Satellite Comm 101 Info graphic by bvt11437

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									                                                                               APRIL 2004 ✭ VOLUME 45, NUMBER 4

                                    4        From the Top: Space leadership in                                    27          News Briefs: AFSC Milestones; Security Concerns:
                                             the 21st century                                                                 Preventing CMIs; Computer Based Training;

       Satellite Comm 101                    Brig. Gen. Richard E.Webber                                                      KUDOS: Science and Engineering Award; Radio
       Infographic                  6        Infographic: Satellite Comm 101                                                  Communicators; CC commends Airmen
       Master Sgt. Karen Petitt              Master Sgt. Karen Petitt                                             30          Techno Gizmo : Milstar joint service satellite
                                    8        Air Force SATCOM: Leveraging future
                                             2nd Lt. Dennis French Jr.
                                    10       Three Rs equal success
                                             2nd Lt. Matthew Bannantine
                                    12       ACC Wideband: SATCOM in transition
                                             Mr. Richard Emmert
                                    13       Moving forward with Reachback SATCOM
                                             1st Lt. Stephanie Wyatt
                                    18       ANG tells hackers beware
                                             Capt. Kevin Hynes
                                    19       Air Force Portal weaves technological web
                                             Staff Sgt. C.Todd Lopez

8      Air Force SATCOM
       2nd Lt. Dennis French Jr.

                                             Bridging the gap: Unit upgrades Reservation
                                             Airman 1st Class Christiana Elieson
                                             AFSPC pioneers first chatroom
                                             Ms. Jenna McMullin
                                    23       AMC: Theater Deployable Communications
                                             Ms. Lavonna Csutoras
                                    24       Then and Now: Lt. Gen. Carl G. O’Berry
                                             Mr. Don Gasper
                                    25       Time Machine: Alaskan War Games:
                                             Korean War 1951

                                             Mr. Charles Christian
                                             Civilian Focus : Policy changes affect
                                             civil service employees
                                                                                                                       19                 Air Force Portal weaves
                                                                                                                                          technological interface
                                                                                                                                          Staff Sgt. C.Todd Lopez

          Warfighters require      THE JOURNAL OF THE AIR FORCE C4 COMMUNITY     EDITORIAL STAFF                                           Submitting to the intercom
          three Rs for success                                                                                                             Stories should be in Microsoft Word format
          2nd Lt. Matthew          Gen. John P. Jumper                           Col. David J. Kovach                                      and should be no longer than 600 words.
                                                                                                                                           Photographs should be at least 5x7 in size and
          Bannantine               Air Force Chief of Staff                      Commander, Air Force Communications Agency
                                                                                                                                           300 dpi. Submit stories via e-mail to
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                                                                                 Master Sgt. Karen Petitt                                  to
                                   Lt. Gen. Ronald E. Keys                       Managing Editor
                                                                                                                                           Comments to the staff
                                   Deputy Chief of Staff for Air and
                                                                                                                                           Comments, and letters to the editor, may be
                                   Space Operations                              Tech. Sgt. Jim Verchio                                    e-mailed or sent via the postal service to
                                                                                 Editor                                                    AFCA/PA, intercom, 203 W. Losey St., Room
                                   Lt. Gen. Donald J. Wetekam                                                                              1200, Scott AFB, IL 62225-5222.
                                   Deputy Chief of Staff for                       This funded Air Force magazine, published by
                                   Installations and Logistics                  Helmer Printing, N. 6402 790th St., Beldenville, Wisc.,
                                                                                54003, is an authorized publication for members of
This month’s cover, themed                                                      the U.S. military services. Contents of the intercom
                                   Maj. Gen. Charles E. Croom Jr.
“Satellite Comm,” is designed by                                                are not necessarily the official views of, or endorsed
                                   Director of C4ISR Infostructure
Tech. Sgt. Jim Verchio, Intercom                                                by, the U.S. Government, the Department of
                                   DCS for Warfighting Integration
Editor.                                                                         Defense, or the Department of the Air Force.
                                                                                   Editorial content is edited, prepared and provided
                                   Brig. Gen. (sel) Ronnie Hawkins              by the public affairs office of the Air Force    
                                   Director of Communications Operations        Communications Agency.

   2     intercom ✭ April 2004
      From the editorial desk                                                                  JAG
                                                                                              in a Box
   ‘Intercom’earns recognition                                                                  Fritz Mihelcic
 By Master Sgt. Karen Petitt                                                                  AFCA Deputy
 Managing editor                                                                              Chief Counsel

     We’d like to pass along some great news about how your efforts helped earn
 this magazine recognition throughout the Air Force and DoD. Earning a first
                                                                                            Antenna access
 place finish in the online publication category of the Air Force’s annual media contest    Can we allow private carriers access
 is the intercom online, designed and built by Tech. Sgt. Mark Diamond. He’s a pub-
 lic affairs NCO who volunteered his time to design and build our site. He has
 truly set the standard in Web publications, and we can’t thank him enough for his
 excellent work. Next we thank you, our readers, who sent in stories, photos, feed-
                                                                                            to our on-base antennas so they
                                                                                            can site cellular repeaters and
                                                                                            other devices?
                                                                                                Yes. In 1995 President Clinton
 back and suggestions, thus helping the intercom earn a second place finish in the
 magazine category at the Air Force level competition. Your contributions truly             signed an Executive Memorandum
 make this magazine a beacon for the rest of the Air Force, and we feel it’s the best       allowing the government to lease
 of the best. We hope we’re making you all proud! Also, our staff, along with 1st           space to private industry.

 Combat Camera’s Clarence Brown and Tech. Sgt. Cecilio Ricardo, has been recognized                  This was followed by the
 for our December special issue as the best designed publication in DoD’s annual Visual           1996 Telecommunications Act
 Information Awards program. That issue featured the work of combat camera pho-                   and GSA guidelines encourag-
 tographers, and was cited for “setting the precedent in visual journalism excel-                 ing this use.
 lence.” We feel this recognition will help bring Public Affairs and Visual                     If you do allow it, based on
 Information professionals together on many more important joint projects in the            input from the base decision team,
                     future. So pat yourselves on the back! You’re awesome!                 then your base can charge the fair
                                                                                            market value for the space.
                                                                                                Half of the money received goes
                    Letters to the editor                                                   to the Air Force, but the other half
                                                                                            can stay at your installation for
                                                                                            local use.
Then and Now                                  I still proudly carry a circa-1982 con-
                                                                                                If you can negotiate with the
    Please give Mr. Don Gasper my sin-                            ”
                                              troller’s “pink card, with Colonel            company for an in-kind payment,
cere thanks and gratitude for all that he     Dempsey’s signature emblazoned on it.         then you can keep everything.
did in featuring me in the “Then and          His stellar example of effective leader-          In-kind payment can be many
Now” article published in the January         ship helped mold me into the officer I        things, such as provided tele-
issue.                                        am today. My hat’s off to him!                phones, free airtime, and offers of
    I got positive feedback from my                          —Maj. William A. Malec         maintenance for the tower itself.
friends, associates and family, but the                          Goodfellow AFB, Texas      You’ve got a chance to be creative,
best was my own reaction to the article                                                     but don’t go overboard!
and the memories of the past that             Great stories                                     We’ve got a package of materials
came to light! Many, many thanks!                                                           that outline things to think about,
                                                  Just a note to tell you all how much
              —Judge John A. Milano                                                         to include interference issues, secu-
                                              we at the AACS Alumni Association
                          Garden City, N.Y                                                  rity, contracting, and, of course,
                                              appreciate the intercom magazine and          liability.
   I read with glee the fine article on       in particular articles like the ones in the       There can be pitfalls, so if this
Col. Derrel L. Dempsey in the                 February issue on Col. Derrel L.              issue comes up at your base give us
February intercom. A career ATC offi-         Dempsey and Owen Hyams. It’s just a           a call, and we’ll be happy to help.
cer, I was surfing through your on-line       great magazine, and our cyberspace
edition, reminiscing about all those          members also read it on the AFCA
neat controller stories and pictures that                                                   Send in your question to:
                                              Web site.                            
used to appear when it was still a                                   —Mac Maginnis
“newspaper” and up popped the “Then                                                           or call DSN: 779-6060
                                                                  Membership director
and Now” tribute to Colonel Dempsey.                               AACS Alumni Assn.

