Chapter 10 Cell Growth and Division - Download as DOC by kcx20576

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									Quinn                                  CP Bio             Name: __________________
                        Chapter 11: Introduction to Genetics

11-1: The Work of Gregor Mendel
   1. Gregor Mendel’s Peas
         a. ____________ is the scientific study of __________________.
         b. Gregor Mendel was an Austrian ___________. His work was important to
             the understanding of heredity.
         c. Mendel carried out his work with ordinary _______________________.
         d. Mendel knew that:
                   i. the male part of each flower produces ____________,
                      (containing sperm).
                  ii. the ____________ part of the flower produces egg cells.
                iii. During sexual reproduction, sperm and egg cells join in a process
                      called ______________________.
                 iv.  Fertilization produces a new ________________.
                  v.  Pea flowers are ________-pollinating.
                 vi.  Sperm cells in pollen fertilize the egg cells in the ___________
                      flower.
                vii.  The ___________ that are produced by self-pollination inherit all
                      of their characteristics from the _________ plant that bore them.
               viii. Mendel had ___________-breeding pea plants that, if allowed to
                      self-pollinate, would produce offspring _______________ to
                      themselves.
                 ix. Mendel wanted to produce seeds by joining male and female
                      reproductive cells from _________ different plants.
                  x. He cut away the pollen-bearing male parts of the plant and
                      dusted the plant’s flower with pollen____________ from another
                      plant.
                 xi. This process is called ___________________________.
                xii. Mendel was able to produce seeds that had ______ different
                      parents.
   2. _____________ and Dominance
         a. A ____________ is a specific characteristic that varies from one
             individual to another.
         b. Mendel studied seven pea plant traits, each
             with two contrasting characters.
                   i. He crossed plants with each of
                      the seven contrasting characters
                      and studied their ____________.
                  ii. Each original pair of plants is the
                      P (_____________) generation.
                iii. The offspring are called the
                      ____, or “first filial,” generation.
                 iv.  The offspring of crosses between
                      parents with different traits are
                      called ______________.
                  v.  The F1 hybrid plants all had the character of only _______ of the
                      ______________.
Quinn                                    CP Bio              Name: __________________
         c. Mendel's first conclusion was that ________________ inheritance is
             determined by factors that are passed from one ______________ to the
             next.
         d. Today, scientists call the factors that determine traits _____________.
         e. Each of the traits Mendel studied was controlled by one gene that occurred
             in two _____________________ forms that produced different characters
             for each ____________.
         f. The different forms of a gene are called _____________.
         g. Mendel’s second conclusion is called the principle of ______________.
   3. What is the principle of dominance?
         a. The principle of dominance states that some alleles are dominant and
             others are _________________.
         b. An _______________ with a dominant allele for a trait will ___________
             exhibit that form of the trait.
         c. An organism with the recessive allele for a trait will exhibit that form only
             when the dominant allele for that trait is ___________________.
   4. ____________________
         a. What happens during segregation?
                   i.  Mendel crossed the F1 generation with _____________ to
                       produce the F2 (____________ filial) generation.
                  ii.  The traits controlled by recessive alleles reappeared in
                       _______________ of the F2 plants.
                 iii. Mendel assumed that a dominant allele had masked the
                       corresponding recessive allele in the ________ generation.
                 iv.   The trait controlled by the ________________ allele showed up
                       in some of the F2 plants.
                  v.   The reappearance of the trait controlled by the recessive allele
                       indicated that at some point the allele for ______________ had
                       been separated, or segregated, from the allele for ____________.
                 vi.   Mendel suggested that the alleles for tallness and shortness in the
                       F1 plants ____________________ from each other during the
                       formation of the sex cells, or gametes.
                vii.   When each F1 plant flowers and produces _____________, the
                       two alleles segregate from each other so that each gamete carries
                       only a _______________ copy of each ____________.
               viii. Therefore, each F1 plant produces _______ types of gametes—
                       those with the allele for tallness, and those with the allele for
                       shortness.
                 ix. Alleles ____________________ during gamete formation.
