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SharePoint SharePoint SharePoint is a web based

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SharePoint is a web-based collaboration and document management platform from Microsoft. It
can be used to host web sites which can be used to access shared workspaces and documents,
as well as specialized applications such as wikis, blogs and many other forms of applications,
from within a browser. SharePoint functionality is exposed as web parts, such as a task list, or
discussion pane. These web parts are composed into web pages, which are then hosted in the
SharePoint portal. SharePoint sites are actually ASP.NET applications, which are served using
IIS and use a SQL Server database as data storage backend.

The term 'SharePoint' is commonly used to refer to one of the following two products:

Windows SharePoint Services (WSS)

Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 (MOSS)

In addition, previous versions of this software used different names (SharePoint Portal Server
for example) but are referred to as "SharePoint".

The SharePoint family also includes the Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer (SPD)

The SharePoint Family

Windows SharePoint Services (WSS)

Windows SharePoint Services (WSS) is a free add-on to Windows Server. WSS offers the base
collaborative infrastructure; supporting HTTP and HTTPS based editing of documents, as well as
document organization in document libraries, version control capabilities, wikis, and blogs. It
also includes end user functionality such as workflows, to-do lists, alerts and discussion boards,
which are exposed as web parts to be embedded into SharePoint pages. WSS was previously
known as SharePoint Team Services. Though workflows can be created for WSS in SharePoint
Designer or VS.NET unlike with MOSS no workflows come out-of-the box installed.

Microsoft Search Server

Microsoft Search Server (MSS) is an enterprise search platform from Microsoft, based on the
search capabilities of Microsoft Office SharePoint Server.[2] MSS shares its architectural
underpinnings with the Windows Search platform for both the querying engine as well as the
indexer. MOSS search provides the ability to search metadata attached to documents.

Microsoft Search Server has been made available as Search Server 2008, which was released on
March 2008. A free version, Search Server Express 2008 is also available. The express edition
features the same feature-set as the commercial edition, including no limitation on the number
of files indexed; however, it is limited to a stand-alone installation and cannot be scaled out to a

Microsoft Office SharePoint Server (MOSS)

Microsoft Office SharePoint Server (MOSS) is a costed component of the Microsoft Office server
suite. MOSS is built on top of WSS and adds more functionality to it, including better document
management, enterprise search functionality, navigation features, RSS support, as well as
features from Microsoft Content Management Server. The Enterprise edition of MOSS also
includes features for business data analysis such as Excel Services and the Business Data
Catalog. MOSS also provides integration with Microsoft Office applications, such as project
management capabilities with Microsoft Project Server and the ability to expose Microsoft Office
InfoPath forms via a browser. It can also host specific libraries, such as PowerPoint Template
Libraries provided the server components of the specific application are installed. MOSS was
previously known as SharePoint Server and SharePoint Portal Server.

Microsoft SharePoint Designer (SPD)

Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer (SPD) is a WYSIWYG HTML editor, which is primarily
aimed at designing SharePoint sites and end-user workflows for WSS sites. It shares its
rendering engine with Microsoft Expression Web, its general web designing sibling, and
Microsoft's Visual Studio 2008 IDE.


A blog (an abridgment of the term web log) is a website, usually maintained by an individual,
with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other material such as graphics
or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse chronological order. "Blog" can also be
used as a verb, meaning to maintain or add content to a blog.

Many blogs provide commentary or news on a particular subject; others function as more
personal online diaries. A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, web
pages, and other media related to its topic. The ability for readers to leave comments in an
interactive format is an important part of many blogs. Most blogs are primarily textual, although
some focus on art (artlog), photographs (photoblog), sketchblog, videos (vlog), music (MP3
blog), audio (podcasting) are part of a wider network of social media. Micro-blogging is another
type of blogging which consists of blogs with very short posts. As of December 2007, blog
search engine Technorati was tracking more than 112 million   blogs


There are many different types of blogs, differing not only in the type of content, but also in the
way that content is delivered or written.

