Master of Laws _LLM_ Dissertation Handbook 2009–10 by lifemate


									Faculty of Laws

          Master of Laws (LLM)
         Dissertation Handbook

Part 1: LLM Dissertation Overview………………………….2

Part 2: Timetable for Progression…………………………...3

Part 3: Choosing your title and writing……………………..5

Part 4: Plagiarism……………………………………………….9

Part 5: Presentation Guidelines…………………………….14

Part 6: Submission……………………………………….......19

Appendix 1 – Examples of Previous Titles

Part 1: LLM Dissertation Overview
The dissertation is a compulsory element of your LLM programme and makes up
45 credits (equivalent to a full course) of the 180 credits required for an LLM
award. This handbook is designed to guide you through the planning and writing
of your dissertation. If you have previously not had the opportunity to produce a
researched paper of some length, you will find this handbook particularly useful.

The dissertation is more like a ‘seen examination’ or an extended piece of
coursework than the sort of thesis containing original ideas that a doctoral student
is expected to submit; although this is not to discourage LLM students from
original ideas. The dissertation should show that you have identified and
understood the key issues in the selected topic and the relevant law and literature
(books, articles, reform proposals, etc.), and that you have a capacity for critical

The dissertation must originate in issues raised by the course(s) you selected and
studied as your dissertation course(s). You are expected to follow that course in
the normal way because, although the dissertation may focus on a relatively
narrow part of the course, a good understanding of the broader context will
improve the quality of the finished work.

The word limit for the dissertation is 12,000 words, which includes all appendices
and endnotes/footnotes but not the bibliography.

Students at master's level are expected to acquire advanced research and writing
skills. The best way to acquire these skills is to engage in the task:

   read contextually and specifically on your topic;
   think about your arguments;
   consider the published viewpoints of others, who may have addressed some
    part of your topic;
   question everything;
   and write.

Expect to go through more than one draft. Even the most experienced legal
commentators will go through many drafts of a paper before it is ready to be
shared with others.

Above all, the dissertation should be an enjoyable, challenging exercise.

Part 2: Timetable for progression
Consider that your dissertation is an ongoing project, which should be largely
researched by the end of Term 2 (Friday 26 March 2010), so that in Term 3 and
throughout the summer, following examinations, you are writing up.

You are advised to spend some time each week on your dissertation during the
course of your studies at UCL. Read regularly for your dissertation, just as you do
for your courses, so that you make progress with your thinking and your research.
You will find that you develop your legal arguments as the year progresses.

It is important that you follow the timetable outlined below.

Term 1 – Monday 28 September – Friday 18 December 2009
Throughout term 1 you should be reading around your chosen area of study and
coming up with a proposal and a title
30 September 2009       There will be a dissertation talk as part of the general
                        welcome organised by the Graduate Tutor. You must
16 October 2009         Submit the Course Choice Form, with details of the
                        course(s) for which you intend to write your dissertation,
                        to the Graduate Office.
Date to be confirmed Attend the Research Methods Lecture (date to be
in October              confirmed).
20 November 2009        Submit a proposal (maximum of 250 words) and a
                        proposed title to the teacher who will act as your
                        supervisor (this will be a member of teaching staff on the
                        course in which you have chosen to write your

                          Appendix 1 contains a list of some previous dissertation
                          titles. This list is not indicative of any grade and is not in
                          any particular order.
11 December 2009          Submit the completed and approved Dissertation Topic
                          Reply Slip to the Graduate Office.

Please note:
If you are writing your dissertation in a 22.5 credit course that does not run until
Term 2, you must make an appointment with a member of teaching staff who will
be your supervisor, to discuss the proposal before you submit it on the 20
November 2009. The remainder of the programme remains the same for all
students studying their dissertation.

Term 2 – Monday 11 January – Friday 26 March 2010
29 January 2010       Submit an outline of the dissertation (maximum of 600
                      words) with a bibliography to your supervisor. The
                      outline should include:
                           an outline of the research question(s);
                           a plan of the dissertation and any (tentative)
                           the literature in the field and any other material
                      Your supervisor may comment on your outline and
                      bibliography. This is not part of the final assessment and
                      is not marked. The outline and bibliography at this stage
                      are probably work in progress; the outline is not required
                      to be a final version, but to be indicative of your work to
During the week of    You should meet with your supervisor to discuss your
the 15 February 2010 dissertation. There will be an optional facility to meet in
                      groups with other students informally to discuss outlined
                      and to critique one another’s work
26 March 2010         You may submit 3000 words to your supervisor for
                      written comment. It is not necessary that you do so, but
                      if you think you would benefit from feedback on part of
                      your paper, you must submit your passage by the
                      deadline. Your supervisor will get comments back to you
                      within 6 weeks.
 11 August 2010       You should to aim to complete the dissertation by 11
                      August 2010, three weeks before the submission
                      deadline. This will give you time to resolve any
                      problems that you may encounter and still allow you to
                      time to read through your dissertation before uploading it
                      to Turnitin, printing, binding and submission.

Part 3: Choosing your title and writing
You will find that the more you read, especially journal articles, the more you will
have an understanding of what is expected. Do not begin to write before you have
thought through your arguments. But, do not leave the writing too late, or you will
find that you are not satisfied with your draft. Use your time wisely.

Please also remember that this is a taught master’s programme. The dissertation
is important and of course you want to do well, but it is one-fourth of your final
mark, and should be given appropriate time in your study schedule.