11-2: Probability and Punnett Squares
   1. Genetics and __________________
         a. How do geneticists use the principles of probability?
         b. The likelihood that a particular event will occur is called _____________.
         c. The principles of probability can be used to predict the outcomes of
             ___________________________.
   2. Punnett Squares
         a. How do geneticists use Punnett squares?
         b. The __________ combinations that might result from a genetic cross can
             be determined by drawing a diagram known as a _______________
             square.
Quinn                                     CP Bio              Name: __________________
        c. Punnett squares can be used to _____________ and compare the genetic
            variations that will result from a cross.
        d. A _____________ letter represents the dominant allele for tall.
        e. A lowercase letter represents the __________________ allele for short.
        f. In this example,
                  i. T = _______
                 ii. ___ = short
        g. ______________ produced by each F1 parent are shown along the top and
            left side.
        h. Possible gene combinations for the F2 _____________ appear in the four
            boxes.
        i. Organisms that have two identical
            alleles for a particular trait are said to
            be ____________________.
        j. Organisms that have two
            ________________ alleles for the
            same trait are
            _____________________.
        k. Homozygous organisms are true-
            breeding for a particular _______.
        l. Heterozygous organisms are
            ____________ for a particular trait.
        m. All of the tall plants have the same
            phenotype, or _______________
            characteristics.
        n. The tall plants _____________ have
            the same genotype, or genetic
            makeup.
        o. One third of the tall plants are _______, while two thirds of the tall plants
            are ______.
        p. The plants have different _______________ (TT and Tt), but they have the
            same ____________________ (tall).
                  i. One fourth (1/4) of the F2 plants have _______ alleles for tallness
                     (_____).
                 ii. 2/4 or 1/2 have one allele for tall (___), and one for short (___).
                iii. One fourth (1/4) of the F2 have ______ alleles for short (tt).
                iv. Because the allele for tallness (T) is ________________ over the
                     allele for shortness (t), 3/4 of the F2 plants should be tall.
                 v. The ratio of tall plants (TT or Tt) to short (tt) plants is ____:____.
                vi. The predicted ratio showed up in Mendel’s experiments indicating
                     that ___________________ did occur.
  3. Probabilities Predict Averages
        a. Probabilities predict the average ___________________ of a large number
            of events.
        b. Probability _____________ predict the precise outcome of an
            ______________ event.
        c. In genetics, the larger the number of ______________________, the
            closer the resulting numbers will get to ________________ values.
Quinn                                  CP Bio            Name: __________________
11-3: Exploring Mendelian Genetics
   1. Independent Assortment
         a. What is the principle of independent assortment?
         b. To determine if the segregation of one __________ of alleles affects the
             segregation of another pair of alleles, Mendel performed a
             __________________ cross.
   2. The _______-Factor Cross: F1
         a. Mendel crossed __________-breeding plants that produced round
             ____________ peas (genotype RRYY) with true-breeding plants that
             produced ________________ green peas (genotype rryy).
         b. All of the F1 offspring produced round yellow peas (__________).
         c. The alleles for round (R) and yellow (Y) are ________________ over the
             alleles for wrinkled (r) and green (y).
   3. The Two-Factor Cross:_______
         a. Mendel crossed the heterozygous F1
             _________ (RrYy) with each other to
             determine if the ___________ would
             segregate from each other in the F2
             generation.
                   i. RrYy × RrYy
         b. The Punnett square predicts a 9 : 3 : 3 :1
             ratio in the F2 _________________.
         c. In Mendel’s experiment, the F2 generation
             produced the following:
                   i. some seeds that were round and
                      ___________
                  ii. some seeds that were wrinkled and
                      ___________
                iii. some seeds that were ____________ and green
                 iv. some seeds that were _______________ and yellow
         d. The alleles for seed shape segregated independently of those for seed
             color. This principle is known as ___________________ assortment.
         e. Genes that segregate independently ______________ influence each
             other's inheritance.
         f. Mendel's experimental _____________ were very close to the 9 : 3 : 3 : 1
             ratio predicted by the Punnett _____________.
         g. Mendel had discovered the principle of independent _______________.
         h. The principle of independent assortment states that ________ for different
             traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.
         i. Independent assortment helps account for the many genetic
             _________________ observed in plants, animals, and other organisms.
   4. A Summary of Mendel's Principles
         a. Genes are passed from _______________ to their ________________.
         b. If two or more forms (______________) of the gene for a single trait exist,
             some forms of the gene may be dominant and others may be recessive.
         c. In most ________________ reproducing organisms, each adult has _____
             copies of each gene. These genes are segregated from each other when
             gametes are formed.
         d. The alleles for different genes usually segregate __________________ of
             one another.