Personal blogs

The personal blog, an on-going diary or commentary by an individual, is the traditional, most
common blog. Personal bloggers usually take pride in their blog posts, even if their blog is
never read by anyone but them. Blogs often become more than a way to just communicate;
they become a way to reflect on life or works of art. Blogging can have a sentimental quality.
Few personal blogs rise to fame and the mainstream, but some personal blogs quickly garner
an extensive following.

Corporate blogs

A blog can be private, as in most cases, or it can be for business purposes. Blogs, either used
internally to enhance the communication and culture in a corporation or externally for
marketing, branding or PR purposes are called corporate blogs.

By media type

A blog comprising videos is called a vlog, one comprising links is called a linklog, a site
containing a portfolio of sketches is called a sketchblog or one comprising photos is called a
photoblog.[2] Blogs with shorter posts and mixed media types are called tumblelogs.

An Artlog is a form of art sharing and publishing in the format of a blog, but differentiated by
the predominant use of and focus on Art work rather than text.

A rare type of blog hosted on the Gopher Protocol is known as a Phlog

By device

Blogs can also be defined by which type of device is used to compose it. A blog written by a
mobile device like a mobile phone or PDA could be called a moblog.[3] One early blog was
Wearable Wireless Webcam, an online shared diary of a person's personal life combining text,
video, and pictures transmitted live from a wearable computer and EyeTap device to a web site.
This practice of semi-automated blogging with live video together with text was referred to as
sousveillance. Such journals have been used as evidence in legal matters.

By genre

Some blogs focus on a particular subject, such as political blogs, travel blogs, fashion blogs,
project blogs, education blogs, niche blogs, classical music blogs, legal blogs (often referred to
as a blawgs) or dreamlogs. While not a legitimate type of blog, one used for the sole purpose of
spamming is known as a Splog.

Cataloging and community

Blog search engines

Several blog search engines are used to search blog contents (also known as the blogosphere),
such as Bloglines, BlogScope, and Technorati. Technorati, which is among the most popular
blog search engines, provides current information on both popular searches and tags used to
categorize blog postings. Research community is working on going beyond simple keyword
search, by inventing news ways to navigate through huge amounts of information present in
the blogosphere, as demonstrated by projects like BlogScope.

Blogging Communities and Directories

Several online communities exist that connect people to blogs and bloggers to other bloggers,
including BlogCatalog and MyBlogLog. A collection of local blogs is sometimes referred to as a


Recently, researchers have analyzed the dynamics of how blogs become popular. There are
essentially two measures of this: popularity through citations, as well as popularity through
affiliation (i.e. blogroll). The basic conclusion from studies of the structure of blogs is that while
it takes time for a blog to become popular through blogrolls, permalinks can boost popularity
more quickly, and are perhaps more indicative of popularity and authority than blogrolls, since
they denote that people are actually reading the blog's content and deem it valuable or
noteworthy in specific cases.

The blogdex project was launched by researchers in the MIT Media Lab to crawl the Web and
gather data from thousands of blogs in order to investigate their social properties. It gathered
this information for over 4 years, and autonomously tracked the most contagious information
spreading in the blog community, ranking it by recency and popularity. It can thus be
considered the first instantiation of a memetracker. The project is no longer active, but a similar
function is now served by

Blogs are given rankings by Technorati based on the number of incoming links and Alexa
Internet based on the web hits of Alexa Toolbar users. In August 2006, Technorati found that
the most linked-to blog on the internet was that of Chinese actress Xu Jinglei. Chinese media
Xinhua reported that this blog received more than 50 million page views, claiming it to be the
most popular blog in the world. Technorati rated Boing Boing to be the most-read group-written

Gartner forecasts that blogging will peak in 2007, leveling off when the number of writers who
maintain a personal website reaches 100 million. Gartner analysts expect that the novelty value
of the medium will wear off as most people who are interested in the phenomenon have
checked it out, and new bloggers will offset the number of writers who abandon their creation
out of boredom. The firm estimates that there are more than 200 million former bloggers who
have ceased posting to their online diaries, creating an exponential rise in the amount of
"dotsam" and "netsam" — that is to say, unwanted objects on the Web.