When marking a dissertation, the examiners are looking for the student:
 to have identified an interesting area
 to show a good understanding of the issues and the difficulties they present
 to demonstrate a knowledge of the relevant law and literature, and an ability to
  discuss, analyse and criticise the law and literature
 to maintain relevance and not to stray from the key issues
 to show good writing skills: spelling, punctuation, grammar and good clear use
  of English

The Thesis
 You need to produce a thesis. That is to say, you are to produce an idea of
   your own - an opinion (as it is called in legal practice) or a point of view,
   backed up – of course - with reasons
 Merely describing what others have said is insufficient to obtain even middling
 So the dissertation should be written from a committed standpoint: What is
   your view, and what are the arguments which justify it? Moreover, which
   arguments are most important, and why? This will also involve criticising other
   views and recognising the flaws in your own

Choosing a topic
 The dissertation must be connected to a taught course(s) during the year.
  When making your choice of courses in October you must select courses to
  the value of 135 credits in which you will take the designated assessment
  (examination or examination and essay) and you must select one 45-credit
  course or a 22.5-credit course that will be assessed through dissertation. It is
  permissible to write the dissertation in the area covered by only one of the 22.5
  credit courses, but you are expected to attend two such courses, to make up
  your 180 credits. The course(s) related to your dissertation will appear on the
  transcript as Dissertation and not as the title of the relevant course(s).
 Although you may be writing on a relatively narrow area within a course, you

    are expected to attend and engage fully in the course. In order to write a good
    dissertation it is important that you have an understanding of the issues
    involved and this means having a broader knowledge than would be acquired
    by focusing entirely on a narrow point to the exclusion of all other issues.
   In some courses the teachers will provide suggestions for dissertation topics
    and in others the choice will be left to students subject to guidance from the
    teachers on that course. You are urged to discuss your choice of topic with
    your teachers as early as possible.
   Teachers will not read drafts of dissertations (any more than they would read a
    draft of an examination answer before the student submits it!)
   You will need to read relevant texts, articles, and commentaries on the subject,
    but most of all to think about what you have read.
   You will presumably choose a question which you find interesting, important,
    or puzzling, and one which you feel you have the knowledge and
    understanding, or can acquire the knowledge and understanding, to tackle

 Your dissertation MUST contain a thesis - an argument - of the validity of
   which you wish to convince the reader. It is not sufficient that you merely give
   ‘an account’ of what other people have written.
 Your argument, and thus your dissertation, should have a logical structure.
   Each stage of the argument should be clearly visible.
 If necessary, use sub-titles or other ‘signposts’ which allow the reader to follow
   your argument, e.g. ‘I have shown the reasons in favour of this approach to
   law; I will now consider and refute the most important arguments against it.’
   Adopt a sensible principle of paragraphing; in general, a paragraph states an
   argument, whereas a sentence states a thought.
 Be clear at each point of the dissertation what it is that you are trying to
 Two sorts of dissertation to avoid are:
       o the Parrot - this where you repeat arguments from a single textbook;
           although summarising and criticising ideas from one or several sources
           is acceptable, and
       o the Whodunit - this is where you merely describe the arguments of
           famous thinkers X, Y, and Z, and then abruptly conclude that Z is right,
           although this approach would be acceptable if you explained why X and
           Y are wrong and Z is right.

The introduction
 The introduction is the most important part of the dissertation. It is often best to
   write the introduction last. Or else to have a ‘running introduction’ or abstract

    which you can amend as you go along, as you may find that what you want to
    say changes as you read and think about the subject in the course of writing.
   There are several points which you need to make in your introduction:
       o Interpret the title. Many questions can be understood in more than one
          way. For instance, a question on the relative merits of legal positivism,
          may deal primarily with the command theory, with Hart’s concept of law,
          or with Kelsen’s pure theory of law (to name but three). You should say
          what you understand the title to mean.
       o State your thesis. What argument are you going to advance in response
          to the demands of the title? What is the central theme of your
       o State briefly how you are going to answer the question. What is the
          structure of your argument, and therefore of your dissertation?

The middle
 Here you should:
 summarise/synthesise the normal understanding of the topic you are dealing
   with, including reference to sources – cases, seminal articles etc
 analyse that material
 criticise it
 and then put your own thesis or perspective.

 This should write itself.
 If you have nothing new to say, then do not merely repeat your argument.
  Conclusions are much over-rated!

Writing skills are important
 Mean what you say and say what you mean. If you do not write in clear and
   correct English, your meaning will be lost.
 Make sure that you avoid ambiguity (where your words may have two
   meanings), obscurity (where your words have multifarious meanings), and
   nonsense (where your words have no meaning).
 Avoid the opposite dangers of redundancy (where you use more words than
   are necessary - sometimes called ‘waffle’ - and include repetition) and over-
   compactness (where you do not use enough words to explain your meaning).
   An example of redundancy is ‘It is submitted that …’ These four words are
   pointless (besides being pompous)
 Write in complete sentences.
 Spell your words correctly - remember that a spell-checker will only tell you
   whether words exist or not in its dictionary, but not whether you are using the
   right words.

   Learn – if you do not know already – where to place the apostrophe in the
    genitive case.
   It is a good idea to complete the dissertation at least two weeks before you
    need to submit it. This allows for unforeseen problems, which can occur if you
    leave the completion of the dissertation to the last few days: such as sudden
    emergencies, illnesses or the computer crashes. There will be no extension
    of the deadline for any reason whatsoever. In addition, completing early
    means that you can set the dissertation aside and then to re-read it carefully.
    Do the words on the page accurately represent the thoughts in your head?
    You may very well find that you have not made your points clearly enough.
    You now have a bit of time to tighten up the dissertation.

There is no required format for your dissertation. Use the many articles which you
will have read as a guide to how to present your paper.

You do not need to provide an abstract or summary of your thesis. Begin with the

Part 4: Plagiarism
It is important that you understand what plagiarism is, and how to ensure that you
do not plagiarise.

The UCL’s current definition of plagiarism, and general advice given to students
about it, is as follows:

     “Plagiarism is defined as the presentation of another person's thoughts
     or words or artefacts or software as though they were a student's own.
     Any quotation from the published or unpublished works of other
     persons must, therefore, be clearly identified as such by being placed
     inside quotation marks, and students should identify their sources as
     accurately and fully as possible. A series of short quotations from
     several different sources, if not clearly identified as such, constitutes
     plagiarism just as much as does a single unacknowledged long
     quotation from a single source. Equally, if a student summarises
     another person's ideas, judgements, figures, software or diagrams, a
     reference to that person in the text must be made and the work referred
     to must be included in the bibliography.”