Quinn                                      CP Bio              Name: __________________
   5. Beyond Dominant and Recessive Alleles
          a. What inheritance patterns exist aside from ____________ dominance?
          b. Some alleles are neither dominant nor recessive, and many traits are
              controlled by ____________________ alleles or multiple __________.
   6. Incomplete Dominance
          a. When one allele is not completely dominant over another it is called
              ______________________________.
          b. In incomplete dominance, the heterozygous phenotype is
              ____________________ the two homozygous phenotypes.
          c. A cross between red (RR) and white (WW) four o’clock plants produces
              ___________-colored flowers (RW).
   7. Codominance
          a. In _____________________, both alleles contribute to the phenotype.
          b. In certain varieties of chicken, the allele for _____________ feathers is
              codominant with the allele for _________ feathers.
          c. Heterozygous chickens are speckled with ____________ black and white
              feathers. The black and white colors do not blend to form a new color, but
              appear _________________.
   8. Multiple Alleles
          a. Genes that are controlled by __________ than two alleles are said to have
              _________________ alleles.
          b. An _____________ can’t have more than two alleles. However, more than
              two possible alleles can exist in a ______________________.
          c. A rabbit's coat color is determined by a single gene that has at least four
              different alleles.
   9. ________________ Traits
          a. Traits controlled by ______________ genes are said to be polygenic traits.
          b. Skin color in humans is a polygenic trait controlled by more than four
              different genes.
   10. Applying Mendel's Principles
          a. Thomas Hunt Morgan used _________________ to advance the study of
              genetics.
          b. Morgan and others tested Mendel’s principles and learned that they
              applied to other ________________ as well as plants.
          c. Mendel’s principles can be used to study inheritance of ______________
              traits and to calculate the probability of certain traits appearing in the next
              generation.
   11. Genetics and the ___________________
          a. Characteristics of any organism are determined by the interaction between
              ______________ and the environment.
11-4: Meiosis
       1. Each organism must inherit a _______________ copy of every gene from
          each of its “________________.”
       2. Gametes are formed by a process that separates the two sets of genes so that
          each gamete ends up with just ___________ set.
       3. Chromosome Number
             a. All organisms have _________________ numbers of chromosomes.
             b. A body cell in an adult fruit fly has _________ chromosomes: 4 from
                 the fruit fly's _____________ parent, and ____ from its female parent.
             c. These two sets of chromosomes are _____________________.
Quinn                                  CP Bio               Name: __________________
             d. Each of the 4 chromosomes that came from the male parent has a
                 corresponding _______________________ from the female parent.
             e. A cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes is said to
                 be _______________.
             f. The number of chromosomes in a diploid cell is sometimes
                 represented by the symbol __________.
             g. For Drosophila, the diploid number is _______, which can be written
                 as 2N=8.
             h. The gametes of sexually reproducing organisms contain only a
                 _____________ set of chromosomes, and therefore only a single set of
                 ___________.
             i. These cells are haploid. Haploid cells are represented by the symbol
                 _____.
             j. For Drosophila, the haploid number is 4, which can be written as ___.
       4. Phases of _____________
             a. What happens during the process of meiosis?
             b. Meiosis is a process of reduction division in which the number of
                 chromosomes per cell is cut in ____________ through the separation
                 of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.
             c. Meiosis involves _________ divisions, meiosis ___ and meiosis ____.
             d. By the end of meiosis II, the diploid cell that entered meiosis has
                 become ____ haploid cells.
Meiosis I




             Interphase I   Prophase I     Metaphase I   Anaphase I     Telophase I
        5. Interphase I
               a. Cells undergo a round of _______ replication, forming duplicate
                  chromosomes.