Online ✭                                                           intercom ✭ April 2004 3
      the Top

By Brig. Gen. Richard E. Webber                                   ed the first employment of the Global Positioning System
Commander, 21st Space Wing                                        Enhanced Theater Support capability. This was the first
                                                                  time we folded the full spectrum of space capabilities into
    PETERSON AIR FORCE BASE, Colo. — When Space                   the Master Air Attack Planning process, ensuring integrated
Command activated in 1982, its first commander, Gen.              air and space combat power was directed on-target and on-
James Hartinger, said it was “a crucial milestone in the evolu-
tion of military space operations.” Since then, Space
                                                                     We used the Space Based Infrared Systems to provide
Command has lived up to its mission statement to “Defend
                                                                  immediate battle damage assessments and support to com-
the United States through control and exploitation of air and
                                                                  bat search and rescue operations. The warfighting capabili-
space.” We’ve evolved from a command that only developed,
                                                                  ties provided by our space forces are clearly key military
launched, and controlled satellites to a command that inte-
grates space combat power into how we organize and fight          asymmetric advantages not seen before OEF, and clearly an
our nation’s conflicts.                                           advantage we can no longer fight without.
    We have shaped the future and now it’s time to move on           Operation Iraqi Freedom was the first real “space war”
to “Command the Future”—the vision of the current com-            with truly integrated space throughout the battlespace. We
mander, Gen. Lance Lord.                                          used capabilities from space to ensure we maintained both
    During Operation Enduring Freedom, I had the opportu-         air and space superiority. The contributions provided were
nity to bring “space power to the fight” as the first senior      many—high bandwidth, protected, robust communications,
space officer assigned to a combatant Coalition Forces Air        missile launch warning, real-time battle damage assessment
Component Commander, and served as the Assistant                  support, and more than 700 deployed space professionals
Combined Air Operations Center Director for Space and             contributing to the fight.
Information Operations within the area of responsibility.            These advantages are not just the result of our space sys-
    We led the first employment of deployable space systems       tems and their capabilities alone. Our leaders are a large part
in direct support of combat operations. Operations includ-        of the equation. The vision of establishing a senior space

      Seven thrusts to success
    Space Command’s strategy, commanding the future, is the flight plan for transformation to maintain control of the ultimate
    high ground of space. Our strategic thrust areas capture the essence of space transformation.

    “Command the Future”                  Enterprise                       Partner                Unleash human talent

     This concept provides        This thrust leads the devel-     A key product of this          This thrust develops
     the overarching vision       opment of a new genera-          area is to enhance our         space professionals and
     and guidance for             tion of capabilities, to         capability to command          guides career paths to
     efforts in the other         include responsive/assured       and control space forces       create a space cadre of all
     thrust areas.                space access, integrated         by creating and sharing a      the disciplines needed to
                                  ISR, prompt global strike        joint battlespace aware-       maintain space domi-
                                  and space superiority.           ness capability.               nance.

                1                              2                              3                               4
4     intercom ✭ April 2004
officer continued to evolve after our Afghanistan OEF expe-               syncs our power grids, cell phones, and ATM transactions),
rience with the placement of a dedicated senior space officer,            it has transformed our military with the doctrine-changing
and for the first time the Combined Forces Air Component                  DIRSPACEFOR construct. Air Force Space Command,
Commander was designated as the Space Coordinating                        under the leadership of General Lord, is taking the team far-
Authority to integrate all joint space capabilities on behalf of          ther ahead in this transformation, and every leader in the
the combatant commander.                                                  command has a vital role in this effort.
    We’ve matured the contributions of space to a level that is revo-         His intent is to transform the command and provide full
lutionary in the realm of combined and joint operations. This new         spectrum space combat capabilities to ensure the United
construct wasn’t envisioned 50 years ago. Today we have space             States remains the preeminent space force on earth.
operators working alongside operators at combatant com-                        Space superiority is our mandate and requires the same
mands around the world as well as at their air, land and sea              sense of urgency that we placed on gaining and maintaining
components. In the future, the senior space officer in the air            air, land and sea superiority.
component will be known as the Director of Space Forces, as                     This year we will celebrate
approved at CORONA South in February.                                     the 50th anniversary of Air Force
    The DIRSPACEFOR construct is similar to the senior                    Space and Missiles. Satellite
space officer concept—a senior advisor to the Commander                   communications is an important
Air Force Forces and Combined/Joint Forces Air                            part of this celebration, but by
Component Commander during conflict. The DIRSPACE-                        far, it is not the only capability
FOR has many responsibilities including assisting in the pri-             Space brings to the fight.
oritization of space capabilities, coordinating reachback, and                Through focused, trusted and
most importantly, executing day-to-day authority to coordi-               experienced leadership, we’ve
nate joint theater space operations. The DIRSPACEFOR is a                 matured Space to become an inte-
leader in space capabilities and the contributions that Space             grated and essential partner in
brings to the fight.                                                      wartime and peacetime. The
    The DIRSPACEFOR must, as its predecessor the senior                   biggest challenges to our space
space officer did, become an integrated partner in how we                 forces are not behind us, but lie
command, control and execute air and space power as part                  ahead.
of a joint team. We must integrate air, land, sea and space                   Continued leadership,
capabilities to provide the greatest combat advantage and                 focused on commanding the
deliver the most potent wartime effects. Only within the last             future and integrating our capa-
10 years, after Operation Desert Storm, did the concept of                bilities throughout the joint fight
integrating space capabilities begin to be realized across not            will ensure we maintain the                  Satellite launch
only the Air Force, but all services, and influence how we all            asymmetric advantage that has allowed us to be the domi-
organize, train, equip and fight our nation’s conflicts.                  nant and winning force. I cannot imagine a more exciting
    Just as space transformed our society (GPS, for example,              time to be in the Space business.

     Warfighters                           Wizards                      Technology to warfighting

This thrust focuses our            This thrust charters pro-              This thrust recognizes
ability to operate from,           fessionals to think out-               today’s capabilities are
in and through space               side the box and encour-               based on yesterday’s
with combat ready                  ages space specialists to              technology, and we
forces. The DIRSPACE-              develop new power the-                 must focus this technol-
FOR construct is lead-             ories and concepts.                    ogy on warfighting
ing the way.                                                              capabilities.

            5                                  6                                   7
Online ✭                                                              intercom ✭ April 2004 5
    By: Master Sgt. Karen Petitt
                                                Satellite Comm 101
                                         When discussing satellite communications and capabilities, it’s good to
    Source: U.S. Army, AFCA            have a baseline of understanding. Here are few critical items to consider:

       Understanding the frequency spectrum
     Frequencies are measured in hertz: kilo, mega, giga (radio, microwave, radar), tera, peta, exa (light, ultraviolet ray, x-ray). The higher the
     frequency, the more power required to penetrate rain, snow, etc., while lower frequencies suffer less attenuation.

         300 KHz              30 MHz                  3GHz                        3 THz                  300 THz               30 PHz                  3 EHz
          Radio              TV/FM Radio         Microwaves & radar             Infrared Light           Visible Light        Ultraviolet Light         X-ray

         1 km                      10 m                   10 cm                  100 micrometers          1 micromtr          10 nanomtrs         100 picomtrs
     There are three parts to all communications: the space segment, the control (or antenna/dish) segment, and the ground/user segment.
     Wavelengths determine the design of the antenna. Normally, the higher the frequency, the higher bandwidth and data rate support.

        Where the ‘bands’ fit in
     Radio frequencies are divided into groups that have similar characteristics called bands, that are then sub-divided into channels. Many differ-
     ent frequencies are used in satellite communications. They are referred to by letters or by the frequency acronym. Different bands work bet-
     ter for different missions. Also, various bands are used so more of the spectrum can be used. The higher the frequency, the bigger the band-
     width. For example, 3 GHz has 400 times more the bandwidth capacity than 30 MHz.
           VHF                                           UHF                                 SHF                              30 GHz
           Very High Frequency               300 MHz     Ultra High Frequency      2 GHz     Super High Frequency                        Extremely High Frequency

                                                         L             S                 C        X           Ku          K         Ka                V
        * Referring to bands of satellite
        comm freqs by using letters start-                                                                                        Extensive bandwidth,
        ed in WWII to keep enemy forces
                                                   Small terminals, economical,              More bandwidths, flexibility
        from determining the exact radar           flexible, highly mobile.                  in routing, global connectivi-       uncrowded spectrum, jam
        frequencies being used. This is                                                      ty, less vulnerable to nuclear       resistant, small equipment,
        why the designations follow no             Vulnerable to nuclear                     blackout.                            least vulnerable to black-
        logical sequence.                          event, susceptible to jam-                                                     out.
                                                   ming, crowded spectrum,                   Limited frequency alloca-
                                                   access is difficult.                      tion, susceptible to jam-            Technology immature,
                                                                                             ming, ground terminals are           risky, susceptible to rain,
                                                                                             large and expensive.                 expensive to outfit.
          Satellite types the DoD uses
          UHF                  K       Ka                                            X                               EHF                          C Ku

    UHF Follow-on                  Global Broadcast System           DSCS (Reachback)                     Milstar                         Commercial
    Mobile units. Space seg-       Newer capability. High through-   User data requirements increas- Used for battlefield communica- Used to augment MIL-
    ments are limited, users       put, small antennas, smart        ing for data, imagery and split- tions. Well protected for the  STAR, high throughput,
    increasing.                    push/pull data broadcasts.        based operations.                warfighter.                    pay for services.

