Development of European Literature

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					    European Literature

Part 2: Significant Authors and their works
Ancient Greek Literature
Introduction
 literature of the Greek-speaking peoples from about the 8th
  century BC to the present.
 This literature developed as a national expression with little
  outside influence, until it had a formative effect upon all
  succeeding European literature.
Homer
 the name traditionally
  assigned to the author of the
  Iliad and the Odyssey, the
  two major epics that have
  survived from Greek
  antiquity. Nothing is known
  of Homer as an individual,
  and in fact it is a matter of
  controversy whether a single
  person can be said to have
  created both the Iliad and the
  Odyssey.
Plato (428?-347 BC)
 Greek philosopher, one of
  the most creative and
  influential thinkers in
  Western philosophy
 one of the most famous
  philosophers of ancient
  Greece, was the first to use
  the term philosophy, which
  means ―love of knowledge.‖
The Republic
 One of the most influential works of philosophy and political
  theory, and Plato's best known work.
 Content
   Definition of justice- the action of doing what one ought to do, or
    of doing what one does best, according to one's class within society.
   Theory of universals- myth of the cave (The shadowy environment of
    the cave symbolizes for Plato the physical world of appearances.
    Escape into the sun-filled setting outside the cave symbolizes the
    transition to the real world, the world of full and perfect being, the
    world of Forms, which is the proper object of knowledge.
   The dialectical forms of government (Oligarchy, Tyranny, Democracy,
    Timocracy)
Aesop (620?-560?BC)

 ancient Greek writer of fables, who is supposed to have been a
  freed slave from Thrace
 His name became attached to a collection of beast fables long
  transmitted through oral tradition.
 The various collections that go under the rubric "Aesop's Fables"
  are still taught as moral lessons and used as subjects for various
  entertainments, especially children's plays and cartoons.
 Many stories included in Aesop's Fables, such as The Fox and the
  Grapes (from which the idiom "sour grapes" was derived), The
  Tortoise and the Hare, The North Wind and the Sun and The Boy
  Who Cried Wolf, are well-known throughout the world.
The Fox and the Grapes
 the tale of a hungry fox
  who finds some ripe grapes
  on a vine but cannot reach
  them. The fox, frustrated,
  leaves the grapes and
  declares them to be sour
  anyway. The moral
  associated with this tale is
  that things beyond our
  reach are often despised.
Greek Tragedian
  Aeschylus (525?-456 BC)
    Father of tragedy
    He excelled in presenting supermen, in depicting Gods, Titans and heroes
    He is called the theological poet because his plays had great spiritual and
     religious fervor; he present he presents the original dignity and greatness of
     nature and of mankind.
    Greatest work: Prometheus, trilogy Oresteia (Agamemnon, Cheophori,
     Eumenidies)
  Sophocles (496?-406? BC)
    One of the three great tragic dramatists of ancient Greece.
    Sophocles continues to use the chorus in most of his plays, but it serves
     primarily to suggest the larger moral and religious dilemmas posed by human
     actions.
    Sophocles composed more than 120 plays. Of these, 7 complete tragedies and
     fragments of 80 or 90 others are preserved. The seven surviving plays are
     Antigone, Oedipus Rex or Oedipus Tyrannus (Oedipus the King), Electra, Ajax,
     Trachiniae (Maidens of Trachis), Philoctetes, and Oedipus at Colonus.
Greek Tragedian
  Euripedes (480?-406? BC)
    He is called a modern playwright- wrote merely serious play
    He portrayed the Gods as powerful but also capricious and silly, while
     humans cannot understand the deities and it is useless to try to do so; it is
     certainly silly to worship them because they are not just.
    The theme of tragedy is the sufferings and disasters that befall human
     beings. Our own lives and those of others are wrecked by ignorance and
     foolishness, uncontrolled passions and emotions, and greed, ambition, and
     cruelty.
    Tragedies of Euripides for which we know the date of the first production
     is Alcestis (438 BC), Medea (431 BC), Hippolytus (428 BC), TrojanWomen (415
     BC), Helen (412 BC), Orestes (408 BC), and Iphigenia in Aulis and Bacchae
     (both produced posthumously, 405 BC).
Aristophanes (448?-385 BC)

