UNSW Presentation - First Solar 17Sep09_David Jordan by luk10459

VIEWS: 167 PAGES: 54

									    First Solar

 University of NSW
Seminar & Workshop

                            David Jordan
         Director Business Development
                Faculty of Engineering
      Presentation Content


N/A
                                                                   Introduction


Photovoltaics (PV) Cost of Product and Electrical Energy Delivered are declining
steadily, in crystalline and thin film silicon and other semiconductor based
technologies (CdTe, CIGS, DSC, OPV).


PV electrical energy is increasingly cost competitive in on-grid markets – long
term power supply agreements in selected global markets are now at or near “grid
parity” pricing.


The future PV market is large - long term projections forecast very large PV
requirement in the coming decades, with hundreds of GW annually forecast (recall
our current production is somewhat less than 10GW annually)


Cost of Product remains the primary competitive driver, given other critical
factors are covered - material availability, environmentally sound manufacturing,
product lifetime, etc.
                                                                 Introduction (cont)


Cost of Product is primarily determined by manufacturing cost and product performance
(conversion efficiency), expressed as $ / Wp.


PV Manufacturing Technology remains heavily dominated by crystalline silicon.


Silicon Manufacturing Cost is typically sub-divided into three conversion costs –
    - sand / quartz (SiO2) to silicon wafer,
    - wafer to cell,
    - cell to module.
                                         PV Market – 85%↑, Booming Regardless




                                                      Photon International, March 2009, P188
Photon International, March 2009, P172
PV Production by Producers - 2008



            •   Dominance of silicon based
                manufacture

            •   Emergence of First Solar
                (CdTe) thin film

            •   Asia Pacific focus




                 Photon International, March 2009, P182
                                         PV Production by Technology - 2008



                                                    •   Dominance of c- Si
                                                    •   CdTe First Solar thin film


                                                        Technology Share 2008 (%)



                                                                                    Mono c-Si

                                                                                    Multi c-Si

                                                                                    Ribbon c-Si

                                                                                    a-Si/mc-Si

                                                                                    CdTe

                                                                                    CIS

                                                                                    Other


Photon International, March 2009, P190
                                        PV Cost – Module & Electrical Energy


                                                     “Meanwhile, First Solar’s contract
                                                           with Southern California
                                                         Edison was approved by the
                                                         regulator “below” a price of
                                                       9.7c per kWh for a 20 year deal
                                                        for power from an up to 21MW
                                                         PV plant scheduled to come
                                                          on later this year.” PG&E’s
                                                          contract with SunPower for
                                                        power from its 250MW plant is
                                                          estimated at approximately
                                                                 12c per kWh”

                                                        How ? – Some producers
                                                        module costs are now at or
                                                        below $1.00Wp, both c-Si and
                                                        CdTe
Photon International, March 2009, P20
University of NSW
Sydney Campus Overview
                                                       University Statistics

Established in 1949

Three main campuses (Sydney, Canberra)

Student body 44,725 including 9,992
international students from 127 countries

Staff 5,062

Foundation member of Universitas 21,
a consortium of world acclaimed universities

Member of the prestigious Australian Group
of Eight (GO8) elite universities

Ranked 45th globally in the 2008
Times Higher Education Supplement.
21st in Technology based university rankings

4 Centres of Excellence in Research, including
Photovoltaic Engineering

Consistently in top 3 in Australian research funding
                                                Faculty Structure


FACULTIES & Associated Institutions
   Arts and Social Sciences
   Australian School of Business
   Built Environment
   College of Fine Arts
   Engineering
   Law
   Medicine
   Science
   Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra
   UNSW Global
Centre for Energy Research & Policy Analysis
                  CERPA




            Professor Rose Amal
                  Director
  Molecular
                 Materials     Technology                  Optimisation
Understanding                                System                           Market
                Discovery     Development               and Assessment
 and Design



                                            Distributed Energy
                                                  Systems              Economic,
                                                                         Social
                                                                           and
       Fuels for a Cleaner Environment                               Regulatory Policy



