CHAPTER 10 -1 NOTES by tgv36994


									                 CHAPTER 10 – 1: THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE

 the Western Roman Empire was overrun by Germanic tribes – as the western portion declines, the
  eastern portion develops independently
 the emperor Constantine rebuilt the Greek city of Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople
 330 – he made Constantinople the new capital of the empire – the “new Rome,” but its citizens spoke
  Greek and were part of the Eastern Christian Church
 Constantinople was on the Bosporus – it had good harbors and was guarded on three sides by water
 commanded key trade routes linking Europe and Asia
 promoted the blending of ancient Greek, Roman, and Christian influences with the Mediterranean

 527 – 565: rule of Emperor Justinian and Empress Theodora
 using his best general, Belisarius, Justinian recovered the provinces of ancient Rome – North Africa,
  Italy (including Rome), and southern Spain
 launched a building program to beautify Constantinople – including baths, aqueducts, courts, schools,
  and hospitals
 greatest triumph was the church of Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom)
 set up a commission to collect, revise, and organized all the laws of ancient Rome
 result – Corpus Juris Civilis or “Body of Civil Law” (aka Justinian’s Code)
      o The Code – a collection of 5000 Roman laws
      o The Digest – legal writings (summary opinions) of Roman judges
      o The Institutes – student handbook (textbook)
      o The Novellae – new laws passed after 534
 Impact of Code:
      1) both Roman Catholic Church and medieval monarchs modeled their laws on its principles
      2) guided legal thinkers who put together the international law in use today
      3) Justinian used the code to unite the empire – he ruled as an autocrat and had power over the
         Eastern Church since he considered himself Christ’s co-ruler on Earth
      4) was the law for the Byzantine Empire for the next 900 years

 Byzantine emperors controlled the eastern church (Eastern Orthodox) and appointed patriarchs to lead
  the church in Constantinople
 Byzantine Christians rejected the pope’s claim to authority over all Christians
 Byzantine clergy kept their right to marry
 Greek, not Latin, was the church language
 the chief Byzantine holy day was Easter, not Christmas like the Catholics
 a dispute of the use of icons contributed to the split between the eastern and western churches during
  the Middle Ages
 730 – Emperor Leo III banned icons because he thought their use amounted to idol worship
 the pope in the west supported the use of icons and excommunicated the Byzantine emperor
   even thought icons were restored to the empire in 843, it left resentment against the pope
   1054 – the pope and the patriarch excommunicated each other over religious doctrine – the role of the
    pope, issue of divorce and whether priests could marry
   church becomes permanently divided between the Roman Catholic Church in the west and the
    Orthodox Church in the east (Eastern Orthodox)

 struggles over succession, court intrigues, and constant wars undermined the Byzantine empire
 empire holds out using bribes, diplomacy, marriage, and the military
 empire is attacked by Persians, Avars, Slavs, Bulgars, Arabs, and Russians
 1095 – Emperor Alexius I asked Pope Urban II for help to fight the Seljuk Turks who had closed the
  pilgrimage routes to Jerusalem resulting in the First Crusade
 1204 – trade rivalry between Venetian merchants and the empire caused knights on the Fourth
  Crusade to attack Constantinople
 western Christians will rule Constantinople for 50 years until a Byzantine emperor reclaims the city in
  the 1260s, but the empire never recovers
 Venetian merchants gain control of Byzantine trade
 1453 (May 29) – Ottoman Turks, led by Muhammad II, capture the city and the emperor is killed
      o the Ottomans rename the city Istanbul; it becomes the capital of the Ottoman Empire
      o the Hagia Sophia is turned into an Islamic house of worship (mosque)

476 – the fall of Rome
      the beginning of the Middle Ages in western Europe

1453 – the fall of Constantinople
       the end of the Byzantine Empire
       the end of the Hundred Years War
       the end of the Middle Ages in western Europe

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