Integrating Case Studies into the Anatomy and Physiology Curriculum by uoi11893


									Integrating Case Studies into
 the Anatomy and Physiology
What are case studies?

   Course material in the context of a story
       Makes it personal
         • Character(s) with a physiological problem that
           needs to be resolved
     Facts must be analyzed
     Data can be incomplete, emotional/ethical
      concerns can be raised
     Requires group learning and critical
In Anatomy and Physiology?

   Many facts and physiological mechanisms
   Integrated across the different organ
       Skin and bone
       Heart and lung
   Material builds on earlier chapters - must be
    retained for two semesters
   Overwhelming
What benefits?
 Apply lecture material
 Active participants in their own
 Improves understanding
 Improves retention
 Helps develop critical thinking
Typical case study

   Introduce people with a condition or
    disease that involves the physiological
    process under study
       Symptoms, test results…

   Students must apply their knowledge to
    answer a series of questions
       Notes, books, Internet, library research
Fall 2007: Anatomy and Physiology I
    Five case studies written - tailored to our
    Sixteen students divided into four groups

1.   Each student assigned an individual question
2.   Answers posted in online forum
3.   Discussed by students and professor
4.   Groups submit a complete set of answers
5.   Case study discussed during lecture period
6.   Peer evaluation sheets turned in
7.   Question(s) appear on lecture exams
What case studies?
   Motherly Love
        Congestive Heart Failure
          • Na/K pump and its role in maintaining physiological homeostasis
   Fresh Air and Sunshine
        Rickets and Osteomalacia
          • The link between skin and bone
   Perfect Pitch
        Rotator Cuff injury - Surgery and rehabilitation
          • The shoulder joint and muscles that cross it
   A Semester Ends
        Muscle physiology, rigor and livor mortis
   Cocaine
        Physiological effects of cocaine upon nerve endings and its
         effects upon different physiological systems
  What did you like best/least about this
  case study? How could it be improved?
                                           incorperation     Problem or a       Going outside the
                          cooperation                                                                  Online work
                                             of course        mystery to         book and notes
                           of groups                                                                  and comments
                                              material          solve             to learn more

             Best              8                28                10                    2                  3

                                                                                                          Don't want
                                                                  Difficulty of                             to look      More
                              Online                                                   Comments on
           Time it took                         Its hard           individual                               outside  story/Backg
                              forums                                                     forums
                                                                questions varied                          text/notes  round info
                                                                                                         for answers

 Worst          4                  1                 7                 2                      2                1          3

           Lessen time
                                                                                     Wants to
            needed to                            more time         Difficulty of                  Manage our     More
            search for       It was fine        needed as a         individual                     own time  story/Backg
                                                                                  answers before
          anwers/lessen                        group in class    questions evened                   better    round Info
                                                                                  turning them in
           # questions
Improve         2                      2                 2                  2                     1                4          4
Negative Comments
   “Some of the questions were very detailed and
    required research. It was difficult to fully
    answer some of the questions.”

   “Researching answers.”

   “It was scary to think someone would let
    themselves get this drunk. I don’t like that he
      Positive Comments
   “I enjoyed how it tied in and related the Na/K pump into the workings of the
    human body. I’ve learned about the pump in several classes but never really had to
    grasp the importance of it for human survival. Its an extremely important system
    and is vital to survival.”

   “I liked the fact that all of the questions kind of snowballed after each other and we
    were able to be taken through the process of the problems that would occur in
    Catherine’s situation.”

   “Being able to learn about shoulder injuries because I have one.”
   “I liked that it was sport related because that made it most interesting.”
   “I thought learning about the rotator cuff injury was very interesting. I played
    football almost my entire life and have seen my fair share of torn rotator cuffs but
    never really understood/knew what it was.”

   “I liked learning about rigor mortis. I never really understood how it happened.”
   “It had to do with college students and it was very real. Something like this could
    really happen.
Perfect Pitch
   Student’s favorite
    Many wanted more!
     “I liked the story because I am very
      interested in PT.”
     “I wish it went more in depth with the
      surgery and PT.”
     “I would’ve liked to see more questions
      on this case study because it have been
      my favorite on so far!”
     Reflective Essay (250-300 words)
1.   Did the case studies improve your understanding of the
     overall course material?
2.   Did the case studies help you prepare for the exams
     (multiple choice and/or essay questions)?
3.   How did you use your notes/textbook/internet to help
     you work through each case study?
4.   How did working in groups contribute to the
5.   Did the case studies help you understand how to apply
     the material being studied to physiological problems?
6.   Do you think the case studies helped you retain the
     material long-term?
7.   Was the presence of an undergraduate
     facilitator/mentor helpful? Why or why not?
Reflective Essay Results
                        Positive   Negative
     Improve your
                                              Essay, but not
     Help prepare for      13                 for multiple
     exams?                                   choice

     How did you use:
     Notes                 1           2
     Textbook              1           4
     Internet              13                 * used a lot

     Groups?               13

     Help understand

     Long term

     Facilitator?           1         11
Reflective Essay: Interest
   “…related to real life situations, so they were of
    interest to me.”

   “…helped get us involved in what we were learning by
    applying the course material to real life situations.
    This also helped us to better understand the course

   “I was very interested in the one that talked about the
    baseball injury and the drinking incident so it made
    me really want to learn the material because I was
    very fascinated in finding out the answers.”
Reflective Essay: Groups
   “Since my group worked very well together,
    it made the case study experience a good

   [Group] “work didn’t seem as intimidating.”

   “Groups…if I didn’t understand the answer
    they could help me work through it.”
Reflective Essay: Understanding
   “…the material that we went over on case studies
    was a lot more clear than the material that was not
    involved in case studies.”

   “I feel that being able to apply the information from
    the lectures into real world applications really helped
    me understand it better.”

   “I feel as though the material that we went over on
    case studies was a lot more clear than the material
    that was not involved in case studies.”
   Students
       liked working in groups

       liked doing case studies

       applied the course material

       learned the material in depth and retained the

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