  Master of Greek Comedy
  He was first and foremost a
   satirist
  The intention of his plays is
   to attack the faults and
   weaknesses of society
  Works: The Birds, The
   Frogs and The Wasp
Ancient Roman Literature

 Significant Authors and their writings
Ancient Roman Literature
 the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an
  enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. The Romans
  produced many works of poetry, comedy, tragedy, satire,
  history, and rhetoric, drawing heavily on the traditions of
  other cultures and particularly on the more matured literary
  tradition of Greece.
Virgil (70-19 BC)
 Greatest writer that Rome
  produced
 He began as a lyric poet of
  great passion and melody
 The greatest epic in Rome
  is the Aeneid, wherein the
  subject matter sets way
  back in the Greek
  legendary age
Horace (65-8 BC)
 Quintus Horatius Flaccus
 Roman lyric poet and satirist, whose works are masterpieces
  of Latin literature of the Golden Age.
 Horace produced works that fall into four categories: satires,
  epodes, odes, and epistles.
Cicero (106-43 BC)
 Marcus Tullius Cicero
 Master orator and tireless writer on rhetoric and philosophy
 In his writings Cicero created a rich prose style that has
  exercised a pervasive influence on all the literary languages of
  Europe. His writing covers numerous subjects of intellectual
  interest, and he greatly enriched the vocabulary of his own
  language as well as those of the modern European tongues.
  Nearly all of his philosophical works were borrowed from
  Greek sources and, apart from their intrinsic merit, are of
  great value in preserving much of Greek philosophy that
  might otherwise have remained unknown
  Spanish Literature

Significant Author and their writings
Spanish Literature
 literature of Spain from about AD 1000 until the present,
  written in the Spanish language.
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547-1616),

 Spanish writer,
  considered by many to be
  the greatest Spanish
  author, whose novel Don
  Quixote (Part I, 1605;
  Part II, 1615) is regarded
  as one of the
  masterpieces of world
  literature.
Don Quixote
Don Quixote
 The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha
 most influential work of literature to emerge from the Spanish Golden
  Age and perhaps the entire Spanish literary canon
 Don Quixote describes the adventures of an idealistic Spanish nobleman
  who, as a result of reading many tales of chivalry, comes to believe that
  he is a knight who must combat the world's injustices
 Originally intended as a satire on medieval tales of chivalry. The
  completed work, however, presents a rich picture of Spanish life and
  contains many philosophical insights. Don Quixote's quest has been seen
  as an allegory of the eternal human quest for goodness and truth in the
  face of insurmountable obstacles. His idealism seems to be madness in a
  world that sometimes views heroism and love as forms of insanity, and
  this has led many readers to consider Don Quixote a tragedy despite its
  satirical style and many comical episodes.
Italian Literature
Italian Literature
 literature written in the Italian language from about the 13th
  century to the present.
 Dante Alighieri (1265-1321)
 Italian poet, and one of the
  supreme figures of world
  literature, who was admired
  for the depth of his spiritual
  vision and for the range of his
  intellectual accomplishment.
 Greatly influencing poetry
  and the arts, and
  summarizing political,
  scientific, and philosophical
  thought of the time in his epic
  masterpiece, The Divine
  Comedy
Divine Comedy
   Central epic poem of Italian literature, and is seen as one of the greatest
    works of world literature.
   composed of over 14,000 lines that are divided into three canticas (Ital.
    pl. cantiche) — Inferno (Hell), Purgatorio (Purgatory), and Paradiso
    (Paradise) — each consisting of 33 cantos
   In each of these three realms the poet meets with mythological, historical,
    and contemporary personages. Each character is symbolic of a particular
    fault or virtue, either religious or political; and the punishment or
    rewards meted out to the characters further illustrate the larger meaning
    of their actions in the universal scheme.
   Dante is guided through hell and purgatory by Virgil, who is, to Dante,
    the symbol of reason. The woman Dante loved, Beatrice, whom he
    regards as both a manifestation and an instrument of the divine will, is his
    guide through paradise.
Divine Comedy- Inferno
 Virgil guides Dante through the nine circles of Hell. The circles are concentric,
   representing a gradual increase in wickedness, and culminating at the center of the
   earth, where Satan is held in bondage. Each circle's sinners are punished in a fashion
   fitting their crimes: each sinner is afflicted for all of eternity by the chief sin he
   committed. People who sinned but prayed for forgiveness before their deaths are
   found in Purgatory – where they labor to be free of their sins – not in Hell.
 Circle of hell
   First circle-limbo
   Second circle- Lust
   Third Circle- Glutton
   Fourth Circle- avaricious or miserly
   Fifth circle- wrathful and sloth
   Sixth circle- Heretics
   Seventh circle- Violent
   Eighth Circle- Fraudulent
   Ninth circle- Betrayers/traitors
Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-75)

