"It is believed that Doppler radar would aid in"
JANUARY 1961 MONTHLY W E A T H E R REVIEW 7 There are some major changes in the present equipment cloud in sufficient’ time to warn those in threatened areas. that shouldbe madeinordertohavewhat, wouldbe It is believed that Doppler radar would aid in easing this considered an optimum Doppler radar for meteorological problem so that we cangreatlyimproveourabilityto purposes. Theseare: (1) 5.4-crn. wavelengt,h, ( 2 ) pulse prevent’ loss of life due to those stornls. inst>ead of cw techniques, and (3) provision of “sense” to det)ermine directions of motions. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The use of 5.4-cm. wavelength would reduce attenua- the tion problem considcrablS. Since there is :t clear channel, 5Ir. V:Luglln D. Rocknev, C’hief, Observations Section, 5600-5650 mc.,assigned tometeorology,itsusewould U.S. Weat~her Bureau, Washington, D.C. assisted in this reduce the chances of interference with other r‘ d ars project. It TVM mostly through his efforts and enthusiasm <L operating in the C-band. that this project was made possible. 51r. Stuart G. Bigler, The use of pulsed instead of cur techniques would d 1 ow Chief, Radar Unit, U.S. WeatherBureau,Washington, 1 6 for a tremendousincreaseinpoweroutput’and energy D.C. is t’obc thanked forhis valuable assistance and many penetration into storms. In addition, it would be possible suggestions in the preparation of t’his paper. In addition, to provide for range gating which cannot, be done by using the assistance of A h . Shreves C . Goodwin, Radar Mete- the cw technique. This is a very important, feature, since orological Technician, U.S. Weather Bureau, Wichita with the reduced at’terluatiorl and increased power output, Falls, Tex.,isgreatlyappreciat’ed. On many occasions signals would often be received from two or more storms Mr. Goodwin spent very long continuous periods on the at the same azimuth from the radar site. For example, project in order to gather as man?- d a t a as possible. if the bean1 wereintersecting a nearby storm at, about Without his assist’ilrlcc perhaps ~ n a n y the dntti on hand of 5,000 feet above the ground and a distant storm a t about today would not have been obtained. 40,000 feet above the ground, the signal return might he of similar to a composite figures 6B and 8B. This combina- REFERENCES tion would appear very much like figure 3B. For this type of situation there are two possible explanations. Either : L 1. E. J . Barlow, “Doppler Radar,” Proceedings of the I R E , vol. 37, funnel or tornado exists in t’he nearby storm, or the high 1949, pp. 34cL355. 2. R. ,J. Beebe, “The Photographic Record of the Dallas Tornado,” speeds are from the distant storm at high altit’udes while papcr prescnted before the161st Annual RIeeting of thc American the lower speeds are from the nearby storm. A Doppler Meteorological Society, College Station, Tex., 1957. [See also radar system with range gating facilities would allow the Weathcr Note by Research Vnit, U.S. Weather Bureau, Kansas operat,or todeterminewhichcaseexisted. It is wort~h- City, Mo., “Measurement of Wind Speeds S e a r a Tornado while to mention, at this point, that at the t’irne of t’he Funnel,” M o n t h l yW e a t h e rR e v i e w , 87, vol. S o . 10, Oct. 1959, unique signals from the El Dorado st,orrn, there were no 3. p. 382.1 S. G. Bigler, “TheDallasTornado of 2April 1957,” Scientific other storms at the same azimuth within the rangeof the R e p o r t No. 2, under 1T.S. Weather Bureau Contract Cu-b-9116, Doppler radar. The same is true for t’he storm 15 rnilcs Department of OceanographyandMeteorology,TexasA & R/I from the radar site, t the same azimuth as the dust devil. a College, College Station, ‘I’cx., 1957. Providing “sense” to the systemis a feature that would 4. ,J. Q. Brantley, “Some meather Observatjiow with a Continuous- Wave JlopplcrRadar,” Proceedings of t h eS i z t hW e a t h e rR a d a r show whether the Doppler shift was upward downwlrd or Con,ference, Cambridge, >lass., 1957, pp. 297-306. in frequency, thus allowing the operator to det’ermirle if a 5. W . H. Hoecker, Jr., “Wind Speed and Air Flow Patterns in the majority of the particles were approaching or departing Dallas Tornado o f April 2, 1957,” M o n t h l y Weather R e v i e w , vol. from the radar site. This would be especia1l.v advwntage- 88, KO. 5, May 1960, pp. 167-180. ous in overhead turbulence studies in thunderstorms and 6. 1,. N. Ridenour, Radar S y s t e m E n g i n e e r i n g , AI. I. T. Radiation Laboratory Series, vol. 1, RlcGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., Xew in clear air. York, 1947. One of the most critical problems that rneteorologists 7. A. Sadon-ski,“RadarObservations of the EX Dorado, Kans. have had to face has been to obt’ain reliable information Tornado, June 10, 1958,” M o n t h l y H’eather R e v i e w , vol. 86, No. concerning the actuttl exist’ence of a tornado or funnel 10, Oct. 1958, pp. 405-407. NEW WEATHER BUREAU PUBLICATION Climatology at Measurernents, T.T70~P, Methods, and llacllirles, edited by Gerald L. Barger assisted by John C. N~-han, Washington, D.C., October 1960, 109 pp. For sale by Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Print,ing Office, Washington,D.C.Price 65 cents. Describes the functions, scope, and capabilities of the centralized climato- logical facility located at Asheville, N.C. Chapter headings are: 1. Introduc- t’ion-History andDeveloprnent; 2. Clirnatolog?--Selected Elements of t,he Science; 3 . Observations-hleasurernent, and Enumernt~ion, Perception; 4. Methods-Summary, Graphical, and Statist’ical; 5. ;l1achirles-Processing and Computing; 6. The Product-Form and Availability. 5ii469“80”“2