Blurring with the mass media

Many bloggers, particularly those engaged in participatory journalism, differentiate themselves
from the mainstream media, while others are members of that media working through a
different channel. Some institutions see blogging as a means of "getting around the filter" and
pushing messages directly to the public. Some critics worry that bloggers respect neither
copyright nor the role of the mass media in presenting society with credible news. Bloggers and
other contributors to user generated content are behind Time magazine naming their 2006
person of the year as "you".

Many mainstream journalists, meanwhile, write their own blogs — well over 300, according to's J-blog list. The first known use of a weblog on a news site was in August
1998, when Jonathan Dube of The Charlotte Observer published one chronicling Hurricane

Some bloggers have moved over to other media. The following bloggers (and others) have
appeared on radio and television: Duncan Black (known widely by his pseudonym, Atrios),
Glenn Reynolds (Instapundit), Markos Moulitsas Zúniga (Daily Kos), Alex Steffen
(Worldchanging) and Ana Marie Cox (Wonkette). In counter-point, Hugh Hewitt exemplifies a
mass media personality who has moved in the other direction, adding to his reach in "old
media" by being an influential blogger.

Blogs have also had an influence on minority languages, bringing together scattered speakers
and learners; this is particularly so with blogs in Gaelic languages, whose creators can be found
as far away from traditional Gaelic areas as Kazakhstan and Alaska. Minority language
publishing (which may lack economic feasibility) can find its audience through inexpensive

There are many examples of bloggers who have published books based on their blogs, e.g.,
Salam Pax, Ellen Simonetti, Jessica Cutler, ScrappleFace. Blog-based books have been given the
name blook. A prize for the best blog-based book was initiated in 2005, the Lulu Blooker Prize.
However success has been elusive offline, with many of these books not selling as well as their
blogs. Only blogger Tucker Max cracked the New York Times Bestseller List.

Blogging consequences

The emergence of blogging has brought a range of legal liabilities and other often unforeseen
consequences. One area of concern is the issue of bloggers releasing proprietary or confidential
information. Another area of concern is blogging and defamation. A third area of concern is
employees who write about aspects of their place of employment or their personal lives, and
then face loss of employment or other adverse consequences. A number of examples of
blogging and its sometimes negative or unforeseen consequences are cited here.

Defamation or liability

Several cases have been brought before the national courts against bloggers concerning issues
of defamation or liability. The courts have returned with mixed verdicts. Internet Service
Providers (ISPs), in general, are immune from liability for information that originates with Third
Parties (U.S. Communications Decency Act and the EU Directive 2000/31/EC).

In John Doe v. Patrick Cahill, the Delaware Supreme Court held that stringent standards had to
be met to unmask anonymous bloggers, and also took the unusual step of dismissing the libel
case itself (as unfounded under American libel law) rather than referring it back to the trial
court for reconsideration. In a bizarre twist, the Cahills were able to obtain the identity of John
Doe, who turned out to be the person they suspected: the town's mayor, Councilman Cahill's
political rival. The Cahills amended their original complaint, and the mayor settled the case
rather than going to trial.

In 2004, eight Royal Dutch Shell Group companies collectively obtained an "Interim Injunction
and Restraining Order" in Malaysia against a Shell whistleblower and former employee, Dr John
Huong, a Malaysian geologist. Dr Huong had allegedly posted defamatory material on a weblog
hosted in North America, The weblog site was owned and operated by
British national and long-term Shell critic, Alfred Donovan. Additional legal actions were initiated
against Dr Huong in 2006 in response to publications on Donovan's weblog sites in 2005 and
2006. Those actions included a "Notice to Show Cause" relating to a "contempt of court," which
was potentially punishable by imprisonment.