     “Self-plagiarism is defined as the presentation of the student’s own
     thoughts or words or artefacts or software where it has been previously
     submitted for the award of credit or the completion of a course-unit or
     module. Any quotation from the student’s own published or unpublished
     works must, therefore, be clearly identified as such by being placed
     inside quotation marks, and students should identify their sources as
     accurately and fully as possible. A series of short quotations from
     several different sources, if not clearly identified as such, constitutes
     plagiarism just as much as does a single unacknowledged long
     quotation from a single source. Equally, if it is a summary of the
     student’s own ideas, judgements, figures, software or diagrams, a
     reference in the text must be made and the work referred to must be
     included in the bibliography.”

UCL’s definition of plagiarism also includes the following:

     “Recourse to the services of 'ghost-writing' agencies (for example in the
     preparation of essays or reports) or of outside word-processing
     agencies which offer correction/improvement of English is strictly
     forbidden, and students who make use of the services of such agencies
     render themselves liable for an academic penalty.”

      “Use of unacknowledged information downloaded from the internet
     also constitutes plagiarism.”

The consequences for plagiarism are set out in the Regulations for Boards of
Examiners, as follows.

     “Failure to observe any of the provisions of this policy or of approved
     departmental guidelines constitutes an examination offence under UCL
     and University Regulations. Examination offences will normally be
     treated as cheating or irregularities under the Regulations in respect of
     Examination Irregularities. Under these Regulations students found to
     have committed an offence may be excluded from all further
     examinations of UCL or the University or of both.”

Examples of Plagiarism
Extreme examples would be copying another student’s assessed coursework
essay or dissertation and pretending it is your work, paying someone to write an
assessed coursework essay or dissertation for you, or copying large chunks of
material from sources such as the internet, text books and articles and passing
them off as yours.

Remember that you must also quote properly when discussing case law. Do not
copy the facts of the case from the head note.

How to avoid committing plagiarism
 Do not copy other people’s work into your assessed coursework essay or
 If you want to quote from textbooks or articles or material on the internet you
  must put the quotation in inverted commas and give the source in a footnote to
  the quotation
 Do not over-rely on quotes. A guide (but not a rule) is to avoid quoting more
  than thirty words at a time unless absolutely necessary. The quote should be
  followed by your own evaluation or contributions
 If you want to refer to and then adopt or criticise a commentator’s views
  without quoting that person, be absolutely clear about this. For instance, write
  ‘Bloggs suggests that….. and I consider this to be a better interpretation that
  Bliggs’, who prefers the view that….. because…..’
 When you do refer to or quote the views of another person you should realise
  that you will only get credit for the fact that you found it and realise that it is
  relevant. To get more than this minimal credit for it you need to comment on it,
  i.e. to explain why you agree or disagree with it, analyse it etc. You need to
  add your own views. Of course, it may be that you need to go through the
  ideas of a few writers before discussing them and adding your own views.
 A large part of the purpose of the education you receive at UCL is that you
  should learn to process what you read for yourself, that is analyse, criticise or

   synthesise it and come up with your own views or your own version of what
   you read or, much more importantly, what you think yourself. Quoting from
   others or adopting others’ view without comment is contrary to the whole point
   of your educational experience. A good law student understands the rules and
   arguments sufficiently well to be able to express them concisely and to criticise

What is wrong with plagiarism?
First, it is deceitful and dishonest and a breach of UCL regulations. A student is
deceiving teachers and future employers or clients by pretending that someone
else’s work is his or hers, and thus pretending that they are better at the matters
evidenced in the assessed coursework essay or dissertation than they really are.
It is absolutely essential that lawyers develop a proper sense of ethics and
honesty. Without it they cannot be admitted to the professions, they cannot be
good lawyers and they will get into trouble at work.

Secondly, it deprives students who plagiarise of the opportunity to improve their
legal writing and to develop the knowledge base and skills that they will need to
be successful in their career, whether as lawyers or in some other capacity.

Thirdly, it destroys the relationship of mutual trust, confidence and respect that
should exist between students and their teachers. It is difficult for a teacher to
have confidence in a student’s work once it is known that the student has
plagiarised, and it is hard for a teacher to give a good reference for a student in
whom he or she has lost confidence.

It is often the case that students plagiarise because they have not left sufficient
time to complete the assessed coursework essay or dissertation, or because
some emergency has arisen. This does not reduce the gravity of the offence.
Remember: The point of the work that you will do in this degree programme is to
secure that you know and understand:
 a certain amount of information about law
 how that information has been interpreted by various commentators,
 what your teachers and other commentators think about these matters,

but most importantly the point is that you build up the analytical, synthesising and
critical skills and judgment to enable you to develop your own
 analysis,
 synthesis,
 criticism and
 interpretation of the material and
 skills of argumentation; and

    to have the confidence to differ from commentators and your teachers where
     your own judgment tells you to do so, and to put your own views persuasively.

In other words:
 your teachers do not expect you to agree with their views, though they
    probably expect you to accept the information you acquire from them and from
    your reading as factually accurate, unless you can show that it is not;
 your teachers do expect you to formulate your own views on a basis of
    information and sound analysis, criticism and interpretation and to argue them

A true story about plagiarism
A Professor of Mathematics at UCL gave his research student a problem and
asked him to find the answer. The student thought that the professor did not know
the answer to this rather difficult question and wanted the student to find it out for
him. So the student tried to find the answer in some books but could not do so,
and emailed a lot of professors of mathematics round the world to ask them if they
knew the answer. He then presented the answer to the professor as his own.

      •     Question: Was this what the professor wanted the student to do?
      •     Answer: Obviously not. The professor knew the answer all along.
      •     Question: What did the professor want the student to do?
      •     Answer: The point of asking the student was so that the student would
            work out for himself the answer to the questions.