  Italian writer and humanist, one
   of the great authors of all time.
  Boccaccio’s most important
   work is Il Decamerone (Ten Days’
   Work), which was begun in
   1348 and completed in 1353; it
   was first translated into English,
   as The Decameron, in 1620.
     It consist of 100 stories
      masterfully organized to give
      impression of a total view of
      society
     Theme- show the complexity of
      human beings and their
      helplessness before the terrible
      force of nature
 Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374)
 Italian poet and humanist,
  who is considered the first
  modern poet. His perfection
  of the sonnet form later
  influenced such English poets
  as Geoffrey Chaucer, William
  Shakespeare, and Edmund
  Spenser.
Petrarchan Sonnet/Italian Sonnet
 The Petrarchan sonnet consists of an octave, or eight-line stanza,
  and a sestet, or six-line stanza. The octave has two quatrains,
  rhyming a b b a, a b b a, but avoiding a couplet; the first quatrain
  presents the theme, the second develops it. The sestet is built on
  two or three different rhymes, arranged c d e c d e, or c d c d c d, or
  c d e d c e; the first three lines exemplify or reflect on the theme,
  and the last three lines bring the whole poem to a unified close
Sample of Italian sonnet
 When I consider how my light is spent (a)
   Ere half my days, in this dark world and wide, (b)
   And that one talent which is death to hide, (b)
   Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent (a)
  To serve therewith my Maker, and present (a)
   My true account, lest he returning chide; (b)
   "Doth God exact day-labor, light denied?" (b)
   I fondly ask; but Patience to prevent (a)
  That murmur, soon replies, "God doth not need (c)
   Either man's work or his own gifts; who best (d)
   Bear his mild yoke, they serve him best. His state (e)
  Is Kingly. Thousands at his bidding speed (c)
   And post o'er land and ocean without rest; (d)
  They also serve who only stand and wait." (e)
Niccolò Machiavelli (1469-1527)
 Italian historian, statesman,
  and political philosopher,
  whose amoral, but influential
  writings on statecraft have
  turned his name into a
  synonym for cunning and
  duplicity.
The Prince
 a political treatise by the Florentine public servant and
  political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli.
 He describes the method by which a prince can acquire and
  maintain political power. This study, which has often been
  regarded as a defense of the despotism and tyranny of such
  rulers as Cesare Borgia, is based on Machiavelli's belief that a
  ruler is not bound by traditional ethical norms. In his view, a
  prince should be concerned only with power and be bound
  only by rules that would lead to success in political actions.
French Literature
French Literature
 French Literature, the literature of France, from the mid-
  800s until the present. French literature is considered one of
  the richest and most varied national literatures, noted
  especially for its examination of human society and the
  individual’s place within society.
Alexander Dumas (1802-1870)
 French novelist and
  playwright of the romantic
  period, known as Dumas père.
  Dumas, the most widely read
  of all French writers, is best
  remembered for his historical
  novels The Three Musketeers
  (1844; trans. 1846) and The
  Count of Monte-Cristo (1844;
  trans. 1846).
Antoine de Saint Exupery (1900-1944)
 Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger de Saint-Exupéry
 French writer and aviator
 Saint-Exupéry also was an enthusiastic aviator who wrote
  about his experiences in several novels.
 He joined the French air force in 1921 and became a
  commercial pilot in 1926.
The Little Prince
 Best known for his
  children’s classic, The Little
  Prince (1943), which has
  been translated into more
  than 100 languages.
 The Little Prince makes
  several profound and
  idealistic points about life
  and human nature. Saint-
  Exupéry tells of meeting a
  young prince in the middle
  of the Sahara.
Victor Hugo (1802-1885)
  French poet, novelist, and
   playwright, whose
   voluminous works
   provided the single greatest
   impetus to the Romantic
   Movement.
  He brought to his plays and
   novels to common man-
   the labourer or peasants-
   and made them humane
   and sympathetic, a figure
   of noble action
Les Miserable
 novel that vividly describes and