6       intercom ✭ April 2004
 Skyward bound
 A Boeing Inertial Upper Stage payload
 booster vehicle successfully deployed an
 Air Force Defense Support Program satel-
 lite Feb. 14. The Defense Support Program
 is a satellite surveillance system providing
 the United States and its allies with ballis-
 tic missile early warning and other infor-
 mation related to missile launches, surveil-
 lance and the detonation of nuclear
                                     Courtesy photo

Online ✭        intercom ✭ April 2004   7
By 2nd Lt. Dennis French Jr.                 current Defense Satellite                   which provided minimal coverage. The
31st Combat Communications Squadron          Communications System. This new sys-        Advanced Polar System has been pro-
                                             tem transmits a much higher data rate,      posed for the 2008-2010 timeframe to
    TINKER AIR FORCE BASE, Okla. —           2.4 gigabits per second — almost 10         replace the host packages already in
Years of research, real-world experi-        times the rate of the DSCS satellites.      use. This will provide much needed
ence, user input and new advances have       This program provides the Department        coverage for ships and aircraft operat-
brought about many innovations in the        of Defense with a military Ka-band          ing in these regions.
way the Air Force connects today’s           operating at 20-21 GHz download and
warfighters.                                 30-31 GHz upload.                           NARROWBAND
    “In today’s Air Expeditionary Force         With technology, it’s important for         Another part of the satellite family is
environment, satellite communication         communications warriors to look to the
is critical for us to provide support at                                                 narrowband communications.
                                             future.                                        Narrowband comm systems provide
home and deployed locations, said”
Senior Master Sgt. Richard Henderson,                                                    data rates of 64 kbps or less and are
supervisor of the 31st Combat
                                             REPLACING MILSTAR                           usually used for broadcast reception
Communications Squadron Network                  The Advanced Extremely High             and mobile users. These functions are
Systems Flight.                              Frequency system is one of the satellite    currently supported by the Ultrahigh-
    Some of these innovations include        systems projected for the future. This      frequency Follow On constellation. The
commercial equipment, which is cost          system will replace Milstar and will        current UFO constellation is made up
effective, solid-state and will extend the   provide 12 times the throughput of that     of nine satellites, one of which is an on-
life of several satellite terminals. For     system. Single user’s data rates increase   orbit spare. The Advanced
example, the 3rd Combat                      dramatically, more than four times that     Narrowband System will replace this
Communications Group has new com-            of Milstar. So for every one link of the    system because it falls short of its antici-
mercial modems plus up and down              old Milstar, the Air Force now has 12       pated need. The Advanced
converters available for the AN/TSC-         operating at four times the speed. This     Narrowband System has several com-
100A. The 3rd Herd has implemented           upgrade is like a one-lane road being       ponents: DoD space; commercial
some of these changes and has reported       transformed into a 12-lane information      space; telemetry, tracking; and com-
increases in both efficiency and circuit     Autobahn.                                   mand; network control; user entry; and
robustness.                                      Like Milstar, AEHF uses spot beams,     gateway.
    “These upgrades are coming at a          which focus power to improve the over-
time of change for the military, and         all connection to small and large termi-    SMART SATELLITE
we’re able to be flexible and change         nal users all while minimizing intercep-       Satellite manufacturers are also
along with it, said Master Sgt. John         tion and interference opportunities of      exploring the possibilities of on-board
Houghton, NCOIC of 31st CCS                  adversaries. This system will ultimately    processors. This will allow satellites the
Weather Systems Support cadre. “We           support twice as many tactical users        ability to route, transmit and manage
have lighter packages and are able to        and enhance compatibility with inter-       bandwidth while also completing all the
deploy smaller teams. Many of these          national allies.                            functions of a ground terminal.
upgrades allow deployment set up to be           Another part of the protected satel-       By placing processors on-board, this
completed hours ahead of schedule,           lite system is the Advanced Polar           gives the satellite dynamic bandwidth
which saves the military time and helps      System.                                     allocation, which enables a more effi-
complete the mission faster.”                    In 1995 the Joint Requirements          cient use of the limited resource, allow-
    A new innovation for wideband            Oversight Council recognized the need       ing better application performance for
SATCOM is the Wideband Gapfiller             for polar coverage. At that time, pay-      multi-media traffic and higher traffic
Satellite program, which replaces the        loads were added to host satellites,        volume.
   8 intercom ✭ April 2004
Online ✭   intercom ✭ April 2004 9
10   intercom ✭ April 2004
   Deployed warfighters
require three Rs for success
      By 2nd Lt. Matthew Bannantine                               provides interoperability between multiple Military
      435th Communications Squadron                               Satellite Communications and commercial satellite
                                                                  systems while providing deployed Ground Mobile
         RAMSTEIN AIR BASE, Germany — Reliable,                   Forces with DSN,Video Teleconferencing, DRSN,
      robust and redundant are the types of communica-            Automatic Digital Network and secure and nonsecure
      tions systems deployed warfighters have come to             network connectivity, Information Assurance tools
      expect on the frontlines of America’s Global War on         and strategic and tactical C4I support with worldwide
      Terrorism. What troops may not realize is that it takes a   reach-back capabilities to the Defense Information
      team of dedicated professionals working non-stop            Systems Network.
      behind the scenes to ensure that these three R’s are            The 2400-square-foot teleport support facility is the
      met.                                                        home for all of Ramstein’s base band equipment asso-
                                                                  ciated with the Commercial STEP mission. It houses
      RELIABLE                                                    equipment for Ramstein’s C- and Ku-band satellite
         Between July 2002 and June 2003, the most critical       dishes and the install of support equipment for four
      span for Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom, the         EHF and two UHF antennas scheduled for installation
      SATCOM facility had absolutely zero downtime for            at Ramstein between 2004-2005. All these pieces will
      any scheduled or unscheduled maintenance. This              then be routed to the newly installed Multiplexer
      means the SATCOM team provided an amazing com-              Integrated DCSS Automated System. This system will
      munications capability and support to our deployed          emulate existing multiplexing and switching equip-
      warfighters, an incredible feat that entailed keeping a     ment while occupying much less floor space. MIDAS
      decade old satellite terminal and supporting equip-         will also automate all the routing within the STEP site
      ment up and running.                                        and increase the communications capability to our
                                                                  deployed troops by an amazing 300 percent.
      ROBUST                                                          The past few years have proven the Air Force has
         The 86th Communications Squadron was directly            indeed become more expeditionary. Programs such as
      responsible for providing one-third of the communi-         teleport will guarantee the Air Force is ready to meet
      cations reach-back capability to deployed warfighters       the changing and challenging needs of its military
      supporting OEF and OIF. This service supported              endeavors.
      290,000 troops and led to the execution of more than
      17,600 successful combat sorties. As daily operations
      began to slow, the communications need remained at a
      premium. When deployed troops got a spare moment,
      they made morale calls back home to their families. At
      one point, the SATCOM shop was processing 60,000
      DSN calls a day through the Switch Multiplexing Unit.

          This is perhaps the most difficult R to attain
      because of funding requirements, but the Air Force
      and DoD have seen to it that this will no longer be a
      problem.                                                                 Photos by Master Sgt. Leroy Lambert / NCOIC SATCOM

          In December of 2003 the 86th CS received the Air        In the foreground is the AN/GSC52 dish support-
      Force’s newest Teleport site upgrade. The site is a         ing the MILSATCOM mission with X-band. The
      telecommunications collection and distribution point        next dish is the Ku-band followed by the C-band
      augmenting the established services Ramstein already        dish for commercial SATCOM traffic.The building
      offers to our deployed warfighters. The new facility        in the background is the brand new Teleport

Online ✭                                                        intercom ✭ April 2004         11
By Mr. Richard Emmert
                              ACCSATCOM in transitionmission requirements as DoD fully                    of operating full duplex in the C-, X-, Ku-
Headquarters Air Combat Command                      embraces the constructs of NCW.                      and military Ka-bands and will be pro-
                                                         ACC, working with Electronic Systems             duced in both transit-case and platform-
   LANGLEY AIR FORCE BASE, Va. — As                  Center and the Air Force Space                       mounted configurations. Both versions
the Department of Defense transforms to
                                                     Command, will field SATCOM terminals                 will support two simultaneous hub-spoke
network-centric warfare, Air Combat
                                                     capable of supporting current and emerg-             networks with a maximum of six spoke
Command is modernizing its satellite
                                                     ing information exchange requirements of             terminals per network. Initially, GMT will
communications terminals to keep pace
                                                     a highly mobile Air Expeditionary Force.             support a max data rate of 50 Mbps and in
with ever-expanding AEF connectivity
                                                     These terminals bring increased capability,          later spirals, up to 274 Mbps. These termi-
   The terminals being fielded today, and            reliability and flexibility to the warfighter        nals will be fielded to combat communica-
in the future, bring increased reliability           in a lighter, leaner package.                        tions squadrons to replace existing GMF
and flexibility to the warfighter thus                   Under the transformational communi-              terminals. Current plans call for fielding a
requiring a smaller footprint and less man-          cations initiative, the vast majority of wide-       limited number of GMT terminals to sup-
power. These terminals are being designed            band SATCOM will be IP-based traffic                 port Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial
to support a broad range of missions as the          with satellites functioning as space-based           Vehicle and Distributed Common Ground
Air Force migrates to a common terminal              routers.                                             Station connectivity requirements.
product line.                                            In addition to the systems in the graphic            These and other programs are part of
   Many of today’s SATCOM systems are                below, the Air Force will begin fielding the         an effort to migrate to a common terminal
fast approaching the end of their life cycle.        Ground Multi-band Terminal beginning                 product line that satisfies a broad range of
These legacy terminals are unable to meet            in fiscal ‘06. This terminal will be capable         missions.
       Terminals below represent a piece of ACC’s modernization plan through 2010 and provide the foundation for transitioning to network-centric MILSATCOM.