The Professor realised what his student was doing because eminent
mathematician colleagues from round the world were emailing him expressing
surprise that the student was asking them for answers. When he found this out the
student was embarrassed. His professor had lost confidence in him and it took
time for the student to re-establish his credibility and for the professor to accept
that he had not been cheating or just lazy.

Recycling is the submission of work that you have published or have submitted
previously to a university as part of your studies on another degree course. Just
as your dissertation and dissertation work must be your own so it must be original
in the sense of being first written for the UCL LLM Programme. Attempts
significantly to recycle written work will be treated similarly to plagiarism. This
does not prevent you from developing such work, but the difference must be
significant. One of the points about undertaking the degree is to develop your
skills and knowledge and not simply to repeat work you have already done.

UCL has signed up to use a sophisticated detection system called Turnitin, to
scan work for evidence of plagiarism and the Faculty will use this for all assessed
coursework essays and dissertations. This system gives access to billions of
sources worldwide, including websites, journals and work previously submitted to
the Faculty, UCL and other universities. You will be notified throughout the year
about the procedure of submitting assessed coursework essays and your
dissertation to Turnitin.

You must ensure that no aspect of your dissertation has been plagiarised,
intentionally or otherwise. It is your responsibility to ensure that you
understand what plagiarism is and that you do not plagiarise your work.
Plagiarism is a serious breach of examination (assessment) regulations
under UCL’s Examination Regulations for Taught Programmes. Breaches of
examination (assessment) regulations will normally be treated as cheating
or irregularities under UCL Regulations for proceedings in respect of
Examination Irregularities. Under these Regulations students found to have
committed an offence may be excluded from all further examinations and in
serious cases may be excluded from UCL.

Part 5: Presentation guidelines
    dissertations should be word processed and text should be double spaced
    font should be Times New Roman, point 12
    left and right margins should be set allowing enough space for binding
    a bibliography of books, articles, websites, etc. used in your work must be
     included at the end of the dissertation
    the bibliography is excluded from the final word count of the dissertation
    footnotes/endnotes and appendices are included in the final word count for
     your dissertation
    footnotes should be printed at the bottom of the page on which they appear.
     Go to ‘insert’ ‘reference’ ‘footnote’. Note references in the text should be
     printed outside (not inside)1 the punctuation.2 Keep footnotes brief and to the
     point. They should be used mainly to cite cases, statutes, books, articles, etc.
     Do not put text in the footnote: if it is important, it should go in the main body of
     the dissertation; if it is not worth putting in the main body, leave it out.
    the word count should be stated at the end of your dissertation. You must not
     exceed the word limit. Markers and examiners will not read beyond the word
    the submission form supplied by the Graduate Office, should include the title of
     the course in which you have written your dissertation and the relevant course
     code (not the dissertation code LAWSG099), your examination candidate
     number, word count, name of your teacher
    the first page of your dissertation must include the full title of your dissertation
    your examination candidate number (which can be found at the top of your
     personal examination timetable) should be included as a header or footer on
     each page of your dissertation
    page numbers should be used in the footer of your dissertation
    only white A4 paper should be used
    print on one side of the paper only
    only one bound copy of the dissertation is required
    your dissertation must be soft bound (see section on binding for further
    your dissertation should be submitted with a completed Submission Form
     (bound with the dissertation) and Dissertation Declaration Form supplied by
     the Graduate Office, plus a copy of your Turnitin receipt by the published
     submission deadline (the Declaration Form and Turnitin receipt should not be
     bound with your dissertation as they contain you name and dissertations are
     marked anonymously)
    do not include your name anywhere on the dissertation or Submission Form
     as all dissertations are marked anonymously
    diagrams, charts, graphs, etc can be difficult to get right. Just be careful that

    you don’t waste too much time.
   Typography is important, you can loose marks for bad typography
         o the main principle is to make your dissertation easy to read
         o avoid clutter, such as underlining and anything that is unnecessary
         o use double quotation marks
         o you may use headings and sub-headings as required, normally two
            levels of headings is the maximum (to do this use the headings facility
            on the toolbar to the left of the font box in word)
         o you do not need to provide an abstract or summary
   Short Quotations should be placed in ‘double inverted commas' such as "it
    was bluebell time in Scotland". Quotations of more than a few lines should be
    indented using Tab (0.5 inches). Under such an indent, a new paragraph
    should not be indented. When omitting part of the quotation use ellipsis (three
    periods only): " … ”unless the omission ends a sentence: " …. "If a question
    mark is necessary at the end of quotation dots, treat the question mark as a
    full stop; thus " …? "

Bibliography and Citation
Provide a bibliography at the end for all the references used in the paper. Do not
include in your bibliography references which have not been used in your paper.
There is no need to mention cases here. The bibliography does not count towards
the 12,000 word limit.

Books and articles should be cited as follows. The general rule is italics for the
titles of books and newspapers and ‘quotes’ for articles; the relevant page
number(s) must be provided. Publishers need not be provided.

Examples of citations of books and articles follow.


     M. Mouse, Let’s Kill All the Lawyers (Los Angeles, 1964), p.663.


     T. Tubbies, ‘Banality and Stupidity: Structuralist Accounts of Infantile
     Obesity’,in Mouse (ed.), Striking a Balance: Couch Potatoes and the
     Pathology of Sloth (London, 2003), p.114

Articles in periodicals:

     M. Mouse, ‘Goofy and Humour: a Post-Structuralist, Hermeneutic Critique’,
     (2006) 43 Disney Quarterly Review 45.

All bibliographical abbreviations, even the most common, should appear in full on
the first appearance with an indication (if any) being adopted in subsequent
citations of that same source.

In subsequent citations, books and articles already cited should appear in
shortened form without references:

     Mouse, Let’s Kill All the Lawyers, n.4 above, p.650.
     Tubbies, n.5 above, pp.150-55
     ‘Op. cit.’ and ‘loc. cit.’ should be avoided. ‘Ibid.’, meaning ‘in that same
     place’, should be used carefully and sparingly. Remember that not everyone
     speaks Latin.