 In January 2007, two prominent Malaysian political bloggers, Jeff Ooi and Ahiruddin Attan were
sued by pro-government newspaper, The New Straits Times Press (Malaysia) Berhad,
Kalimullah bin Masheerul Hassan, Hishamuddin bin Aun and Brenden John a/l John Pereira over
an alleged defamation. The plaintiff was supported by the Malaysian government.

Following the suit, the Malaysian government proposed to "register" all bloggers in Malaysia in
order to better control parties against their interest. This is the first such legal case against
bloggers in the country.

In Britain, a college lecturer contributed to a blog in which she referred to a politician (who had
also expressed his views in the same blog) using various uncomplimentary names, including
referring to him as a "Nazi". The politician found out the real name of the lecturer (she wrote
under a pseudonym) via the ISP and successfully sued her for £10,000 in damages and £7,200

In the United States blogger Aaron Wall was sued by Traffic Power for defamation and
publication of trade secrets in 2005. According to Wired Magazine, Traffic Power had been
"banned from Google for allegedly rigging search engine results. Wall and other "white hat"
search engine optimization consultants had exposed Traffic Power in what they claim was an
effort to protect the public. The case was watched by many bloggers because it addressed the
murky legal question of who's liable for comments posted on blogs.

A wiki is software that allows registered users or anyone to collaboratively create, edit, link, and
organize the content of a website, usually for reference material. Wikis are often used to create
collaborative websites and to power community websites. These wiki websites are often also
referred to as wikis; for example, Wikipedia is one of the best known wikis. Wikis are used in
businesses to provide affordable and effective intranets and for Knowledge Management. Ward
Cunningham, developer of the first wiki, WikiWikiWeb, originally described it as "the simplest
online database that could possibly work".


History of wikis

Wiki Wiki bus at Honolulu International AirportWikiWikiWeb was the first site to be called a wiki.
Ward Cunningham started developing WikiWikiWeb in 1994, and installed it on the Internet
domain on March 25, 1995. It was named by Cunningham, who remembered a
Honolulu International Airport counter employee telling him to take the "Wiki Wiki" shuttle bus
that runs between the airport's terminals. According to Cunningham, "I chose wiki-wiki as an
alliterative substitute for 'quick' and thereby avoided naming this stuff quick-web.

Cunningham was in part inspired by Apple's HyperCard. Apple had designed a system allowing
users to create virtual "card stacks" supporting links among the various cards. Cunningham
developed Vannevar Bush's ideas by allowing users to "comment on and change one another's
text". In the early 2000s, wikis were increasingly adopted in enterprise as collaborative
software. Common uses included project communication, intranets, and documentation, initially
for technical users. Today some companies use wikis as their only collaborative software and as
a replacement for static intranets. There may be greater use of wikis behind firewalls than on
the public Internet.

On March 15, 2007, wiki entered the Oxford English Dictionary Online.


Ward Cunningham, and co-author Bo Leuf, in their book The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on
the Web described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows:

A wiki invites all users to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site, using
only a plain-vanilla Web browser without any extra add-ons.

Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link
creation almost intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not.

A wiki is not a carefully crafted site for casual visitors. Instead it seeks to involve the visitor in
an ongoing process of creation and collaboration that constantly changes the Web site

A wiki enables documents to be written collaboratively, in a simple markup language using a
web browser. A single page in a wiki website is referred to as a "wiki page", while the entire
collection of pages, which are usually well interconnected by hyperlinks, is "the wiki". A wiki is
essentially a database for creating, browsing, and searching through information.

A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and
updated. Generally, there is no review before modifications are accepted. Many wikis are open
to alteration by the general public without requiring them to register user accounts. Sometimes
logging in for a session is recommended, to create a "wiki-signature" cookie for signing edits
automatically. Many edits, however, can be made in real-time and appear almost instantly
online. This can facilitate abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication
to edit pages, and sometimes even to read them.

