Emission Reductions

Document Sample
Emission Reductions Powered By Docstoc
					Emission Reductions

               Frank Wolf
              Vice President
        OBRIST Engineering GmbH
                AUSTRIA
             f.wolf@obrist.at

Kjerstin Lien, Marc Chasserot, Frank Obrist




                                              1
Greenhouse gas shock

  Changes in greenhouse gas concentration based on ice-core
  tests and modern measured data




 GWP CO2 = 1            GWP CH4 = 23              GWP N2O = 310



                                                                                   2
                                              Diagrams from IPCC: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change




                                                  3
                 Data from IPCC: Climate Change 2001
                          Global reported cummulated Production and Release of R134a
                                     in Million Metric Tons of CO2 equivalent


          2000
                    The total amount produced up to 2000
          1800
                           is fully released by 2004
          1600

          1400

          1200
                                                                                              < 4y
  MMTCO2e 1000
                                                                                               Production
           800
                                                                                               Released
           600

           400

           200

             0
                 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
                                                      year
Source: AFEAS Alternative Fluorocarbons Acceptability Study                                            4
Take Home Message


 Refrigerants leak massively

 The problem is not containable

 It is a crime on mankind if the next refrigerant has an

  ODP, high short term GWP, high indirect GWP,

  toxicity or decomposition issues

 We can change this and put all this to 0

 It is our moral obligation to make the right choice
                                                            5
 Criteria to be Considered


 Ozone Depletion (Montreal Protocol)
 Global Warming (Kyoto Protocol, EU MAC Directive, CA Bill 1493)
 Toxicity (REACH)
 Flammability
 Known substance (REACH)
 Fuel consumption (EU reduce CO2 emissions 130gr/km)
 Cost (Initial cost, cost of ownership, service cost )



                                                               6
Let us take a look!
                                             R134a Banned
              Substance                                        R744
                                                 2011

              Refrigerant complexity         pure           pure
              Known substances
Safety




              No stabilisers
              Toxically safe
              No flammable substances
                                                                       A1
Environment




              Ozone depletion
              Global warming (100 years)                              No indirect GWP
              Global warming (20 years)                               What if ?
              Fuel consumption                                        Good Engineering
              Initial costs for car makers
Costs




              Refrigerant costs                                       Consumer
              Operation costs
Function




              Cool down performance
              Cooling capacity
              Heat pump capability                                    Added Value    7
   Recent ADAC (German AAA) A/C Testing
   Paulus test based on NEDC (+ 750W)
   Overconsumption of A/C systems at an ambient temperature of 28° C and A/C
   system set point is + 22° C for the cabin: Values in liter/100 km and total
   consumption additionally in %:


                                                                                          City cycle
                                                                                         Outside city
                                                                                              Total




              Small car              Midsize                            Midsize
              (gasoline)             (gasoline)                         (diesel)
http://www.adac.de/Auto_Motorrad/Technik_Zubehoer/Mehrverbrauch_Klimaanlage/default.asp?ComponentID=186045
&SourcePageID=186155                                                                                       8
     Test Results Overall Compressor Efficiency


                                        Compressor Comparison - Overall Efficiency
                                                       Comparable Test Conditions R134a; R744
                                   suction press. = 3;40 bar, discharge press. = 15,7;120 bar, suction temp= ~30 °C
                         100

                         90
Overall Efficiency [%]




                         80

                         70
                         60

                         50
                         40         +28%
                         30                   +40%
                         20                                             +79%
                         10


                               0       1000       2000         3000         4000        5000        6000          7000            8000   9000

                                                                               nK [RPM]

                                               R134a variable displacement compressor     R744 variable displacement compressor




                                                                                                                                                9
  Project Overview
Title:              HVAC-System
Duration:           1.10.2002 until 30.6.2006


 Projectpartners:


                            Magna Steyr Fahrzeugtechnik AG & Co KG




 Team:           Projectleader:          R. Rieberer (IWT)
                Key Researcher:           R. Almbauer (VKM)
              Senior Researchers:         B. Lechner (vif), R. Tatschl (AVL),
                                          J. Hager (ECS), T. Moshammer (MSF),
                                          F. Obrist (Obrist), W. Böhme (OMV)

               Junior Researchers:       G. Lang (vif)
                                          K. Martin (vif)



                                                                     See also     10
Vehicle Measurements
 Vehicle Measurements with Obrist-Ford Galaxy
  at air-conditioned roller dynamometer test rig at Graz University of Technology




                                                                                    11
Test Rig Measurements
              Experimental Results in Cooling Mode
                  COP vs. high pressure at different high pressures
       4,5