Legal cases should be cited according to the appropriate convention.

Examples of citation of legal cases follow.

       Pepper v Hart [1993] AC 593 (HL)
       R (Roberts) v Parole Board [2004] EWCA Civ 1031, [2005] QB 410
       R v Lord Chancellor, ex p Witham [1998] QB 575 (QB)
       Thompson Holidays Ltd v Norwegian Cruise Lines Ltd [2003] RPC 32
       Case T-344/99 Arne Mathisen AS v Council [2002] ECR II-2905
       Case C-491/01 R v Secretary of State ex p BAT and Imperial Tobacco
       [2002] ECR I-11453
       Case C-444/02 Fixtures Marketing Ltd v OPAP (ECJ 9 November 2004)
       Michael v Johnson 426 US 346, 23 S Ct 118 (1976)
       Waltons Stores (Interstate) Ltd v Maher (1988) 164 CLR 387 (High Court of

Legislation should be cited as follows.

Cite UK legislation according to short titles:

       Children Act 1995
       Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001
       Human Rights Act 1998 s 15(1)(b)

For UK subsidiary legislation:

       Extradition (Suppression of Terrorism) Order 1978 SI 1978/1106 sch 2

For EC Directives, Regulations and Notices:

       Council Regulation (EC) 139/2004 on the control of concentrations
       between undertakings (the EC Merger Regulation) [2004] OJ L24/1 art 5
       Council Regulation (EC) 1984/2003 of 8 April 2003 introducing a system for
       the statistical monitoring of trade in bluefin tuna, swordfish and big eye tuna
       within the Community [2003] OJ L295/1

Cite legislation from other jurisdictions as it is cited in that jurisdiction.

International treaties should be cited as follows.

Multilateral treaties:
       Universal Declaration of Human Rights (adopted 10 December 1948 UNGA
       Res 217 A(III) (UDHR) art 5
       Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees (adopted 31 January 1967,
       entered into force 4 October 1967) 606 UNTS 267 (Protocol) art 2
       UNGA International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of
       Terrorism (adopted 9 December 1999, opened for signature 10 January
       2000) (2000) 39 ILM 270

Bilateral treaties:

       Rehabilitation and Development Co-Operation Agreement (Australia–
       Nauru) (5 May 1994) ATS 1994 15


       Agreement on Agriculture (15 April 1994) LT/UR/A-1A/2 art 2
       Declaration on Trade Measures Taken for Balance-of-Payments Purposes
       (28 November 1979) BISD 26S/205, 208

Regional treaties:

       EC Treaty (Treaty of Rome, as amended) art 3b
       Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty) art G5
       Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental

       Freedoms (European Convention on Human Rights, as amended) (ECHR)
       art 2
       African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (adopted 27 June 1981,
       entered into force 21 October 1986) (1982) 21 ILM 58 (African Charter)

For international decisions, follow the citation used for the court or tribunal.

Part 6: Submission
Your dissertation must be submitted in the required format with all necessary
forms fully completed, with a copy of the Turnitin receipt, to the Graduate office by
the submission deadline of 12 noon on Wednesday 1 September 2010.
Dissertations will not be accepted by anyone else on your behalf, nor will they be
accepted via email or post; unless prior authorisation for alternative dissertation
submission has been sought and agreed by the Administrative Manager for
Graduate Programmes. Absolutely no extensions will be granted to the deadline
of 12 noon on Wednesday 1 September 2010.

You must submit in person. If you are not able to submit in person, for whatever
reason, you must make an application to the Administrative Manager for Graduate
Programmes for alternative dissertation submission by recorded post or courier.
Please note that dissertations, for which alternative submission has been granted,
must arrive in the Graduate Office no later than 12 noon on Wednesday 1
September 2010. This means that you must have your dissertation finished,
submitted to Turnitin and sent in advance of Wednesday 1 September 2010, so
as to arrive by than the deadline.

If you have completed early you may submit your completed dissertation prior to
the submission deadline to the Graduate office.

Turnitin – plagiarism detection software
All dissertations must be uploaded to Turnitin – plagiarism detection software,
before you submit your dissertation to the Graduate Office. Once you have
uploaded your dissertation to Turnitin, you will be sent a receipt of submission to
your email account. This receipt should be printed and submitted with the hard
copy of your dissertation by the submission deadline to the Graduate Office.
Failure to upload an electronic version of your dissertation to Turnitin by the
submission deadline will be treated as non-submission and no mark will be

Many universities use Turnitin software, therefore you are advised to have your
final draft ready a few days before the deadline, so that you can submit it to
Turnitin and obtain your receipt.

All dissertations submitted to the Graduate Office must be bound. The reason for
binding is that the dissertations need to be protected to withstand the examination
process. Soft comb ring binding with plain acetate covers is our preferred form of
binding. Comb ring binding is commonly used and can be done by most binding

and printing companies.
Most binding and printing companies will usually stipulate how much time they
need to bind your dissertation. You should not turn up on the day of the
dissertation submission deadline and expect your dissertation to be bound
immediately. You should organise your time so that you have sufficient time to
bind your dissertation and submit it to the Graduate Office by the submission
deadline. Late submission of your dissertation due to binding problems will not be
considered under extenuating circumstances.

It is your responsibility to find a company that will bind your dissertation.