Editing wiki pages

Ordinarily, the structure and formatting of wiki pages are specified with a simplified markup
language, sometimes known as "wikitext". For example, starting a line of text with an asterisk
("*") is often used to enter it in a bulleted list. The style and syntax of wikitexts can vary greatly
among wiki implementations, some of which also allow HTML tags.

The reason for taking this approach is that HTML, with its many cryptic tags, is not very legible,
making it hard to edit. Wikis therefore favour plain text editing, with fewer and simpler
conventions than HTML, for indicating style and structure.


Within the text of most pages there are usually a large number of hypertext links to other
pages. This form of non-linear navigation is more "native" to wiki than structured/formalized
navigation schemes. That said, users can also create any number of index or table of contents
pages, with hierarchical categorization or whatever form of organization they like. These may
be challenging to maintain by hand, as multiple authors create and delete pages in an ad hoc
manner. Wikis generally provide one or more ways to categorize or tag pages, to support the
maintenance of such index pages.

Most wikis have a backlink feature, an easy way to see what pages link to the page you're
currently on.

It is typical in a wiki to create links to pages that do not yet exist, as a way to invite others to
share what they know about a subject new to the wiki.

Linking and creating pages

Links are created using a specific syntax, the so-called "link pattern" (also see CURIE).

Originally, most wikis used CamelCase to name pages and create links. These are produced by
capitalizing words in a phrase and removing the spaces between them (the word "CamelCase"
is itself an example). While CamelCase makes linking very easy, it also leads to links which are
written in a form that deviates from the standard spelling. CamelCase-based wikis are instantly
recognizable because they have many links with names such as "TableOfContents" and
"BeginnerQuestions". It is possible for a wiki to render the visible anchor for such links "pretty"
by reinserting spaces, and possibly also reverting to lower case. However, this reprocessing of
the link to improve the readability of the anchor is limited by the loss of capitalization
information caused by CamelCase reversal. For example, "RichardWagner" should be rendered
as "Richard Wagner", whereas "PopularMusic" should be rendered as "popular music". There is
no easy way to determine which capital letters should remain capitalized. As a result, many
wikis now have "free linking" using brackets, and some disable CamelCase by default.


Most wikis offer at least a title search, and sometimes a full-text search. The scalability of the
search depends on whether the wiki engine uses a database. Indexed database access is
necessary for high speed searches on large wikis. Alternatively, external search engines such as
Google can sometimes be used on wikis with limited searching functions in order to obtain more
precise results. However, a search engine's indexes can be very out of date (days, weeks or
months) for many websites.

Software architecture

Wiki software is a type of collaborative software that runs a wiki system, allowing web pages to
be created and edited using a common web browser. It is usually implemented as a software
engine that runs on one or more web servers. The content is stored in a file system, and
changes to the content are stored in a relational database management system. Alternatively,
Personal wikis run as a standalone application on a single computer. Examples: WikidPad and

Trust and security

Controlling changes

 History comparison reports highlight the changes between two revisions of a page.Wikis are
generally designed with the philosophy of making it easy to correct mistakes, rather than
making it difficult to make them. Thus, while wikis are very open, they provide a means to
verify the validity of recent additions to the body of pages. The most prominent, on almost
every wiki, is the "Recent Changes" page—a specific list numbering recent edits, or a list of
edits made within a given time frame. Some wikis can filter the list to remove minor edits and
edits made by automatic importing scripts ("bots").

From the change log, other functions are accessible in most wikis: the Revision History showing
previous page versions; and the diff feature, highlighting the changes between two revisions.
Using the Revision History, an editor can view and restore a previous version of the article. The
diff feature can be used to decide whether or not this is necessary. A regular wiki user can view
the diff of an edit listed on the "Recent Changes" page and, if it is an unacceptable edit, consult
the history, restoring a previous revision; this process is more or less streamlined, depending on
the wiki software used.