                    Renewable Energy                       Energy Efficient
                      Technologies                          Technologies
                                CERPA - Renewable Energy Technologies


Photovoltaics, Geothermal, Biofuels, Solar Thermal, Wind,
and Solar Hydrogen

•   Hot Rocks - geothermal energy research (Petroleum
    Engineering)

•   Solar Thermal – macrosystems for heating and energy
    generations

•   Biofuels – Biological Sciences and Chemical Engineering

•   Advanced Materials - solar energy conversion, utilisation,
    storage
                                                       Faculty of Engineering

•   Founding Faculty of UNSW (1949)
•   Staff – 560
    - 335 academic / 225 professional & technical

•   Student - 5,075
    - 3,783 local / 1,292 international

•   Budget - A$101M (€50M, 2007)
•   Schools -
    -   Biomedical Engineering
    -   Chemical Sciences & Engineering
    -   Civil & Environmental Engineering
    -   Computer Science & Engineering
    -   Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications
    -   Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering
    -   Mining Engineering
    -   Petroleum Engineering
    -   Photovoltaics & Renewable Energy Engineering
    -   Surveying & Spatial Information Systems
School of Photovoltaic & Renewable
        Energy Engineering
                                           PV & Renewable Energy Engineering

Undergraduate Engineering Programs (4 year)
      Photovoltaics and Solar Energy – 180 students (2009)

      Renewable Energy - 161 students (2009)

      34% growth 2007-08

      91 graduates to date

Master of Engineering Science in PV & Solar Energy
        49 students (2009)
        58% growth 2007-08

Research Degrees
      PhD - 43 students (2009)
      Masters - 10 students (2009)
      6% growth 2007-08

                                                (Session 2, 2008)
ARC Photovoltaics Centre of
        Excellence
                                    ARC Photovoltaics Centre of Excellence

              Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence
               in Advanced Sliicon Photovoltaics & Photonics

Professor Stuart Wenham – Director & Scientia Professor
Professor Martin Green - Executive Research Director, Scientia Professor, Federation Fellow
Research Staff & Post Graduate Students – ca 100 (2008)
Annual Budget – ca A$7M (€4M, 2008)
Research & Commercial Milestones -
    25% silicon solar 1 sun conversion efficiency (world record)
    Suntech Pluto technology, 18-19% efficiency (monoX), 16-17% efficiency (multiX)
    Sunrise Global Energy, Laser Doped Selective Emitter volume production licensee
    BP Solar Laser Buried Grid / CSG Solar thin film silicon
    BT Imaging, photoluminescence spin-out
                                           World Class Research & Researchers

                                                                                         25
•   Highest efficiency Si solar cell
•   Highest efficiency PV module
                                                                                         20
•   Equal highest efficiency n-type Si solar cell                                                           UNSW

•   Professor Martin Green
                                                                                         15




                                                                       E fficien cy, %
             1990 - IEEE William R. Cherry Award
             1995 - IEEE J.J.Ebers Award
             1999 - Australia Prize
             2002 - Alternative Nobel Prize (Right Livelihood Award)                     10
             2004 - World Technology Award for Energy
             2007 - SolarWorld Einstein Award
             2008 - NSW Scientist of Year
                                                                                         5

•   Professor Stuart Wenham
             1999 - Australia Prize
                                                                                         0
             2006 - World Technology Award for Energy




                                                                                              1940

                                                                                                     1950

                                                                                                             1960

                                                                                                                    1970

                                                                                                                           1980

                                                                                                                                  1990

                                                                                                                                         2000

                                                                                                                                                2010
             2009 - IEEE William R. Cherry Award
                  New Funding & Infrastructure Initiatives



                       UNSW Energy Technology Building


Energy Research

    Funding
       &
 Infrastructure
                              Funding & Infrastructure Initiatives

Australian Solar Institute (ASI)
    A$100M / 4 years (€51M), PV / Solar Thermal
    Foundation Member Institutions, A$5M initial grant
             University of NSW (UNSW)
             Australian National University (ANU)
             Commonwealth Scientific & Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO)


