"PowerPoint - Effects of Bilingualism on the Attention Network Test "
Poster presented at the Boston University Conference on Language Development, Nov., 2004, Boston University, MA, USA. (To appear in the BUCLD 29 Proceedings Supplement) Effects of Bilingualism on the Attention Network Test: Its significance and Implications Sujin Yang & Barbara Lust Cornell University (email: email@example.com) Introduction Results Recent research (Bialystok 1999) has suggested a specific Bilingual children in our study had significantly lower advantageous link between executive attention and bilingualism English proficiency than monolinguals according the PPVT in 4 and 5 year olds in a behavioral Dimension Change Card Sort results, F(1, 33) = 24.033, p = .0000. However, they showed (DCCS) task (Zelazo & Frye, 1998). However, the results deserve significant cognitive advantages in percentage ANT accuracy replication to ensure bilingual advancement in executive data, F(1, 22) = 13.673, p = .001, across all conditions. Overall attention because the task requires not only conscious control of reaction times for correct responses were faster for bilinguals behavior but also representation ability of complex rule systems. but did not reach significance. Contrary to the previous results Accordingly, we use a new cognitive task to test positive cognitive (Bialystok, 1999), the DCCS task failed to predict the ANT consequences among bilingual children along with the DCCS. We performance, r = .126, p = .541. hypothesized that if bilingualism was beneficial to the development of executive attention, bilinguals would outperform 10 120 monolinguals in the ANT. Additionally, if the DCCS and the 9.97 110 9.6 118 * 8 ANT’s subcomponent of ‘executive control’ tested the same DCCS task score 100 PPVT Score processing variance, we hypothesized that children’s performance 90 98 6 in the DCCS task and their ANT performance on ‘executive 80 4 70 control’ would correlate. 2 60 Method 50 0 PPVT DCCS M o n o l in g u a l Bilingual M o no lingu a l B ilingu a l We tested 19 English monolinguals and 18 Korean-English 100 bilingual children, averaged 56 month olds each, on the DCCS 1200 and the ANT. Before the tasks, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary 85 * 1150 Reaction Time (ms) Test (PPVT) and a parental Multilingualism Questionnaire were 88 Accuracy (%) 70 1141 administered to all children to measure their English lexical 73 1100 55 development. ** Randomized (PPVT+DCCS) + ANT 1050 40 1047 Attention Network Test (ANT) 1000 25 10 950 ANT Accuracy R eactio n Time The present study took the initiative in testing bilinguals’ M o no lingual Bilingual M o no lingual Bilingual cognitive performance in a computerized attention networks test (ANT) (Rueda, Fan, McCandliss, Halparin, Gruber, Lercari, & 50 100 Posner, 2004), which has been used in brain imaging studies 90 95 98 40 (Posner & Fan, in press). The ANT consists of four cue and three 40 80 88 85 flanker conditions and is designed to probe developmental Error Rates (%) 70 73 differences in attentional networks of ‘alerting, orienting, and 30 60 Overall Accuracy (%) executive control’ in terms of percentage accuracy and reaction 19 50 19 21 40 time. 20 30 Alerting & Orienting Conflict Resolution Presentation Order: 20 Fixation (400~1600ms)- 10 10 * Cue (150)-Fixation(450)- 8 Conflict Resolution + + 7 * Neutral Target (RT<1700) - 0 0 Mo n o (4.8) 6 y e a rs 10 y e a r s Feedback-Fixation Neutral Congruent Incongruent Mono(4.8) Bilingual(4.9) 6 years Alert No Cue Double Cue Monolingual Bilingual 8 years 10 years Trials: Training Block (24) * Congruent * + + 3 Experimental Blocks Orient Central Cue Spatial Cue (144) (Duration: 25~30) Discussion Incongruent Variables: Accuracy, RT These results support a positive relation between early childhood Dimension Change Card Sort (DCCS) bilingualism and executive attention despite the difference in English proficiency. At the same time, they raise issues about the relation between tasks assumed to test executive attention, since these did not Pre-Switch Post-Switch correlate. Reasons can be attributed to monolingual children’s high SHAPE COLOR linguistic competence, studied age ranges, or age-inappropriate task difficulty. Reference Bialystok, E. (1999). Cognitive complexity and attentional control in the bilingual mind. Child Participants are required to sort cards into two groups based on the sorting Development, 70, 636-644. criterion (Color vs. Shape) and Children need to refocus their attention to a new Rueda, M.R., Fan, J., McCandliss, B.D., Halparin, J.D., Gruber, D.B., Lercari, L.P., & Posner, M.I. rule while inhibiting their focus on the previous dimension. Variables: (2004). Development of Attentional Networks in Childhood. Neuropsychologia, 42, 1029-1050. Inhibitory Control Ability + Representation Ability of Higher-Order Rule Zelazo, P.D., & Frye, D. (1998). Cognitive complexity and control:II. The development of executive function in children. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7, 121-126.