   +   AN/TSC-94 GMF terminal                            +   AN/USC-60A Tri-band terminal                      +   20 Quad-band Hub terminals

    The older legacy systems, such as                    Current plans will field a total of 70               Quad-band hub terminals, operating
     the AN/TSC-94 Ground Mobile                          AN/USC-60A systems capable of                          in the C-, X- and Ku-bands and
   Forces terminal, will be replaced by                  operating in the C, X and Ku-bands                   receive-only in the military Ka-band,
          the end of fiscal ‘04.                           at data rates up to 8.448 Mbps.                         will be delivered in fiscal ‘05.

       Col. Glen West, Joint Task Force, Southwest Asia Air Reserve Component liaison officer, gets a tour of a for-
       12 intercom ✭ April 2004
       ward Ground Mobile Forces satellite terminal from Senior Master Sgt. Tracy Von Hollen, chief of the 438th
       Expeditionary Communications Squadron.
                                                                                                                        Tech. Sgt. Joe Springfield / JCCC
  By 1st Lt. Stephanie Wyatt                  teamed with 18 customers including         of tactical satellite missions.
  83rd Communications Squadron                Global Hawk, Predator, Defense                Another key mission for the future
                                              Communications and Army                    involves different vendors competing
     LANGLEY AIR FORCE BASE, Va.              Transmission Systems and supported         for the next generation technology
  — Communications is a top priority          38 missions including Operations           SATCOM terminal. Reachback SAT-
  when preparing for a deployed loca-         Enduring Freedom and Iraqi                 COM allowed the vendors the oppor-
  tion, and it plays a vital role in allow-   Freedom. They also trained more            tunity to exercise their wares in an
  ing the military to maintain global                                                    operationally realistic configuration
                                              than 300 personnel from three differ-
  connectivity.                                                                          with services provided by Langley as
                                              ent combat communications
     Ensuring technology is leveraged                                                    a distant-end user. The result is dis-
                                              squadrons in preparation for Air
  and teams are trained, Langley has                                                     covering the right equipment while
                                              Expeditionary Force deployments.
  developed a Reachback SATCOM                                                           maintaining an interoperable com-
                                                  The Langley SATCOM team not
  team. The team’s goal is to make sure                                                  munications infrastructure.
                                              only prepares units for deployment, it
  deployable teams have all the tools                                                       Whether preparing Airmen to set
                                              also supports missions that test new
  needed to establish communications                                                     up a tactical satellite communications
                                              SATCOM equipment for the military.
  quickly and accurately.                                                                link in the field or providing real
     Reachback SATCOM offers the              As the Air Force progresses with the
                                              development of tactical satellite sys-     world test scenarios for future satellite
  opportunity for teams to assess their                                                  terminals, the SATCOM team stands
  skills and equipment before they            tems, the need to verify tactical suit-
                                              ability and capability is a high priori-   ready to support the mission around
  deploy. SATCOM offers a venue for                                                      the globe. In an ever-changing threat
  people to train and test communica-         ty.
                                                                                         environment, the Reachback SAT-
  tions equipment so when it’s time to            The SATCOM team is supporting
                                                                                         COM team will ensure tactical train-
  deploy, communications are ready to         the acceptance test plan for equip-
                                                                                         ing and equipment is provided to Air
  go. The Reachback SATCOM pro-               ment, providing text and secure voice
                                                                                         Force units and enable communica-
  vides connectivity through super            orderwire for operational use by the
                                                                                         tions for the warfighter to move for-
  high frequency systems, and the             Defense Satellite Communications
  Secure Mobile Anti-Jam Reliable             System Operations Manager, Defense
  Tactical Terminal. This equipment           Information Systems Agency and
  can receive, transmit and process           United States Army Space Command.
  robust multi-channel secure and             The satellite network consists of one
  non-secure voice and data worldwide.        network controller and one or more
     Reachback SATCOM assists cus-            network terminals.
  tomers throughout the Air Force with            The collected test data provided
  versatility in providing the users with     will determine if the system can pro-
  what they require.                          vide continuous, reliable capabilities
     During the last year, SATCOM has         for effective management and control

 Reachback SATCOM                                                                       Langley’s Reachback SATCOM team
                                                                                prepares communicators, equipment for front lines

Online ✭                                                        intercom ✭ April 2004 13
Satellites do it all
Staff Sgt. Ronald VanAusdal works on several satel-
lite dishes belonging to the Joint Combat Camera
Imagery Transmission Satellite System at Baghdad
International Airport. Members of Combat Camera
are in Iraq establishing a satellite imagery manage-
ment system for deployed teams throughout the
theater to transmit photos and video back to a cen-
tral location.
                             Tech. Sgt. John Foster / JCCC Image

14   intercom ✭ April 2004
Online ✭   intercom ✭ April 2004 15
16   intercom ✭ April 2004
                                                 Keeping close watch
                                                 Officers work in NORAD's Command Center. The
                                                 men and women of NORAD use ground-based
                                                 radar, airborne radar, satellites, fighter aircraft, and
                                                 intelligence capabilities to enforce an area of
                                                 responsibility stretching from Clear, Alaska, to the
                                                 Florida Keys, and from St. John's, Newfoundland, to
                                                 San Diego, Calif.
                                                                                                JCCC Image

Online ✭                                  intercom ✭ April 2004 17
By Capt. Kevin Hynes                                              with the increased security needs. Considering that each
Nebraska National Guard                                           CITS equipment suite cost approximately $250,000, the
Public Affairs Office
                                                                  expense was too much for the Guard to handle.
                                                                      The Guard’s solution was to set up a series of regional
    LINCOLN, Neb. — When it comes to saving government            centers that each of the Air Guard organizations could tie
dollars and protecting against potential enemies, the Air         into.
National Guard is taking security to a completely different           Initially envisioned at 10 separate ROSCs, the system has
level — cyber level, that is.                                     since been downsized to six centers throughout the states.
    Through an Air Guard-wide initiative, the organization is         Major Tesch said the ROSC works somewhat like an
providing critical protection to its communications systems       Internet provider.
at a reduced cost. The system, known as a Regional                    “All their traffic for the (Local Area Network), e-mail and
Operations Security Center system, protects Air National          Web — anything they do that traverses through the network
Guard computers against computer-borne viruses and cyber          comes through this regional center for security purposes, he”
hackers.                                                          said. “We’re like their Internet Service Provider on a medium
    The system is actually the result of an Air Force directive   to large scale.”
ordering Air National Guard units to comply with beefed-up            Master Sgt. Hubert Brunk, Region 4 ROSC manager,
computer security system regulations, according to Maj. Carl      added,“Prior to the regional concept, we had more than 90
Tesch, commander of the 155th Communications Flight in            bases that had to be notified whenever there was a problem
Lincoln, Neb., which hosts one of the six national ROSCs,         or a possible attack on the system. Now we’ve only got six
    Major Tesch said the Air Force went to a security system      locations that you have to call.You can quickly prevent a
in the 1990s, built around the powerful Combat Information        virus from going bonkers on the system.”
Transport System, which was put at the network control cen-           Also, by concentrating the main costs at six regional
ters at each active duty Air Force base. At the same time, the    bases, the Guard has been able to not only pay for expensive
92 Air National Guard flying wings that comprise the Air          hardware and software upgrades to the ROSCs, it has also
National Guard essentially built individual systems designed      enabled it to pay for smaller upgrades at each of the Guard’s
to suit their needs.                                              individual bases.
    The Air Guard solution, however, was not up to Air Force          The result is a system that operates quickly and efficiently.
standards in the field of computer and messaging security.            Bases also have newly installed T-1 circuits that have the
So, the Air Force directed the Air National Guard to comply       capacity to move 5 megabytes of information every second.