Appendix 1                            Examples of Previous Dissertation Titles

Course Code Course Title                                      Dissertation Title
LAWSG003    Environmental Law and Policy                      Liability For Historic Pollution: Controversies Surrounding The UK
                                                              Land Regime

LAWSG003     Environmental Law and Policy                     Management Plans In Special Areas Of Conservation
LAWSG003     Environmental Law and Policy                     Implementation Of The Habitats Directive In The United Kingdom

LAWSG003     Environmental Law and Policy                     The Relationship Between Renewable Energy Objectives And
                                                              Nature Conservation Law

LAWSG005     EU Environmental Law I                           Challenges Of The EC Waste Hierarchy
LAWSG005     EU Environmental Law I                           Legal Nature Of The Emissions Allowance Under The EU ETS

LAWSG005     EU Environmental Law I                           The Role Of EMAS In A “Mixed Governance System”
LAWSG005     EU Environmental Law I                           The New Regulatory Approaches In The EU: The Implementation
                                                              Of The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC In Greece

LAWSG008     Constitutional and Institutional Law of the EU   Is EU Law Appropriate To Effectively Safeguard The Value Of
                                                              Cultural Diversity? The Case Of EU Audiovisual Policy

LAWSG013     The World Trade Organisation and Trade           The Role Of The WTO In Global Administrative Law:
             Linkages in the World Trade Organisation         Transparency And Participation In WTO Practice

LAWSG013     The World Trade Organisation and Trade           WTO Investment Liberalisation Initiatives
             Linkages in the World Trade Organisation

LAWSG013   The World Trade Organisation and Trade     National Treatment In Trade And Investment: Is The Way Forward
           Linkages in the World Trade Organisation   A Single Doctrine Or Maintain A Dual System?

LAWSG013   The World Trade Organisation and Trade     Impacts Of The WTO Commitments In Agriculture On China’s
           Linkages in the World Trade Organisation   Agricultural Policies

LAWSG015   EC Competition Law                         Rethinking Parallel Trade Of Pharmaceutical Products: The
                                                      Potential Effects On Pharmaceutical Markets In European

LAWSG015   EC Competition Law                         Article 82 EC: From Formal Legalistic Definitions Of Practices To
                                                      An Effects Based Approach

LAWSG015   EC Competition Law                         Leniency In Cartel Cases: An Appraisal Of The Relative
                                                      Application Of Competition Law In The European Union And The
                                                      United Kingdom.

LAWSG020   Foreign Relations Law                      The Relationships Between States And International
                                                      Organisations: Does A UN Mandate Affect State Responsibility In
                                                      Military Operations

LAWSG020   Foreign Relations Law                      Consular Notification And Access

LAWSG020   Foreign Relations Law                      The Role Of International Recognition In The Conduct Of The
                                                      Foreign Relations Of Palestine

LAWSG021   Jeremy Bentham and Utilitarian Tradition   On Bentham’s Individuation Of A Law

LAWSG021   Jeremy Bentham and Utilitarian Tradition   Utility Or Economy: The Principle At The Heart Of Jeremy

LAWSG022   International Commercial Litigation         European Harmonisation Of The Conflict Of Laws: An Assessment
                                                       Of The Traditional And European Rules Governing Jurisdiction

LAWSG022   International Commercial Litigation         Choice Of Venue And Forum Shopping: Is There A Problem?

LAWSG022   International Commercial Litigation         To What Extent Is Forum Shopping A Legitimate And Beneficial
                                                       Aspect Of International Litigation Which, Rather Than Being
                                                       Eradicated, Should Be Embraced?

LAWSG023   International and Comparative Insolvency    Critique On Corporate Rescue Procedure In India'

LAWSG023   International and Comparative Insolvency    Universalism & The Need To Revisit An International Insolvency
           Law                                         Regime

LAWSG023   International and Comparative Insolvency    International Co-Operation Of Cross-Border Insolvency In China -
           Law                                         Focusing On Recognition And Assistance Of Foreign Proceedings

LAWSG024   Law and Economics of Regulated Industries   Regulatory Holidays For New Gas Infrastructure - Do We Really
                                                       Need Article 22- Exemptions?

LAWSG024   Law and Economics of Regulated Industries   The Costs And Benefits Of Drugs Price Regulation In The Greek

LAWSG024   Law and Economics of Regulated Industries   Airline Industry: Regulation Of The EU And US International
                                                       Relations - The New 'Open Skies' Agreement

LAWSG025   Jurisprudence and Legal Theory              The Compatibility Of The Rule Of Law With Evil Regimes

LAWSG025   Jurisprudence and Legal Theory              Civil Disobedience And Obligation From Fair Play

LAWSG025   Jurisprudence and Legal Theory              Hart's 'Moral Project' And TWO Problems From The Postscript

LAWSG027   Gender, Law and the State             Afghan Women In Pakistan: Existence In Refugee Environment

LAWSG027   Gender, Law and the State             Hierarchical Gender Arrangements And The European Court Of
                                                 Human Rights

LAWSG027   Gender, Law and the State             The Position Of Children, Family, And Society In The Context Of
                                                 Human Reproductive Cloning

LAWSG028   International Environmental Law       Conservation And Co-Operation In High Seas Fisheries

LAWSG028   International Environmental Law       Can Substantive Environmental Protection Be Achieved In The
                                                 Framework Of The European Convention On Human Rights

LAWSG028   International Environmental Law       The Mox Plant Case: The European Court Of Justice, Irish Politics
                                                 And Policy, And Constructive Development Of The Principle Of
                                                 The Duty To Co-Operate

LAWSG029   International Business Transactions   The Rome Convention On Contractual Obligation As A Vehicle For
                                                 Conversation: An Assessment

LAWSG029   International Business Transactions   Culpa In Contrahendo And Pre-Contractual Liability For Breaking
                                                 Off Negotiations In Germany And England Within The Context Of
                                                 The Rome II Regulation

LAWSG030   International Human Rights Law        Cultural Genocide: A Discourse Forgotten

LAWSG030   International Human Rights Law        A Social Right To Water

LAWSG030   International Human Rights Law        The Right To Life Is A Universal Right To Which International
                                                 Human Rights Is Fully Committed

LAWSG030   International Human Rights Law           Violation Against Women In Northern Iraq With Particular
                                                    Reference To Honour Killings

LAWSG032   Banking Law                              The Effectiveness Of Regulation In The Banking Industry - A
                                                    Study Of The Northern Rock Affair