Solar Industrial Research Facility (SIRF – by Year 2010)
   A$10M UNSW campus located building, to house Roth & Rau pilot line



Energy Technologies Building (ETB – by Year 2012)
   A$155M (€79M) UNSW campus located showcase building, to house R&R pilot line
Engineering Precinct Development
                                  Solar Institute Research Facility


•   A$10M SIRF Building         SIRF / R&R Pilot Line
•   Completion 4Q 2010
•   SIRF will house –
        Roth & Rau Pilot Line
        Roth & Rau Commercial
        UNSW R&D
        UNSW teaching
        Collaborative R&D
                                                   Energy Technologies Building

A$155M total cost (€80M)
                                                   Energy Technologies Building
A$75M Federal Government
Education Infrastructure Funding
Headquarters for CERPA
(Centre for Energy Research & Policy Analysis)

Occupation 1Q 2012
Showcase Roth & Rau PV pilot line /
UNSW research labs
Other major users –
       Petroleum Engineering

       Centre for Energy & Environmental Markets

       Electrical Engineering

       Chemical Engineering
Energy Technologies Building
  Technology

Cost / Performance
                                                                                          Cost Benefit


          100
                        US$0.10/W      US$0.20/W            US$0.50/W                  Photovoltaics
                                                            Thermodynamic
                                                                                        Cost Metric
               80                                           limit
    ciency,%




                                                                                             $ / Wp
               60
                                                            US$1.00/W                     ($/m2) / (Wp/m2)
Effic




               40
                              III                           Present limit   Product Cost / Performance (Efficiency)
               20
                                                 I          US$3.50/W
                         II                                                    1st Generation – performance & cost
                    0     100       200    300       400   500                 2nd Generation – cost
                                                                               3rd Generation – both
                                    Cost, US$/m2
                                                                                 Low $/Wp => low kWh energy cost
              Technology

1st Generation - Crystalline Silicon Wafer
                             1st Generation Advanced Si Solar Cells

            UNSW World Record PERL vs Industrial Screen Print Cells




25% Efficient PERL Solar Cell     16 -17% Industrial Screen Print Solar Cell
                           1st Generation Advanced Si Solar Cells

  Goals & Focus – Selective Emitter
Technology –
      High blue response       => high performance
      low thermal budget       => wide range low quality / low cost wafers
      technology roadmap       => future path to very high performance


Manufacturing -
  non contact                  => high yield with thin / fragile wafers
  high throughput, in-line     => reduced manufacturing cost
  low process materials cost => reduced material cost
  low wafer cost               => reduced material cost
  process simplification       => stable, simple, fast (and N-type capable)
                                         (Laser Doped) SemiConductor Finger

•   Design
     – Lightly doped emitter (~100 Ω/ )
     – Laser scribed orthogonal heavy diffused grooves
     – Standard screen print front / rear

•   Performance
     – VOC (mV)                618       vs        614
     – JSC (mA/cm2)            37.5      vs        35.1
     – FF                      79.0%     vs        76.3%
     – Efficiency              18.3%     vs        16.5%

•   Pilot Production by licensee Cz monoX, > 18%

•   Cost Benefit - very low added cost for significant
    performance gain

•   Future Work - laser dope => multiX wafer capability
                                                        (Laser Doped) SemiConductor Finger


120

100

    80

                          EQE
%




    60
                          Reflection
    40
                          IQE
    20

    0
         300 400   500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
                        Wavelength (nm)
Laser Doped Selective Emitter

           Surface Etch         Damage    Texture

                 Emitter Phosphorus Diffusion

           PSG       Edge Isolate        SiN ARC

                 Rear Screen Print Al BSF

                      Front Laser Dope


          Light Induced Ni         Cu     Ag Plate
              Laser Doped Selective Emitter