       4,0

       3,5

       3,0
 COP




       2,5

       2,0
                                                           40°C    35°C
       1,5        n_C o m = 600 rpm
                  m f_A_EHX = 2000 kg/h
                                                           30°C    25°C
                  m f_A_IHX = 560 kg/h
                                                           20°C
       1,0
             60         70            80       90    100    110   120     130
                                          high pressure in bar                  12
Test Rig Measurements
              Experimental Results in Cooling Mode
   COP vs. opening of expansion valve at different ambient temperatures
       4,5

       4,0

       3,5
 COP




       3,0                                                        40°C
                                                                  35°C
                                                                  30°C
       2,5           n_Com = 600 rpm
                     mf_A_EHX = 2000 kg/h                         25°C
                     mf_A_IHX = 560 kg/h                          20°C
       2,0
             0     20        40         60     80       100       120
                  opening of expansion valve in %                         13
      Simulations
               Investigation of Different Set-Ups for Heat Pump Mode

                                                1.HM [Wasser]
                                                   Cooling Circuit


                                                                                                                  HP1: “classic” arrangement with Gascooler



                                                                                        (Gascooler)
               Front End HX




                                                                                         Indoor HX
               (Evaporator)




                                                                                                        Core HX
                                     Radiator




                                                                                                        Heater
                                                Ein                 Aus
                                                                                                                  upstream of Heater Core HX
                                                                                                                  Air
                                                                                                                                                      [Wasser]
                                                                                                                                                 1.HMCooling Circuit




                                                                                                                                                                                     (Gascooler)
                                                                                                                                                                                      Indoor HX
                                                                                                                             Front End HX
                                                                                                                                                       Ein           Aus




                                                                                                                                                                           Core HX
                                                                                                                             (Evaporator)



                                                                                                                                            Radiator




                                                                                                                                                                           Heater
                                                A/C Circuit
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Air



                                      Cooling Circuit
                                   1.HM [Wasser]
                                                                          (Gascooler)
                                                                           Indoor HX




                                                                                                                                                       A/C Circuit

                                   Ein                        Aus
                                                                                                                             HP2: arrangement with
Front End HX
(Evaporator)



                        Radiator




                                                                                                           Air
                                                                                                                             Gascooler downstream of Heater Core HX
                                                                          Core HX
                                                                          Heater




                                                                                                      HP3: air flow through Gascooler
                                   A/C Circuit                                                        and/or Heater Core HX

                                                                                                                                                                                                   14
Simulations
Results of Simulations
                                               additional consumption in NEDC (-7°C)
           additional consumption in l/100km


                                                 Basis: Vehicle without auxiliary heating system




                                               PTC       HP1        HP2        HP3        HG
Simulation results for heating mode: Influence of different set-ups on
additional fuel consumption in NEDC at -7°C
                                                                                                   15
Small Car Low Cost A/C-HG-System

                                 IHX
                                                      3
   Gascooler
                            2                             Evaporator


                                        Accumulator
   1
                        Compressor

                                               Front of dash


 Additional components for heating:    1 3/2-way valve
                                       2 Capillary tube
                                       3 T-junction
                                                                       16
Compressor Expander and Ejector
Future possibility with great potential for R744
 Targets are; dramatically increased COP at high
  ambient temperatures and increased fuel efficiency
  under all operating conditions.

 Two options:
  1.   Ejector system (in mass production for stationary systems.
       Possible MAC use)
  2.   Compressor Expander (development status for MAC)


    New system layouts for R744 will lead to further
  improved COP also at very high ambient temperatures

         Improvement potential for R744 >> R134a
                                                                    17
Potential Emission Reduction

           Total global emissions of greenhouse gases in 2004:
                         18 billion tonnes* GHG


                                                                            1%
                                                                         reduction!
                   10%                     10%



     Passenger                       By simply implementing a new A/C
     cars cause                       system which reduces the GHG
     10% of the                      emissions from passenger cars by
      total GHG                     10%, emission of 180 million tonnes*
   emissions, i.e.                   GHG can be avoided, i.e. 1% of the
      1.8 billion                       total global GHG emissions
    tonnes* GHG

                                                                                              18
*CO2 equivalents                          Numers from UNFCCC (2006) and WBCSD Mobility 2030 (2004)
  Summary


 R744 is the natural refrigerant for the global A/C market

      Sustainable technology
        best efficiency and COP over the total temperature range
        lowest additional fuel consumption
        weight reduction
        low costs
        low emissions
        heat pump application with highest COP



10% overall vehicle emissions reduction is possible


                                                                    19
Thank you for you attention


                Frank Wolf
Kjerstin Lien, Marc Chasserot and Frank Obrist


             www.R744.com



                                                 20