LAWSG032   Banking Law                              The Development Of The Regulation In International Banking:
                                                    Origins Of Basel

LAWSG033   Legal Aspects of International Finance   Securitisation: The Benefits And Underlying Problems Of
                                                    Transferring Assists To A Special Purpose Vehicle

LAWSG037   Children and their Rights                Secrecy, Stigma And Sperm Donation: A Discussion Of The
                                                    Rights Of The Child Born Via Sperm Donation To A Full Identity

LAWSG037   Children and their Rights                Falling Through Gaps In The Immigration System

LAWSG037   Children and their Rights                Child Soldiers In The African Context: International Legal
                                                    Protections And The Moral Dilemma

LAWSG037   Children and their Rights                The Synthesis Of Age And Gender: Intersectionalism, Human
                                                    Rights Law And The Marginalisation Of The Girl-Child

LAWSG039   Family, Law and Society                  Marriage And Cohabitation: The Clash Of The Titans

LAWSG039   Family Law and Society                   Opening Pandora's Pre-Nup: Problems And Paradoxes For The
                                                    Law Commission

LAWSG039   Family Law and Society                   Are Children Being Hear In Family Proceedings Following Parental

LAWSG041   Insurance Law                            Looking Through The Kaleidoscope: Is There A Global Regulator
                                                    For Insurance?

LAWSG041   Insurance Law                                Aligning The Reciprocal Duty Of Utmost Good Faith

LAWSG041   Insurance Law                                The Right Of Subrogation Should Be Abolished In The UK

LAWSG042   Law and Economics of Regulated Markets       Reforming The Estate And Lettings Agent Profession

LAWSG042   Law and Economics of Regulated Markets       Is EU Law Appropriate To Effectively Safeguard The Value Of
                                                        Cultural Diversity? The Case Of EU Audiovisual Policy

LAWSG042   Law and Economics of Regulated Markets       Is Further Centralisation The Way Forward For Electricity
                                                        Governance In The EU? Building A Framework For Assessment
                                                        On New Institutional Economics'

LAWSG046   International and Comparative Competition    Ways Out Of Anarchy - Avenues Towards A Global Governance
           Law and Policy                               Of Antitrust

LAWSG046   International and Comparative Competition    Administrative Mono Restraints Of Competition In China - How
           Law and Policy                               Can The Anti-Monopoly Law Take Effect

LAWSG047   Judicial Review / UK Constitutional Law in   Towards A Substantive Model Of Socio Economic Rights
           Transition                                   Adjudication For The UK

LAWSG048   Competition Law and Intellectual Property    Applying Intellectual Property Rights To The Fashion Industry

LAWSG048   Competition Law and Intellectual Property    Non Traditional Trademarks - Public Policy And The 'Need To
           Rights                                       Keep Free' Doctrine

LAWSG048   Competition Law and Intellectual Property    The Essential Facilities Doctrine And Intellectual Property Rights:
           Rights                                       Mapping Unchartered Territories

LAWSG052     UK Constitution in Transition / UK           “A Lost Chance? YL And Defining The Domain Of Human Rights
             Governance                                   Law.”

LAWSG054     Comparative Freedom of Speech                Protecting The Thought We Hate: An Analysis Of The Feminist
                                                          Approach To The Problem Of Pornography

LAWSG054     Comparative freedom of speech                The Private Interest Of Public Figures And The Public Interest In
                                                          Disclosure Of Their Private Lives: The Merits Of Public Figure
                                                          Defences To Libel And Privacy

LAWSG056     War Law                                      The Question Of Legality Of The 2003 Iraq Invasion

LAWSG056     War Law                                      Forcible Interdiction Of Ships Transporting Terrorists

LAWSG056     War Law                                      For And Against The Unreasonable Veto: A Constitutional
                                                          Consideration Of The Issues

LAWSG063     The Law of Trade Marks and Brands            Personality Rights In The US And The UK: Is Vanna Too Much? Is
                                                          Irvine Not Enough?

LAWSG064     International and Comparative Law of Trade   The Emperor's New Clothes? The Way Forward: TV Format
             Marks, Designs and Unfair Competition        Protection Under Unfair Competition Law In The US, UK And

LAWSG064     International and Comparative Law of Trade   The Battle Against The Look-Alikes: A Challenge For Brand
             Marks, Designs and Unfair Competition        Owners Under The Current UK Legal Position

LAWSG066 /   The Law of Copyright and Designs / The       A Practical And Legal Analysis Into Proposed Legislation To The
62           Commercialisation of Intellectual Property   Dilemma Of Orphan Works

LAWSG066 /   The Law of Copyright and Designs / The Law   What Is The Best Method Of IP Protection
63           of Trade Marks and Brands

LAWSG067     EU Administrative Law             Freedom Of Information Law: Its Role In Ordering The Constitution
                                               Of The European Union

LAWSG067     EU Administrative Law             Reform Of Subsidiarity Within The European Community – A
                                               Misguided Approach?

LAWSG068     Comparative Human Rights Law      Freedom Of Speech In Pakistani Law

LAWSG068     Comparative Human Rights Law      Comparison Of German And English Divorce Law Under A
                                               Historical And Socio-Legal Perspective

LAWSG068     Comparative Human Rights Law      Time For A British Bill Of Rights?

LAWSG069     International Arbitration         A Case For Modernising The Jamaican Arbitration Statute

LAWSG069     International Arbitration         A Critical Analysis Of The Judicial Review Of Arbitral Awards On A
                                               Question Of Law

LAWSG069     International Arbitration         Neutrality Of International Arbitrators: Is The UK Standard Of The
                                               Impartiality Inadequately Low?