                             Green laser selectively removes ARC dielectric
                             and melts the silicon underneath
                             Molten Si freezing simultaneously incorporates
Green Laser                  heavy N-type Phos doping
                             High temperature at localised regions only
                             Self aligned base metal plating into laser
                             pattern –
                                       - low cost materials,
                                       - in line process flow,
                Dopant
                                       - fast LIP plating,
                                       - zero contact
                dielectric
                             Performance > 19% LDSE, >> 20% D-LDSE
                N
N

                    p type
                           Light Induced Base Metal Plating (LIP)




Standard Light Induced Plating       UNSW Aspect Ratio Controlled LIP
N-Type Laser Doped Selective Emitter


                              40


                              35


                              30




       C urrent (m A /cm 2)
                              25
                                               Voc = 645 mV
                                               Jsc = 36.4 mA/cm2
                              20
                                               FF = 79%
                              15
                                               Eff = 18.6%

                              10


                               5


                               0
                                   0   50   100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650

                                                          Voltage (mV)
InkJet Direct Etching - Surface Texturing




             Target – “productionised” PERL

                Reduced structure cost
                Very high efficiency
                High performance markets
                (eg mobile phone charger)
Ink-Jet Printed Solar Cells
                               Performance Summary – 1st Gen Pilot Production

Technology       Antireflect     Jsc       Voc   FF     Efficiency    Area      Wafer
                  Coating      (mA/cm2)   (mV)   (%)         %       (cm2)      Type

1 BCSC              SiO2         36.8     619    79.0     18.0       148.6    (p-type CZ)

1 BCSC              SiN          33.4     604    77.4     15.6       156     (p-type multi)

2 IBBC              SiN          37.1     675    79.4     19.8        46      (n-type CZ)

3 Screen-Print      SiN          35.8     614    76.1     16.7       148.6    (p-type CZ)

3 Screen-print      SiN          33.3     614    75.5     15.4       156     (p-type multi)

4 SCF               SiN          36.2     635    79.5     18.3       148.6    (p-type CZ)

5 LDSE              SiN          37.2     630    78.4     18.4       148.6    (p-type CZ)

5 LDSE              SiN          34.8     625    76.9     16.7       156     (p-type multi)

5 LDSE              SiN          36.0     645    79.9     18.6       148.6    (n-type CZ)

6 Licensee #1       SiN          37.8     638    79.3     19.1       148.6    (p-type CZ)

6 Licensee #1       SiN          38.6     638    81.9     20.2        4.0     (p-type CZ)

6 Licensee #1       SiN          35.5     633    78.1     17.5       156     (p-type multi)

7 PERL           ZnS/MgF2        41.7     704    82.5     24.2        46      (p-type FZ)
          Technology

2nd Generation – Thin Film Silicon
                                2nd Generation – Thin Film Silicon


•   Thin films on supporting substrate                                              ‘Crater’
     – Amorphous Si deposition                        ‘Dimple’

     – Recrystallised at > 600⁰C                                               ‘Moses’
     – Polycrystalline thin film Si             Metal
                                              Insulator
                                         p+

•   Efficiency target 10%                p       Si                                    Glass
                                         n+

                                                      ‘Crater’   ‘Groove’ ‘Dimple’
•   CSG Solar (Germany) commercial                Cell n                 Cell n+1
    spin-out of UNSW technology
                                                                 Light
           Technology

3rd Generation – Quantum Engineering
                                                    Efficiency Loss Mechanisms


 Two major losses:
                                                                   2
    1. Sub bandgap losses
                                                                       3
    2. Lattice thermalisation
                                                                               4
                                                               5
Loss processes in a standard solar cell:                                           qV

(1) non-absorption of below band gap photons;                              5
(2) lattice thermalisation loss;                       4
(3) / (4) junction and contact voltage losses;                                     1
                                                           2
(5) recombination loss.