18    intercom ✭ April 2004
               By Staff Sgt. C. Todd Lopez                                     from any Internet-connected computer at home, at
               Air Force Print News                                            work or on the road, Colonel Hausauer said.
                                                                                   When users are on temporary duty, the portal
                   WASHINGTON — Air Force senior leaders have                  makes it easy to stay in contact with co-workers at
               asked that all Airmen sign up for a new Web-based               permanent duty stations in real-time. The portal
               technology that promises to streamline access to                now includes an instant messaging system similar to
               information across the force — the Air Force Portal.            those found on the dot-com side of the Internet. The
                   In a December information technology initiatives            Air Force Instant Messenger was used most recently
               memo, Secretary of the Air Force Dr. James G. Roche
                                                                               during operations in Southwest Asia, Colonel
               and Chief of Staff of the Air Force Gen. John P.
                                                                               Hausauer said.
               Jumper asked that all Airmen sign up for an Air
                                                                                   “When the war kicked off, a lot of people on the
               Force Portal account as soon as possible.
                                                                               front lines had difficulty getting to phone lines,     ”
                   “The Air Force Portal will be the Airman’s inter-
                                                                               Colonel Hausauer said.“People with network con-
               face to all services and information needed to per-
                                                                               nectivity were using AFIM to do their job, like
               form his or her job, the memo stated.
                                                                               ordering mission-essential parts for aircraft or
                   Airmen may register for access to the portal by
                                                                               ‘IMing’ back to their home station in the United
               logging onto the Web site at and
                                                                               States to ask for assistance.”
               clicking on the self-registration link. The registration
                                                                                   During those operations, AFIM had been set up
               process is self-guided.
                                                                               to interface with commercial messaging systems so
                   The portal is a Web-based system developed to
               incorporate as many Air Force information applica-              deployed Airmen could communicate with friends
               tions as possible. The result of such an integration is         and family on their buddy lists. That capability has
               that systems such as the virtual military personnel             been temporarily disabled, but Colonel Hausauer
               flight or functional area applications, such as a               said it would return following a security review.
               munitions ordering or parts tracking system, would                  Besides providing an integrated interface to exist-
               all be accessible from one Web site, said Lt. Col. Dan          ing Air Force applications, the portal provides func-
               Hausauer, portal integration division chief.                    tionality of its own. The portal includes a “white
                   The key benefit to such an integration is the idea of a     pages” section that lists everybody in the Air Force. It
               single user login. Once a user logs in, the portal itself       includes personalization features that let users adjust
               authenticates a user into the application. This means           the presentation to suit their needs. The system even
               that with each new application integrated into the              allows users to upload favorites from their desktop
               portal, users will have one less Web address, login             computers, so those frequently used Web addresses
               name and password to remember, Colonel Hausauer                 are available from anywhere in the world.
               said.                                                               As more systems are brought into the portal, the Air
                   “People can log into the portal with a single user          Force moves closer to its overall vision for a Net-centric
               name and password, and from there, they can get to              force.
               their applications without having to reauthenticate,        ”       “The Air Force vision is to bring a virtual desktop
               Colonel Hausauer said.“Some users within the logis-             to the Airman and to bring all the applications you
               tics community have told me that in the past they've                                                       ”
                                                                               need to do your job to that desktop, Colonel
               had (more than) 50 user names and password com-                 Hausauer said.“You will have the ability to access
               binations, and now they need only one.”                         them all with one login name and password, they
                   A recent change to the portal makes it even easier for      will all work together seamlessly, and you will be able
               users to get access. Now, users can access the system           to access them from anywhere. That is the future.”
Online ✭                                                            intercom ✭ April 2004 19
   Service Before Self, Integrity First, Excellence In All We Do
              Is the mantra for Utah’s Air National Guard while bridging
                           the gap between technology and the Navajo culture.
    In this age of cell phones, the Internet   comes in.                                    the World Wide Web.
and running water, it’s hard to imagine a         During their most recent trip to Teec         A phone system was also installed so
place in the United States without these       Nos Pos, Utah Guardsmen assisted Mr.         each building of the school could call the
things. However, in the remote town of         Baxtrum in getting 130 computers             office instead of leaving the classroom to
Teec Nos Pos, Ariz., it is daily life.         working; something one man definitely        do necessary business.
    The T’iis Nazbas Community School          could not do in one week.                        Many children travel 50 to 60 miles
is located on a Navajo reservation in the         In the Utah Air National Guard,           on a Monday and live in dormitories for
Four Corners region. Many of the people        members get on a waiting list just to go     the week, just so they can receive school-
there have neither electricity nor run-        on this short TDY. It’s a time filled with   ing in everything from mathematics to
ning water. So for the community school        12-hour workdays and no real personal        the Navajo language.
of about 300, receiving computers three                                                         The Guard members shared some
                                               time. However, each Guard member
years ago was a huge leap ahead.                                                            valuable and precious time in the Navajo
                                               loves to be a part of this humbling expe-
    In the last four years, members from                                                    culture and expressed their thoughts and
                                               rience that helps each to realize how
the Utah Air National Guard have made                                                       feelings regarding the military and the
                                               much they really have.
six visits to this small school to help                                                     world outside of the reservation. The
                                                  The school took an even larger step
update its technology and enrich the                                                        children enjoyed seeing a culture and
education of its students.                     into the 21st century; they acquired         people who are not often seen in their
    After a request for outdated govern-       access to the Internet. A whole new          world, and in return they presented their
ment computers four years ago, Mr. Pat         world to explore, where few ever even        culture and their dances.
Baxtrum, the school’s technology coor-         leave their reservation, was opened to the       The school is a part of the Bureau of
dinator, has received hundreds of com-         school children by a few members of the      Indian Affairs which is jointly adminis-
puters. Unfortunately, the amount of           Utah Air National Guard.                     tered by the federal government and the
work required to get those antiquated             Also during the deployment, the air-      tribal council, which makes them eligible
machines working properly was too              men standardized programs on the             to receive excess government computers.
much work for one lone man. That’s             computers, networked them, and gave              The next scheduled visit to the school
where the Utah Air National Guard              the children much improved access to         is in May.
By Airman 1st Class Christiana Elieson 151st Air Refueling Wing Public Affairs

   20 intercom ✭ April 2004
Online ✭   intercom ✭ April 2004 21
Useful Air Force Web Sites

Air Force Portal
The Air Force Portal is a Web-based sys-
tem developed to incorporate as
many Air Force information applica-
tions as possible. The result of such an
integration is that systems such as the                                                                  Tech. Sgt. Ken Bergmann / HQ AFSPC
Virtual Military Personnel Flight or              Gen. Lance W. Lord, AFSPC commander, fields questions on force devel-
functional area applications, such as a           opment and space professional issues in what is believed to be the first
munitions ordering or parts tracking              use of the Air Force Portal for a command-wide Internet chat.
system, would all be accessible from
one Web site.

Log on to: to
                                                     AFSPC pioneers chatroom
                                                  By Ms. Jenna McMullin                      questions and the room where AFSPC
Virtual MPF                                       Air Force Space Command
In the Virtual Military Personnel Flight, users
                                                                                             personnel were posing questions, the
                                                  Public Affairs
can access various online personnel                                                          server stopped responding, causing
applications. The most popular appli-                                                        the program to freeze. From approxi-
cations are: Assignment notification              PETERSON AIR FORCE BASE, Colo.
                                                  — Though challenged by a few tech-         mately 11:30 a.m. on, it was impossi-
briefings; Out processing; Awards and
Decorations review; Data Verification             nical difficulties, the first chatroom     ble for General Lord and most AFSPC
Brief; and a review and update of the             hosted by AFSPC Commander Gen.             users to communicate, limiting view-
Record of Emergency Data.                                                                    ing and responding capabilities dur-
                                                  Lance W. Lord recently was a fore-
Log on to: https://www.afpc.ran-                  shadowing of a new communication           ing that time. to register.                         venue between the commander and               AFSPC logistics and communica-
                                                  AFSPC personnel.                           tions personnel are working with the
                                                      “I like it, and I think we should do   Air Force Chief Information Officer,
AMS                                               it as often as we can,” General Lord       Air Force Portal officials from
The Assignment Management System lets all
Airmen view their personal informa-               said.“Let’s work on the technology         Headquarters Standard Systems
tion, lets commanders weigh in on                 and do it again.”                          Group and the Bantu team to deter-
officer assignment preferences and                    For several hours, AFSPC person-       mine the system problems.
provides a platform for eVector, an               nel worldwide were invited to join in a
online mentoring tool. Enlisted people                                                          Due to the program difficulties,
can view and volunteer for quarterly
                                                  virtual meeting with General Lord to       General Lord was unable to officially
assignments and officers can fill out             ask him questions on force develop-
                                                                                             conclude the chatroom session, leav-
and update their preference work-                 ment and space professional issues.
sheets.                                                                                      ing many participants wondering
                                                  The chatroom was operated via the
                                                                                             what happened. He said he appreciat-
Log on to: http://www.afpc.randolph
                                                  Air Force Portal, using the Bantu
                                                                                             ed all the interest in the first chatroom to register.                        Instant Messenger program. Users
                                                  began logging in around 10:15 a.m.,        and looks forward to the next session.
                                                  and by the time General Lord logged           “As soon as the technical glitches
   AFSPC Feedback                                 in at 11:15 a.m. to begin the discus-      get worked out, this is going to be
                                                  sions, approximately 150 users were        something great,” said Master Sgt.
   Direct feedback on the chat-
   room to the AFSPC Internal                     logged in.                                 Juan Rocha, an information technolo-
   Information organizational mail-                   Once the amount of users               gy implementation manager with
   box:                approached 200 in both the room            AFSPC who assisted in the set-up and
                                                  where General Lord was answering           design of the chatroom.