        6. Prophase I
               a. Each chromosome ________ with its corresponding homologous
                  chromosome to form a _________.
               b. There are 4 ____________ in a tetrad.
               c. When homologous chromosomes form tetrads in meiosis I, they
                  ___________ portions of their chromatids
                  in a process called crossing _________.
               d. Crossing-over produces ________
                  combinations of alleles.
        7. Metaphase I
               a. _____________ fibers attach to the chromosomes.
        8. Telophase I and ________________
               a. Nuclear ____________ form.
               b. The cell separates into _______ cells.
               c. The two cells produced by meiosis I have chromosomes and alleles
                  that are _____________ from each other and from the diploid cell that
                  entered meiosis I.
Quinn                                       CP Bio             Name: __________________
        9. Meiosis II
              a. The two cells produced by ____________________ now enter a
                  second meiotic division.
              b. Unlike meiosis I, ___________ cell goes through chromosome
                  replication.
              c. Each of the cell’s chromosomes has 2 __________________.




           Telophase I and    Prophase II     Metaphase II   Anaphase II   Telophase II and
           Cytokinesis                                                      Cytokinesis

        10. Prophase II
               a. Meiosis I results in _______ haploid (N) daughter ________, each
                  with ______ the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
        11. Metaphase II
               a. The chromosomes line up in the ___________ of cell.
        12. Anaphase II
               a. The sister chromatids __________ and move toward opposite ends of
                  the cell.
        13. Telophase II and Cytokinesis
               a. Meiosis II results in ____ haploid (N) daughter cells
        14. Gamete Formation
               a. In ____________ animals, meiosis results in four
                  equal-sized gametes called _________.
               b. In many ___________ animals, only ______ egg
                  results from meiosis. The other three cells, called
                  polar bodies, are usually ______ involved in
                  reproduction.
        15. Comparing Mitosis and Meiosis
               a. How is meiosis different from mitosis?
               b. _____________ results in the production of two
                  genetically ___________ diploid cells. Meiosis
                  produces four genetically ___________ haploid cells.
               c. Mitosis
                        i. Cells produced by mitosis have the ________ number of
                           chromosomes and alleles as the original cell.
                       ii. Mitosis allows an organism to __________ and ____________
                           cells.
                      iii. Some organisms reproduce _______________ by mitosis.
               d. Meiosis
                        i. Cells produced by meiosis have _____________ the number of
                           chromosomes as the parent cell.
                       ii. These cells are genetically ________________ from the
                           diploid cell and from each other.
Quinn                                CP Bio            Name: __________________
                  iii. Meiosis is how sexually-reproducing organisms produce
                       _________________.
11-5: Linkage and Gene Maps
  1. Gene ______________
        a. What structures actually assort independently?
        b. Thomas Hunt Morgan’s research on fruit flies led him to the principle of
           ______________.
        c. Morgan discovered that many of the more than 50 Drosophila genes he
           had identified appeared to be “linked” ______________.
        d. They seemed to violate the principle of __________________ assortment.
        e. Morgan and his associates _______________ the linked genes into _____
           linkage groups.
        f. Each linkage group assorted independently but all the genes in one group
           were inherited _________________.
        g. Each chromosome is actually a group of linked genes.
        h. Morgan concluded that Mendel’s principle of independent assortment still
           holds true.
        i. Chromosomes assort independently, __________ individual genes.
  2. Gene ___________
        a. ______________-over during meiosis sometimes _______________
           genes that had been on the same chromosomes onto homologous
           chromosomes.
        b. Crossover events occasionally separate and ________________ linked
           genes and produce new combinations of alleles.
        c. Alfred Sturtevant, a student of Morgan, reasoned that the ____________
           apart two genes were, the ______________________ they were to be
           separated by a crossover in meiosis.
        d. Recombination frequencies can be used to determine the distance between
           genes.
        e. Sturtevant created a gene map showing the relative ______________ of
           each known gene on one of the Drosophila chromosomes.
        f. If two genes are ____________ together, the recombination frequency
           between them should be _______________, since crossovers are rare.
        g. If they are __________________, recombination rates between them
           should be ____________.

								
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