Firms
•Recycling Local Waste as a Resource
•Pedestrian & Bicycle Transport
•Local Renewable Energy
•Buy Small & Local
•Community Forestry
•Voluntary Simplicity           Prepared by David C. Korten, The Positive
                                 Futures Network (206)842-0216,11/13/96
 The Corporate Accountability
 Challenges for the Sierra Club
        are three-fold:

1.Confront individual “bad actor”
  despoiling and polluting
  corporations via focused,
  highly visible campaigns.
  The Corporate Accountability
  Challenges for the Sierra Club
         are three-fold:
2. Challenge domestic laws and court
  decisions that unfairly enable all
  corporations to exploit the Earth and its
  inhabitants. Seek passage of laws to
  hold corporations accountable to citizen
  defined and government enforced
  environmental standards.
  The Corporate Accountability
  Challenges for the Sierra Club
         are three-fold:

3. Join with other movements to challenge
   the unfair trade and capital investment
   rules proposed by the WTO, IMF, World
   Bank, and incorporated into such
   agreements as the Central American
   Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA).
  “The struggle for justice should
never be abandoned because of the
 apparent overwhelming power of
 those who have the guns and the
 money and who seem invincible in
their determination to hold on to it.
That apparent power has, again and
    again, proved vulnerable to
         human qualities…”

      - Historian Howard Zinn
  “…We have been fighting fire on the well-
   worn lines of old-fashioned politics and
 political economy, regulating corporations,
 and leaving competition to regulate itself.
But the flames of a new economic revolution
    run around us, and we turn to find that
   competition has killed competition, that
   corporations are grown greater than the
   State, and have bred individuals greater
 than themselves, and that the naked issue
     of our time is with property becoming
          master instead of servant…”
         - Henry Demarest Lloyd,
   Wealth Against Commonwealth, 1894
THE
  END
           Produced by:
Jim Price, Senior Regional Staff Director
          jim.price@sierraclub.org

    Powerpoint Graphics by:
 Lisa Evans, Administrative Coordinator
         lisa.evans@sierraclub.org
      Robin Nelson, Christa Taylor
        Sierra Club Southeast Office
       1330 21st Way South, Suite 100
          Birmingham, AL 35205
   Phone: 205/933-9111 Fax: 205/939-1020
           Updated August 2005
Special Appreciation is extended to:
                   •Alliance for Democracy
              •Center for Responsive Politics
        •Council on International and Public Affairs
           •International Forum on Globalization
                 •Institute for Policy Studies
     •Program on Corporations, Law, and Democracy
                •Public Information Network
    •Sierra Club Corporate Accountability Committee
      •Sierra Club Environmental Justice Committee
•Sierra Club Gulf Coast Regional Conservation Committee
 •Sierra Club National Environmental Justice Grassroots
                     Organizing Program
               •Sierra Club Southeast Office
                 •United for a Fair Economy
                         •Emily Hogue
                         •Jerry Mander

  For their assistance in the preparation of
    this workshop and related materials.