22 intercom ✭ April 2004
 Transformational Communications Architecture combines space, ground networks
 By Ms. Lavonna Csutoras                     During this phase, airlift is usually only             on this IP-centric architecture, the
 Air Mobility Command                        available for small communications                     TDC program office, located at
                                             packages. Because a limited number of                  Electronic Systems Center, Hanscom
     SCOTT AIR FORCE BASE, Ill. —            trained communicators are deployed                     AFB, Mass., is currently evaluating sev-
 When it comes to providing communi-         during the opening of the air base, the                eral SATCOM architectures to meet
 cations capability to Air Mobility          equipment must be easy to set up and                   Tanker Airlift Control Element require-
 Command’s deployed warfighters,             use, requiring little or no formal train-              ments.
 nothing performs like Theater               ing. The solution provides the band-                       The primary precursor to this small,
 Deployable Communications.                  width required for initial reachback                   first-in communications package is the
     TDC proved to be a critical compo-      communications, in a smaller, easier to                AMC Inter-Theater Communications
 nent of the deployed communications         operate package. It uses voice over                    prototype architecture, which supports
 architecture during Operations              Internet Protocols to eliminate the need               a near-term strategy for transitioning to
 Enduring and Iraqi Freedom, perform-        for more complicated telephone                         the DoD Transformational Comm-
 ing with unprecedented success by pro-      switches during this initial deployment                unications Architecture even before the
 viding common user command, con-            stage. In an effort to select a standard-              projected date of 2010. This initiative
 trol, communications, computers and         ized communications package based                      creates a new national space program
 information capabilities in a bare-base                                                            architecture that attempts to tie togeth-
 environment with commercial technol-        The TDC package
                                                                                                    er space-based and ground networks to
 ogy. However, lessons learned during             The TDC package consists of a Tri-Band, high
                                                                                                    meet the military’s growing demand for
 OEF and OIF validated the need for          capacity satellite terminal, an Integrated
                                             Communications Access Package, and a Network
                                                                                                    bandwidth. Synchronizing new tech-
 tailored packages that fit in between the                                                          nology into major acquisition pro-
                                             Control Center-Deployed package.Tri-Band satel-
 small INMARSAT flyaway kits and the                                                                grams is never easy. Fortunately, there’s
                                             lite terminals, including the Lightweight
 basic TDC package. Operationally,           Multiband Satellite Terminal and the Flyaway Tri-      an emerging consensus on the technical
 these packages increase bandwidth for       Band Satellite Terminal, provide reachback into        approaches within the community of
 lower cost enabling critical command        the Global Information Grid, while ICAP provides       interest. (Craig Agne, MITRE
 and control and in-transit visibility       voice, data, video, and message traffic user servic-   Corporation, contributed to this
 during the opening of the air base.         es. The NCC-D package provides network man-            article.)
                                             agement and information assurance, similar to
                                             fixed base NCCs. Collectively, the three parts of                    intercom ✭ April 2004 23
Online ✭
                                             TDC provide the same services in deployed loca-
                                             tions as in garrison.
 & Now

Lt. Gen. Carl G. O’Berry
By Mr. Don Gasper                                         great country. Although I
AFCA Staff Historian                                      no longer wear the uni-             Airman 2
                                                          form, I see my work today          Shook, co Class Carl O’Berry
                                                                                                       mmande              accepts a
   During his 38 years of service as an                                                     Service S          ro                    $
                                                          as a continuation of what                   quadron, f the 1926th Airw 10 check from Ma
                                                                                                              for being            ays and A           j. Peter E
Air Force communicator, Lt. Gen. Carl                     was begun with the advent of the                              Airman o            ir
                                                                                                                                f the Mon Communications
G. O’Berry developed a passion for                                                                                                        th, June 1
                                                          Air Force Horizon initiative, and I plan with                                             959.
harnessing the power of information                       to see it to completion.”                          his family. However, his
technology to benefit airmen. Today,                          Of historical note, General O’Berry            continuing interest in developing tech-
General O’Berry continues to be                           was the last person on active duty to              nology to transform the way people
directly involved in this important                       have served in the Airways and Air                 interact in various operational environ-
operational endeavor as a guiding fig-                    Communications Service. In addition, ments led him in 2000 to join Boeing as
ure in industry.                                          while a communications lieutenant sta- vice president of Boeing Strategic
   During his military career, General                    tioned at Holloman AFB, N.M., during Architecture. In this role, he is charged
O’Berry contributed to numerous                           the early 1960s, he was one of 24 par-             with developing technology that will
advancements in communications. He                        ticipants in the Acceleration/Deceler-             create a network-centric global opera-
became architect and chief crusader for                   ation testing program conducted at the tional environment to encompass a
Horizon, a conceptual plan for devel-                     base for the Apollo space program.                 wide array of military applications.
opment, modernization, and integra-                       The young father of four decided to                     “My work today is vitally important
tion of joint and global communica-                       participate to supplement his income,              to the nation and to the people of
tions and information systems to                          and in experiencing as many as 35 Gs               America. I believe that industry must
ensure compatibility and interoper-                       during several “sled rides, earned haz-
                                                                                      ”                      develop the technology that puts rele-
ability across the services. His retire-                  ardous duty pay during his 15-month                vant, accurate and secure information
ment from the Air Force hardly marked                     involvement in the program.                        into the hands of those who fight for
an end to his technological pursuits.“I                       Another achievement was in 1961,               peace.”
spent 38 years in uniform serving this                    when, nearly five years after he enlisted              As might be expected of a close
                                                          and became a communications special- family headed by an information tech-
                                                          ist, he applied for and was commis-                nology guru, he and Charlene, his
                                                          sioned through one of the final classes            bride of 45 years, along with the rest of
                                                          of Officer Candidate School. Since                 their crew remain connected through
                                                          then, General O’Berry has had the                  e-mail and a family Web site. General
                                                          honor of performing the commission-                O’Berry loved to fly airplanes and drive
                                                          ing ceremony for his three sons who                fast cars when he was younger, but has
                                                          entered the Air Force.                             little time for either pastime today.
                                                              As the father of five, General                     Instead, he keeps his eyes to the
                                                          O’Berry said he will never forget the              future. He said he’s intensely proud to
                                                          tremendous pride he felt seeing all                support those who will make the world
                                                          three sons follow in his footsteps and             a better and safer place for all.
                                                          dedicate a part of their lives to the serv-             “A love for country and family is in
                                                          ice of their country.                              the heart of every service man and
                                                              A few months after his military                woman. I was no different; I wanted a
                                                          retirement in 1995, General O’Berry                better world so that my children, and
                                                          joined Motorola Space and Systems                  children everywhere, might one day
                                                          Technology Group in Phoenix, Ariz.,                live in peace and realize the full poten-
As vice president of Strategic Architecture of the        as vice president and director of plan-            tial of the democratic way of life.” (Ms.
Boeing Company, the retired general addresses mem-        ning and information technology. In                Diana Ball of the Boeing Company
bers of the media during a tour of the Boeing facility.   1998, he left industry to spend time               contributed to this article.)

24 intercom ✭ April 2004

By Mr. Charles Christian                                        from the FAA, do radio checks on the radio console which
                                                                connected the ops room with the FAA tower aircraft radios,
   Air Force people assigned to duty in Alaska during the       and other minor duties. There was a hand cranked field
Korean War worked a portion of the Korean Air Lift that         phone that went to the radar site and upon their sighting of
went via Alaska, and were told to always be on alert for any    any “bogeys” they would ring me up and tell me to “scram-
threats or intrusions upon the Territory of Alaska (not a       ble two or four” depending upon their sightings.
state then) by the Soviets.                                         I would then hit the klaxon horn for one long or two long
   One way to stay alert was to have occasional area war        blasts to launch one or two flights of two aircraft each. This
games. In the spring of 1951 “Operation Firestep” took          was definitely the best part of my duties. I would also talk to
place with a detachment of four F-80s from the 64th Fighter     the aircraft when needed during their flight, though most of
Interceptor Squadron. We were staged out of the old WWII        their talk was between themselves and the radar site. Usually
Naknek AFS for this exercise.                                   they would be able to intercept the aggressors before they
   The base consisted of an old Quonset hut on the flight-      got to the base, and then they would call it a game and
line that was the detachment commander’s office, an ops         return home.
room at one end and the ready room at the other end for the         One morning, while still pitch dark, our pilots and crews
pilots, a small two story FAA station, and a group of           were driving on the perimeter road headed to the flightline
Quonset huts used for quarters, messing, etc.                   when suddenly there was a swoosh just above our heads.
   The game plan was that Naknek would be a friendly base       Our parachute flare lighted the area above us, and immedi-
and they would be subject to attack by other (aggressor) ele-   ately another swoosh came over our heads. Then we heard
ments of the three squadrons of F-80s of the 57th Fighter       .50 caliber machine guns being fired and as the second jet
Interceptor Group at Elmendorf.                                 flew over us, our truck was showered by empty hot brass
   I was a 1931st Airways and Air Communications Service        coming out of the nose of the jet.
Squadron cryptographer and sent for two weeks TDY with              Then the jets were heard coming around again to have
my combat gear, weapon, and two M-209 crypto machines           another pass at us. Instead of pulling a lever to drop a flare,
(which were soon declared obsolete, and I heard were given      the lead pilot pulled the lever that ejected his canopy. Not
to the Boy Scouts). My duties were to send back encrypted       wanting to fly back home in the freezing weather, he decided
mission reports to Elmendorf.                                   to land and surrender to us. We had a further unexpected
   Upon my arrival, the detachment commander, Maj.Van           surprise when he turned out to be the famous West Point
Bebber, informed me that no such thing was going to hap-        football player of the mid-1940s “Doc” Blanchard.
pen. He said I could go back on the next available C-47             He had helped lead Army to three undefeated seasons,
leaving for Elmendorf, or he was short one each Fighter         won the Heisman Trophy and the Sullivan award, and was
Operations Clerk, and if I wished I could have the job for      three times All-America during his time at West Point.
the next two weeks. Being a quite young (18), a corporal        Taking into consideration the injustices that we had been
and ready for any new adventure, I replied quickly:“Sir, I      subjected to, we all felt it was proper restitution. We also felt
accept your offer.” After a few hours training, I started out   we won that game even if it was by default. Felix “Doc”
the next day on the sun-up to noon shift. For the next few      Blanchard obviously overcame this incident and went on to
days I would prepare mission reports, go get the weather        fly in Korea and retired as a colonel in 1971.

