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TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

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					Electronics                                                          Traffic Control System




     TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM


Lexical meaning:-
Traffic is a collective representation of objects that travel or displace from one point
to another and control or signals cumulates the commands and inputs that govern the
flow and direction of traffic.



Terminological meaning:-
The traffic light, also known as traffic signal, stop light, traffic lamp, stop-and-go
lights, robot or semaphore, is a signaling device positioned at a road intersection,
pedestrian crossing, or other location. Its purpose is to indicate, using a series of
colors (Red - Amber - Green), the correct moment to stop, drive, ride or walk, using a
universal color code (and a precise sequence, for those who are color blind).




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Electronics                                                          Traffic Control System



        BACKGROUND OF APPLICATION

The brief and comprehensive background and visual description of this application is
compiled and formulated as follows:

Necessity Is The Mother Of Invention:-
Due to the rapid increase of vehicles and multiple transportation there need a system
which could safely provide a safe way out and healthy flow of traffic. To make it
possible there came across an idea of police control system which was good for
nothing. Then science and technology yet again came to the rescue of mankind and a
traffic control system was formulated which was a very happy happening both in the
field of science and practical life and there came a steady and reliable system which
headed on the possibility of safe transportation.

Formulation Idea:-
The basic idea behind the formation of the traffic control system are due to the
expensive search of these concept listed below
   i.   Optics and Lighting
  ii.   Light design
 iii.   Controller System
 iv.    Control and Coordination
  v.    Fixed Time Control
 vi.    Dynamic Control
vii.    Coordinated Control
viii.   Lane Control
 ix.    Acute Control




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Electronics                                                           Traffic Control System




Invention:-
In the mid 1990s, cost-effective traffic light lamps using light-emitting diodes (LEDs)
were developed; prior to this date traffic lights were designed using incandescent or
halogen light bulbs. Unlike the incandescent-based lamps, which use a single large
bulb, the LED-based lamps consist of an array of LED elements, arranged in various
patterns. When viewed from a distance, the array appears as a continuous light source.

LED-based lamps (or 'lenses') have numerous advantages over incandescent lamps;
among them are:

   * Much greater energy efficiency (can be solar-powered).
   * Much longer lifetime between replacements, measured in years rather than
months. Part of the longer lifetime is due to the fact that some light is still displayed
even if some of the LEDs in the array are dead.
   * Brighter illumination with better contrast against direct sunlight, also called
'phantom light'.
   * The ability to display multiple colors and patterns from the same lamp. Individual
LED elements can be enabled or disabled, and different color LEDs can be mixed in
the same lamp
   * Much faster switching.
   * Instead of sudden burn-out like incandescent-based lights, LEDs start to gradually
dim when they wear out, warning transportation maintenance departments well in
advance as to when to change the light. Occasionally, particularly in green LED units,
segments prone to failure will flicker rapidly beforehand.




First implementation:-
On 10 December 1868, the first traffic lights were installed outside the British Houses
of Parliament in London, by the railway engineer J. P. Knight. They resembled
railway signals of the time, with semaphore arms and red and green gas lamps for
night use. The gas lantern was turned with a lever at its base so that the appropriate
light faced traffic. Unfortunately, it exploded on 2 January 1869, injuring the
policeman who was operating it.
The first interconnected traffic signal system was installed in Salt Lake City in 1917,
with six connected intersections controlled simultaneously from a manual switch.
Automatic control of interconnected traffic lights was introduced March 1922 in
Houston, Texas. The first automatic experimental traffic lights in England were
deployed in Wolverhampton in 1927.




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Electronics                                                         Traffic Control System




Ampelmännchen pedestrian traffic signals have come to be seen as a nostalgic sign
for the former German Democratic Republic.

The color of the traffic lights representing stop and go are likely derived from those
used to identify port (red) and starboard (green) in maritime rules governing right of
way, where the vessel on the left must stop for the one crossing on the right.



              THE PROBLEM STATMENT
 We are supposed to be working on assigned task which is to design a
circuitry model of a traffic control system, staying inside the proposed
limits and subjective limitations. And to reinstate this circuitry model in
a working outlook.




                  PROPOSED SOLUTION
Objective:-
Over prime implicant and utmost preference will be to complete our assigned task
(traffic control system) under the defined time and fulfill all the considerations and
requirements imposed and proposed by our teachers.


                    BLOCK DIAGRAM




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Electronics                                                         Traffic Control System



                                  SCOPE

Subjects of implementation:-
Using the grounds of electronics and digital logic designs knowledge we will design
above mentioned task (traffic control system).



Basics and Ethical fundamentals:-
We will design this model by using the ethics and basics of electronics like
fundamentals of light glowing, timing arrangements, biasing of materials used inside
circuitry, charging and discharging of capacitors and that of digital logic designs we
will implement the logical operations input output mechanism and logical gates.



                           HARDWARE

We will use the following hardwares:

    Digital multimeter.

    Brad boards.

    BJT’s (Bipolar junction transistors).

    Capacitors.

    Batteries.

    LED’s(Light emitting diode).

    Resistors.

    IC’s(Integrated circuit)

    Connecting wires.




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Electronics                                                         Traffic Control System



                              SOFTWARE

   We will use the following software’s:-

        Electronics work bench.

        Multisim.




               FUTURE ENHANCEMENT

       in future the traffic control system can be further made more reliable and
       compact by increasing the output ratio and automatic control which certainly
       brings life to a simple level. This can be done by enchancing and using more
       advanced techniques and traffic detectors which control the traffic on flow and
       concentration of traffic flowing across the particular road.




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