Limiting efficiencies                      1 sun   Conc
Single p-n junction:                       31%     40.8%
Multiple threshold:                        68.2%   86.8%
                                        3rd Generation Approaches



      Generic Approaches               Device            Specific approach

1 Generate multiple carrier      Down-conversion    Not at present
  pairs per high energy photon                      requires EQE > 100%
  OR more than one low           Up-conversion      Er doped phosphors
  energy photon per carrier pair                    3.5% EQE
2 Capture carriers before        Hot carrier cell   Contacts: NDR, modeling
  thermalisation                                    Absorber: theoretical cooling
3 Use multiple energy levels     Tandems           Si nanostructures for
                                 Impurity PV       “all Si tandem”
                                 Intermediate band
                                              All-Si Tandem Solar Cells

Silicon QD (Quantum Dot) Superlattice          Si QDs in SiO2   Sn QDs in SiO2




                 Si1-xCx
                 SiOx
                 SiNx Annealing                      100nm

                 SiC
                 SiO2
     Substrate   Si3N4            Substrate
                                 All-Si Tandem Solar Cells



2-Cell Tandem
                                                  1.6
     Light
                                                  1.4       39%




                                 Eg bottom [eV]
    N           QD emitter                        1.2       1%
                Top Si-QD cell
                                                  1.0
                (Eg = 1.7 eV)
                                                  0.8
    P           QD junction
    N                                             0.6

                                                  0.4
    P           Bottom Si cell                          1    1.2   1.4    1.6   1.8    2.0   2.2
                (Eg = 1.1 eV)                                            Eg top [eV]
    P+
                                                                       Hot Carrier Cells


                                  δE
            -
           e selective
           energy contact                        Es
                                E f(n)



          ∆µA        =   qV                              Ef
                                                      small E g
                                                                           h + selective
                                                                           energy contact
                                                                            E f(p)
                                                                  Es

                TA                       Hot carrier        TH                     TA
                                             distribution
Extract hot carriers before they thermalise:
    •    Need to slow carrier cooling, collect carriers over narrow energy range
                                                                     Cost Benefit Projections

Cost Benefit Projections                                        Screen Print       LDSE            LDSE
                                                                   MultiX          MultiX        Low Quality

Cell Efficiency                                           %        15.8%           17.0%            17.0%          1

Sand => Wafer Conversion Cost                            €/W        0.75             0.70            0.35          2

Wafer => Cell Conversion Cost                            €/W        0.26             0.25            0.25          3

Fully Built Up Cell Conversion Cost                      €/W        1.01             0.95              0.6
                                                                                                                   4
Benefit                                                                                     6%
                                                                                                             41%   5

Further upside in D-LDSE
                    Higher Performance / Efficiency             Current MonoX at > 19% => 22%
                                                                no rear surface Al / Ag screen print
                                   Reduced Materials            materials
                                                                no screen print / fire equipment, D-LDSE
                                      Reduced Capex             toolset same as LDSE
                                         Higher yield           no screen printing mechanical damage


1 conservative : >17.5% already demonstrated; lab results on commercial low quality wafers / ribbon
2 Low quality "wafer" noted by commercial supplier as about 50% of multiX cost
3 Yole cost model from R&R / UNSW CoO data (cf Photon International 12/2008, p84 wafer / cell conversion cost €0.28/W)
4 Performance gain of 8% reduced by estimated capex cost addition
5 Benefit of wafer cost reduction with performance maintained
                                                    Cost Benefit


UNSW Selective Emitter technology offers –


       A currently available technology giving industry leading
       cell performance at reduced cost


       An identified technology roadmap to -
        I.   higher performance,
        II. higher yield,
        III. reduced material cost,
        IV. significantly simplified processing.
Concluding Remarks
                                                                   Concluding Remarks

UNSW offers -
       demonstrated and consistent world class research and commercial success,


       significant research infrastructure and state-of-the-art new facilities,


       potential access to significant funding for collaborative research,


       a prestigious “showcase” location in the Asia Pacific market growth region,


       a continuous stream of world class graduate students into the workforce.
Thank You for Your Attention



                                       David Jordan,
                    Director, Business Development
                              Faculty of Engineering
                                  University of NSW
                                   Sydney, Australia

								
To top