Online ✭                                                      intercom ✭ April 2004 25
  Focus           Policy changes affect civil service employees
    AIR FORCE PERSONNEL CEN-                Personnel Management’s NSPS                   cial salary rate, locality rate of pay, or
 TER— The 2004 National Defense             Homepage at                                   special pay adjustment for law
 Authorization Act put in to motion           enforcement officers), or the employ-
 changes to civilian pay, overtime and      html.                                         ee's own hourly rate of basic pay
 leave. The legislation also launched the                                                 (including any applicable special
 National Security Personnel System,        Senior Executive Service Pay                  salary rate, locality rate of pay, or spe-
 the biggest overhaul of the govern-           The act establishes a new perform-         cial pay adjustment for law enforce-
 ment's civilian personnel system in        ance-based pay system for members of          ment officers). The Office of
 decades.                                   the Senior Executive Service, ends            Personnel Management is amending
    Defense Secretary Donald H.             locality-based comparability pay-             its regulations to reflect this new pro-
 Rumsfeld called the changes transfor-      ments for senior executives, and              vision in the near future.
 mational and some of the changes           changes the threshold for imposing
 include:                                   post-employment restrictions on cer-          Military leave for mobilized federal civilian
                                            tain senior executives. See                   employees
 National Security Personnel System                     Employees who perform full-time
    The Secretary of Defense and the        memo/2003/2003-19.                            military service, as a result of a call or
 director of the Office of Personnel                                                      order to active duty in support of a
 Management are now provided with           Modification of the overtime hourly pay cap   contingency operation, are now enti-
 the authority to establish a new              The act modifies the hourly over-          tled to 22 days of military leave each
 human resources management sys-            time pay cap for certain federal              calendar year.
 tem, including a new labor relations       employees who are exempt from (not               An employee is entitled to the
 system, for Department of Defense          covered by) the overtime pay provi-           greater of his or her civilian or mili-
 employees.                                 sions of the Fair Labor Standards Act.        tary pay, not both. However, an
    The act also provides the SECDEF           For FLSA-exempt employees enti-            employee may choose to take annual
 with the authority to establish separa-    tled to receive overtime pay, the hourly      leave instead of military leave in order
 tion and retirement incentives and         rate of overtime pay is either the            to retain both civilian and military
 additional staffing flexibilities. For     greater of one and one-half times the         pay. The amendment applies to mili-
 more information on NSPS, visit the        minimum hourly rate of basic pay for          tary service performed on or after
 Department of Defense Civilian             GS-10 (including any applicable spe-          Nov. 24, 2003.

 New avenue available for civilian information
                                                    AIR FORCE PERSONNEL CENTER—Civilian appropriated fund
                                                 employees and prospective applicants can now get answers to
                                                 questions about employment opportunities, benefits and entitle-
                                                 ments, and more online at the Air Force’s Customer Service Center.
                                                    A new database, located at,
                                                 includes questions and answers allowing users to find explanations
                                                 personally rather than waiting on the phone or reviewing long doc-
                                                 uments on the various Web sites. For employment online inquiries,
                                                 users who don’t find an answer to their specific question can sub-
                                                 mit a query online through the “Ask-A-Question” tab at the top of
                                                 the page.
                                                    People who need to speak to someone directly about their
                                                 employment opportunities or benefits can call (800) 616-3775.

26   intercom ✭ April 2004
New Developments
AFSPC MILESTONES: The transition
of Milstar to full initial operational
capability, along with the stand up of
an operational cadre of communication
and information specialists at 14th Air
Force, under the 614th Space
Communications Squadron, marks a
milestone for Air Force Space
Command in providing space capabili-
ty to warfighting.
      AFSPC has championed higher
data rate space communications to the
warfighter for well over a decade now.
From sponsoring and developing the
Milstar Extremely High Frequency                    SCOTT AIR FORCE BASE, Ill.—Everyone’s in for a wild     warfare that challenges the communications and infor-
satellite system and developing the            ride regarding the future of information technology,         mation world to solve the dilemma of getting timely,
command’s EHF Satellite System’s               according to the Air Force’s deputy chief of staff for       quality information to commanders so they can have
Expert office, to supporting the Space         Warfighting Integration during an annual IT conference       what he terms “decision superiority.”
Warfare Center’s operational demon-            here Feb. 19. The conference was hosted by the St. Louis          “It’s an ambitious forecast,” said Master Sgt. Greg
strations of space capabilities,               Chapter of the Armed Forces Communications and               Bunce, an encryption specialist with the 805th
AFSPC/LC has had a leading role in             Electronics Association.                                     Communications Squadron. “I liked seeing what the
developing space communications                     Lt. Gen.Tom Hobbins’ briefing to industry, military     future will bring with the idea of having a common net-
capabilities for the warfighter. All of        and civilian leaders showed the Air Force’s game plan        work among us (Air Force and DOD), and to see how we
these capabilities paid off in the execu-      for increasing secure and reliable connectivity of space     can work the challenge of not having a single point of
tion of combat power in our recent             and ground communications assets through fiscal year         failure for our resources.”
operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.            2020. He outlined a 10-step process of how the vision             Having the general outline the vision during an IT
     Milstar’s Initial Operational             becomes reality by working tough issues of timing new        conference is valuable because the military and indus-
Capability declaration is a milestone          capabilities with the government’s acquisition and
                                                                                                            try are tightly knitted in this process, said Col. David
ensuring the operator’s needs are truly        funding process.
                                                                                                            Kovach, Air Force Communications Agency commander.
being met. The stand up of the 614th                His vision is to have what he calls a “self-forming,
                                                                                                            “As we’re explaining what the future will look like,
SCS will ensure operational and engi-          self-healing network that uses government, not com-
neering support of SATCOM to the                                                                            they’re the ones developing much of the hardware and
                                               mercial, satellites.” That’s because with communica-
warfighter. New space systems advo-                                                                         software that’s going to get us there.”
                                               tions, there are always competing interests for band-
cated by AFSPC are being developed                                                                               The general also spoke about having quality train-
                                               width and frequencies, and DOD needs to own its own
that will augment current systems in           resources in space to meet military requirements.            ing for people to perform these missions and make the
use by the Air Force and its sister serv-           The general spoke about satellites that send 6 giga-    decisions no matter how high tech the operation
ices.                                          bytes of information per second, communications using        becomes. In addition, the conference hosted a panel of
     As the command embarks on the             laser technology, and communications traveling over          experts who addressed issues raised in the general’s
development of systems and capabili-           dedicated Internet Protocol lines—a secure Internet          article printed in the November issue of the intercom
ties to support the coming Advanced            between customers.                                           magazine, which can be viewed at
EHF systems, continued engineering                  The general also outlined the need to integrate
and operational support will be                communications platforms between aircraft, sister serv-      ml. Along with the panel discussion, conference mem-
required to bring these systems fully to       ices and America’s joint partners. He explained how the      bers also received training in operations security.
the warfighter’s hands.                        Air Force is continuing to transform to network centric      (Master Sgt. Karen Petitt, AFCA Public Affairs)
     Just as the weapons systems offi-
cer in the cockpit of the F-4G was the
data provider in his day, future            Security concerns                         systems. The Air Force needs your          command’s warfighters.
warfighting applications will depend        PREVENTING CMIs: During 2003,             help to prevent future occurrences of          You can help stem the tide of CMIs
heavily on effectively provisioning data    the Air Force experienced a significant   CMI, not only because it compromises       by verifying none of the contents of a
that is global in scope. The 14AF oper-     increase in the number of classified      classified information and puts indi-      message are classified before compos-
ational SSE, along with the 614th           message incidents, or CMIs, caused by     viduals in line for disciplinary action,   ing the e-mail on an unclassified
comm and info experts, will provide         users generating or receiving e-mail      but because recovery actions are not       workstation.This is true for the infor-
data and information for 21st Century       messages with classified content          only costly and time consuming, they       mation by itself, or when associated
warfighters. (Mr. Jon Sercel, AFSPC)        while using unclassified networked        hinder e-mail services supporting the      with other information to be included