LAWSG071 /   UK Governance / Judicial Review   An Examination Of The Development In The Datafin Test In
47                                             Relation To The Amenability Of Self Regulatory Agencies For
                                               Judicial Review In The Early Years Of The 1990's, And A
                                               Consideration Of The Merits And Drawbacks Of The Path Taken

LAWSG072     Comparative Contract Law          The Proportionality Of A Binding European Civil Code

LAWSG072     Comparative Contract Law          Liquidated Damages Under Chise Contract Law: A Comparative

LAWSG072     Comparative Contract Law                      Wrapping Up Ambiguities Of E-Commerce Using Comparative

LAWSG072     Comparative Contract Law                      Pre-Contractual Liability: Good Faith, Conscience And Equity.

LAWSG073 /   International and European Contract and       A Role For Contractual And Restitutionary Remedies Within The
45           Sales Law / European Competition Laws         Private Enforcement Of The EC Competition Law

LAWSG075     Corporate Insolvency                          The Defence Of Autonism. A Time For Reform

LAWSG075     Corporate Insolvency                          Book Debts: A Fixed Of Floating Charge

LAWSG075     Corporate Insolvency                          Set-Off In A Cross-Border Insolvency: What Happened Since
                                                           BCCI No.10

LAWSG076     Law and Policy of International Courts and    Legal And Policy Considerations In International Dispute
             Tribunals                                     Resolution: From The State's Perspective

LAWSG076     Law and Policy of International Courts and    An Investigation Into Lack Of Diversity Amongst Members Of The
             Tribunals                                     International Judiciary. Does Lack Of Diversity Affect The Quality
                                                           And Impartiality Of Decision Made By International Judicial

LAWSG077     Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions         Cross-Border Mergers In Europe - Can A Legal Framework Meet
                                                           The Requirements Of Business?

LAWSG075 /   Corporate Insolvency / Cross-border Mergers   The Corporate Rescue Culture. A Comparative View Of Two
77           and Acquisitions                              Different Jurisdictions: The UK And Spain

LAWSG080     Regulation of Financial Markets               Market Abuse Regulation In Greece After Implementation Of
                                                           Directive 2003/6/EC

LAWSG080   Regulation of Financial Markets   The Legal Analysis Of The Insider Trading In Takeovers

LAWSG080   Regulation of Financial Markets   The Enforcement Of FSA, And To Be Enforced

LAWSG082   Media Law                         Nimmers's False Dichotomy In Media Defamation Law:
                                             Uncovering The True Ad Hoc Balance

LAWSG082   Media Law                         The Shard Construction Or A Comparative Study: Personality And
                                             Its Facets Under English And German Law

LAWSG082   Media Law                         Why Is Broadcasting Subject To A Considerably Greater Degree
                                             Of Regulation Than That Applied To Print Media?

LAWSG084   Civil and Public Litigation       Can The Rhetoric Of Justice Be Reconciled With The Practical
                                             Requirements Of Running A Civil Litigation System?

LAWSG085   International Criminal Law        Why Genocide? The Darfur Question Revisited?

LAWSG085   International Criminal Law        Feigned And Forgotten Policies: An Assessment Of International
                                             Sentencing And Punishment

LAWSG086   International Energy Law          Implementation Of Philippine Bio Fuels Law: A Potential Source Of
                                             International Law Violation

LAWSG086   International Energy Law          India's Civil Nuclear Policy: A Step In The Right Direction

LAWSG086   International Energy Law          Energy Security: Better Protection Within Or Without The
                                             European Union?

LAWSG087   Criminal Law Doctrines            Live Or Let Die? Acts, Omission And The Conduct Requirement In
                                             Criminal Liability

LAWSG087   Criminal Law Doctrines                     Provocation, Duress And Diminished Responsibility: Negating The
                                                      Mandatory Life Sentence Penalty

LAWSG088   International Law of Foreign Investment    What Acts Of State May Be Characterises As Amounting To
                                                      Indirect Expropriation?

LAWSG089   Russian Commercial Law                     Treteiskii Sud' And Commercial Arbitration In Russian Federation

LAWSG090   Corporate Insolvency I                     Chinese Bankruptcy Regime And Possible Effect On Investments
                                                      By Applying The English Insolvency Law In China

LAWSG092   Marine Insurance Law                       The Reform Of 'Strict Compliance Rule' In Marine Insurance

LAWSG092   Marine Insurance Law                       How Will The English Laws Probably Develop In Relation To The
                                                      Doctrine Of Insurable Interest For Marine Insurance

LAWSG093   Carriage of Goods by Sea                   ISPS: Securing Port Safety?

LAWSG093   Carriage of Goods by Sea                   Is Electronic Bill Of Lading Capable To Secure The Proprietary

LAWSG094   Alternative Dispute Resolution             The Changing Face Of Mediation

LAWSG094   Alternative Dispute Resolution             Mediation And Its Impact Of Indian Judiciary

LAWSG094   Alternative Dispute Resolution             Online Mediation

LAWSG098   US Anti-trust Law and EC Competition Law   Merger Control In Brazil - A Comparative Analysis Between The
                                                      Brazilian, The US And The EC Regimes

LAWSG098     US Anti-trust Law and EC Competition Law     A Study Of Essential Facility Doctrine: A Comparative Approach
                                                          Under US And EU Competition Law And Proposals To China's

LAWSG100     UK Human Rights and Equality Law             Balancing Articles 8 And 10: Restrictions On Court Reporting To
                                                          Protect Children

LAWSG100     UK Human Rights and Equality Law             Silenced Protest: The Failure To Positively Facilitate
                                                          Demonstration Within The United Kingdom

LAWSG101     International and Comparative Secured        Security Interest Over Tangible Assets: A Comparative Approach

LAWSG101     International and Comparative Secured        A Review Of The Call For Reform Of The Law Of Security In
             Transactions                                 Respect Of Securitisation

LAWSG101     International and Comparative Secured        Fixed Charges Over Book Debts Following The Decision In Re
             Transactions                                 Spectrum Plus Ltd

LAWSG102 /   The Role of Economics in Competition Law /   Article 82 Competition Law And The Commercialisation Of
62           Commercialisation of Intellectual Property   Intellectual Property In The Bio-Pharmaceutical


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