In case unacceptable edits are missed on the "Recent Changes" page, some wiki engines
provide additional content control. It can be monitored to ensure that a page, or a set of pages,
keeps its quality. A person willing to maintain pages will be warned of modifications to the
pages, allowing him or her to verify the validity of new editions quickly.


Critics of publicly-editable wiki systems argue that these systems could be easily tampered with,
while proponents argue that the community of users can catch malicious content and correct it.
Lars Aronsson, a data systems specialist, summarizes the controversy as follows:

“ Most people, when they first learn about the wiki concept, assume that a website that can be
edited by anybody would soon be rendered useless by destructive input. It sounds like offering
free spray cans next to a grey concrete wall. The only likely outcome would be ugly graffiti and
simple tagging, and many artistic efforts would not be long lived. Still, it seems to work very
well. ”


The open philosophy of most wikis, allowing anyone to edit content, does not ensure that every
editor is well-meaning. Vandalism can be a major problem. In larger wiki sites, such as those
run by the Wikimedia Foundation, vandalism can go unnoticed for a period of time. Wikis by
their very nature are susceptible to intentional disruption, known as "trolling". Wikis tend to
take a soft security approach to the problem of vandalism; making damage easy to undo rather
than attempting to prevent damage. Larger wikis often employ sophisticated methods, such as
bots that automatically identify and revert vandalism and JavaScript enhancements that show
characters that have been added in each edit. In this way vandalism can be limited to just
"minor vandalism" or "sneaky vandalism", where the characters added/eliminated are so few
that bots do not identify them and users do not pay much attention to them.

The amount of vandalism a wiki receives depends on how open the wiki is. For instance, some
wikis allow unregistered users, identified by their IP addresses, to edit content, whilst others
limit this function to just registered users. Most wikis allow anonymous editing without an
account, but give registered users additional editing functions; on most wikis, becoming a
registered user is a short and simple process. Some wikis require an additional waiting period
before gaining access to certain tools.

For example, on the English Wikipedia, registered users can only rename pages if their account
is at least four days old. Other wikis such as the Portuguese Wikipedia use an editing
requirement instead of a time requirement, granting extra tools after the user has made a
certain number of edits to prove their trustworthiness and usefulness as an editor. Basically,
"closed up" wikis are more secure and reliable but grow slowly, whilst more open wikis grow at
a steady rate but result in being an easy target for vandalism. A clear example of this would be
that of Wikipedia and Citizendium. The first is extremely open, allowing anyone with a computer
and internet access to edit it, making it grow rapidly, whilst the latter requires the users' real
name and a biography of themselves, affecting the growth of the wiki but creating an almost
"vandalism-free" ambiance.


Many wiki communities are private, particularly within enterprises. They are often used as
internal documentation for in-house systems and applications. The "open to everyone", all-
encompassing nature of Wikipedia is a significant factor in its growth, while there are other
wikis which are highly specialized.

There also exist WikiNodes which are pages on wikis that describe related wikis. They are
usually organized as neighbors and delegates. A neighbor wiki is simply a wiki that may discuss
similar content or may otherwise be of interest. A delegate wiki is a wiki that agrees to have
certain content delegated to that wiki.

One way of finding a wiki on a specific subject is to follow the wiki-node network from wiki to
wiki; another is to take a Wiki "bus tour," for example: Wikipedia's Tour Bus Stop. Domain
names containing "wiki" are growing in popularity to support specific niches.

For those interested in creating their own wiki, there are publicly available "wiki farms", some of
which can also make private, password-protected wikis. PeanutButterWiki, Socialtext, Wetpaint,
and Wikia are popular examples of such services. For more information, see List of wiki farms.
Note that free wiki farms generally contain advertising on every page.

The English-language Wikipedia has the largest user base among wikis on the World Wide
Web[15] and ranks in the top 10 among all websites in terms of traffic.[16] Other large wikis
include the WikiWikiWeb, Memory Alpha, Wikitravel, World66 and, a Swedish-
language knowledge base.


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