Online ✭                                                                                     intercom ✭ April 2004 27
in the same e-mail.                         other secure means.The crew com-            called “Books24x7.” However, only
     Never send sensitive deployment,       mander will then coordinate actions         3,000 of the more than 400,000 regis-
Unit Type Code, or other highly sensi-      needed to purge the classified e-mail       tered employees have taken advan-
tive mobility information in an unclas-     content from all affected unclassified      tage of this service.
sified e-mail. Use the SIPRNET, the         e-mail servers and workstations.                 “Books24x7” can be used to read
Secret Internet Protocol Router             (Senior Master Sgt. Alan McClellan, 805th   an entire book from cover to cover, or
Network, or other secure means, such        CSS)                                        read a section at a time, leaving book-
as secure fax, to send such informa-                                                    marks as a person goes. People can
tion, just as you would for other classi-   Training                                    search for solutions to an immediate                               Courtesty photo
fied information.                           COMPUTER BASED TRAINING:                    computer problem and jump right into         Award (Manufacturing category).
     If you have sent or received an e-     When looking for a federal or other         the answers. The USAF CBT system is              He won for personally defining,
mail message through the unclassified       job, computer skills are a necessity.       free to use. Take the time to gain the       leading and managing programs in
network and later discover there            There are relatively few positions in       tools necessary to make the grade.           support of Laser Eye Protection and
might be classified content, contact        any sector that don’t require an appli-     Visit            the ViperTM Laser. The ViperTM Laser
your workgroup manager immediate-           cant to come equipped with basic            (Master Sgt. Wayne Repke, AFCA)              is one of the primary components in
ly. Swift corrective actions can prevent    desktop skills.That usually means if                                                     the Large Aircraft Infrared
a CMI from spreading further and keep       the terms Excel Spreadsheet, Office         KUDOS                                        Countermeasures system, designed to
the number of affected systems to be        Wizard or Windows XP send chills            SCIENCE & ENGINEERING AWARD:                 protect C-17s, C-130s and other large
purged to a minimum.                        down your spine, it's time to take the      Ray Linville, an engineer with the           aircraft from IR-guided surface-to-air
     If a CMI is suspected or confirmed,    bull (or computer) by the horns.            Manufacturing Technology Division, of        missiles. Mr. Linville also brought in
your workgroup manager should con-               Approximately 700,000 Air Force        the Materials and Manufacturing              cost reductions and yielded enhance-
tact the AMC Network Operations and         military and civilian personnel have        Directorate at the Air Force Research        ments for the ViperTM that will result
Security Center crew commander by           electronic access to Computer Based         Laboratory, is the recipient of the 2003     in more LAIRCM systems being made
secure phone at DSN 576-8007 or by          Training's desktop applications library     Air Force Science and Engineering            available to the fleet, increasing air-

                                                                                                                                   Staff Sgt. Verlin Collins / 1st CTCS
     Testing iridium
     Airman 1st Class Eric Pangburn, a satellite communications technician with the 447th Expeditionary
     Communications Squadron, prepares to test iridium satellite communications equipment at Baghdad
     International Airport. Iridium delivers essential communications services to and from remote areas
     where terrestrial communications are not available.

28      intercom ✭ April 2004
craft and flight crew survivability in
hostile threat scenarios.
    One of the major obstacles that
were overcome through the efforts of
Mr. Linville and his team was that high
value electronics, optics and other
materials were only available from a
single supplier. Multiple supplier
sources were made available, creating
more competition and driving the cost
down, by substituting standardized
components for the specialized ones.
(Mr. Gary Cunningham, AFRL)

NCOs have learned new skills and
adapted to the environment around
them, all while delivering expert
radio-communications support to
Operation Enduring Freedom cus-
    Staff Sgts.Vincent Bess and Andre                                                                                Senior Airman Jonathan Pomeroy / 86th CS
Locust were deployed to Bagram Air             Wiring harness repair
Base, Afghanistan, to manage the               Staff Sgt. Robert Jelley, 86th Communications Squadron, repairs a wiring
455th Expeditionary Communications             harness in a 52 Medium Up Converter of a Satellite Stadium, Jan. 7, at
Flight’s land-mobile radio section.            Ramstein Air Base, Germany. The Up Converter is used to change an inter-
They said they knew they were in for a         mediate frequency signal into a radio frequency signal.
challenge. Despite their technical
training backgrounds and a quick
equipment overview before leaving         assets has been their official duty, it’s   on one frequency, then amplifying the     incoming flights, since the command
the United States,“this was the first     their side jobs that have made an           signal and retransmitting it at a high-   post can establish contact sooner.
time we’ve ever had to program and        indelible mark on the entire area of        er-power level on another frequency.      (Master Sgt. Jeff Szczechowski, 455th
support (land-mobile radios),”            operations here.                                Their efforts expanded radio com-     EOG)
Sergeant Locust said. “Back home, you         In Kabul, Afghanistan’s capital, the    munications in the area by up to 10
do quality-assurance checks and write     two installed a repeater system for         miles, and increased coverage from        CC COMMENDS AIRMEN: During
reports,” he said.“Here, I’m actually     another personal security detail ele-       the Kabul Army compound to the U.S.       operations in Iraq, the Air Force expe-
out climbing towers and warehouses        ment with the Army’s Criminal               Embassy in the capital.                   rienced some of the highest mission-
or going 50 feet up in bucket trucks,     Investigative Division there. Repeaters         After the 455th Expeditionary         capable rates in recent history, said
installing antennas.”                     are designed to increase the range of       Operations Group command post             the service’s vice chief of staff.
     While maintaining day-to-day         portable and mobile radios by receiv-       moved to the air terminal operations          Gen.T. Michael Moseley spoke
responsibility of more than 400 LMR       ing a signal from low-powered units         center, radio contact with incoming       before a Senate Armed Services
                                                                                      aircraft was cut in half.The sergeants    Committee subcommittee on readi-
                                                                                      were called upon to restore the com-      ness and management support March
                                                                                      munications capability.                   9, directly crediting Airmen for the
                                                                                          “We had contractors install a 40-     extremely high rates during Operation
                                                                                      foot concrete pole, usually used for      Iraqi Freedom.
                                                                                      telephone and power lines, and put up        “During the conflict last year, we
                                                                                      one antenna with two ports—a dual         enjoyed our highest active overall
                                                                                      band antenna for VHF and UHF fre-         mission-capable rates in six years,” he
                                                                                      quencies,” Sergeant Bess said.            said. Now the Air Force is working to
                                                                                          Instead of having to install two      reconstitute after intense operations
                                                                                      antennas, one for the command post        in Southwest Asia, which involves not
                                                                                      and another for the combat weather        only the replenishment of munitions
                                                                                      team, the two ports allowed them to       and equipment, but also the mainte-
                                      Tech. Sgt. Brian Davidson / 445th EOG
                                                                                      re-establish communications for both      nance and readiness of the service’s
 Staff Sgts. Vincent Bess and Andre Locust install a
                                                                                      units with one antenna. The added         No. 1 weapons system: Airmen. See
 radio-communications antenna for a secondary
                                                                                      range allows more time for support        the full text on (Staff Sgt.
 repeater for the security forces squadron at
                                                                                      people on the ground to prepare for       C. Todd Lopez, AFPN)
 Bagram Air Base, Afghanistan.

Online ✭                                                                                     intercom ✭ April 2004 29

     What is Milstar?                                             and enduring operational command and control for
     Milstar is a joint service satellite communications sys-     the Milstar constellation.
     tem that provides secure, jam resistant, worldwide com-
     munications to meet essential wartime requirements           The ongoing process
     for high priority military users. The multi-satellite con-   The first Milstar satellite was launched Feb. 7, 1994,
     stellation links command authorities with a wide variety     aboard a Titan IV expendable launch vehicle. The sec-
     of resources, including ships, submarines, aircraft and      ond was launched Nov. 5, 1995. The third launch on
     ground stations. The operational Milstar satellite con-      April 30, 1999, placed the satellite in a non-usable orbit.
     stellation consists of five satellites positioned around     The fourth through sixth satellites have an increased
     the Earth in geosynchronous orbits. Each mid-latitude        capacity because of an additional medium data rate
     satellite weighs approximately 10,000 pounds and has a       payload and were launched Feb. 27, 2001, Jan. 15, 2002,
     design life of 10 years.                                     and April 8, 2003.

     How does it work?                                            Components of Milstar
     Each Milstar satellite serves as a smart switchboard in      The Milstar system is composed of three segments:
     space by directing traffic from terminal to terminal any-    space (the satellites), terminal (the users) and mission
     where on the Earth. Because the satellite actually           control. Air Force Space Command’s Space and Missile
     processes the communications signal and can link with        Systems Center at Los Angeles AFB, Calif., is responsible
     other Milstar satellites through crosslinks, the require-    for development and acquisition of the Milstar space
     ment for ground controlled switching is significantly        and mission control segments. The Electronics Systems
     reduced. Milstar terminals provide encrypted voice,          Center at Hanscom AFB, Mass., is responsible for the Air
     data, teletype or facsimile communications.                  Force portion of the terminal segment development
     A key goal of Milstar is to provide interoperable com-       and acquisition. The 4th Space Operations Squadron at
     munications among the users of Army, Navy and Air            Schriever AFB, Colo., is the front line organization pro-
     Force Milstar terminals. Geographically dispersed            viding satellite platform control and communications
     mobile and fixed control stations provide survivable         payload management.

                                                                                                                  Source: AF Fact Sheet

30   intercom ✭ April 2004
Online ✭   intercom ✭ April 2004 31

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