  condemns the social injustice of
  19th-century
 The novel principally focuses on the
  struggles of the main character, ex-
  convict Jean Valjean, as he seeks to
  redeem himself from his past
  mistakes. It also provides social
  commentary by examining the
  impact of Valjean's actions: and it
  examines the nature of good, evil,
  and the law, in a sweeping story that
  expounds upon the history of
  France, architecture of Paris,
  politics, moral philosophy,
  antimonarchism, justice, religion,
  and the types and nature of
  romantic and familial love.
Michel de Montaigne (1533-92)
  French writer, who introduced the essay as a literary form. His
   essays, which range over a wide variety of topics, are
   characterized by a discursive style, a lively conversational tone,
   and the use of numerous quotations from classical writers.
  Essays-The book is a collection of a large number of short
   subjective treatments of various topics published in 1580.
   Montaigne's stated goal is to describe man, and especially
   himself, with utter frankness.
Germanic Literature
Germanic Literature
 literature written in the German language from the 8th
  century to the present, and including the works of German,
  Austrian, and Swiss authors.
Anne Frank (1929-1945)
 German-Jewish diarist,
  known for the diary she
  wrote while hiding from anti-
  Jewish persecution in
  Amsterdam, Netherlands,
  during World War II (1939-
  1945).
 Her diary describes with
  wisdom and humor the two
  arduous years she spent in
  seclusion before her tragic
  death at the age of 15. Since it
  was first published in 1947,
  her diary has appeared in
  more than 50 languages.
Diary of a Young Girl
 a book based on the excerpts
  from a diary written by Anne
  Frank while she was in hiding
  for two years with her family
  during the Nazi occupation of
  The Netherlands. The family
  was apprehended in 1944 and
  Anne Frank ultimately died of
  typhus in the Bergen-Belsen
  concentration camp. After the
  war, the diary was retrieved
  by Anne's father, Otto Frank.
English Literature
English Literature
 literature produced in England, from the introduction of Old
  English by the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century to the
  present. The works of those Irish and Scottish authors who
  are closely identified with English life and letters are also
  considered part of English literature.
Beowulf
 An Anglo-Saxon epic poem, the
  most important work of Old
  English literature
 Although the date of the poem is
  unknown, the earliest surviving
  manuscript is believed to date from
  the late 10th century.
 On the basis of this text, Beowulf is
  generally considered to be the work
  of an anonymous 8th-century
  Anglian poet who fused
  Scandinavian history and pagan
  mythology with Christian elements.
 The poem consists of 3182 lines,
  each line with four accents marked
  by alliteration and divided into two
  parts by a caesura
Summary of Beowulf
 The poem tells of a hero, a Scandinavian prince named
  Beowulf, who rids the Danes of the monster Grendel, half
  man and half fiend, and Grendel's mother, who comes that
  evening to avenge Grendel's death. Fifty years later Beowulf,
  now king of his native land, fights a dragon who has
  devastated his people. Both Beowulf and the dragon are
  mortally wounded in the fight. The poem ends with
  Beowulf's funeral as his mourners chant his epitaph.
Geoffrey Chaucer (1343?-1400)
 one of the greatest English
  poets, whose masterpiece,
  The Canterbury Tales, was
  one of the most important
  influences on the
  development of English
  literature.
 Increasing the prestige of
  English as a literary
  language, through his
  contributions to early
  English literature
The Canterbury Tales
 The Tales is a collection of stories
  set within a framing story of a
  pilgrimage to Canterbury
  Cathedral, the shrine of Saint
  Thomas à Becket.
 composed of more than 18,000
  lines of poetry, is made up of
  separate blocks of one or more tales
  with links introducing and joining
  stories within a block.
 24 of the projected 124 tales were
  completed, shows Chaucer's
  absolute mastery of the storyteller’s
  art
 It portrays a wide range of
  humanity and present a vivid and
  detailed picture of England
St. Augustine of Hippo (354-430)
 greatest of the Latin Fathers
  and one of the most eminent
  Western Doctors of the
  Church.
 one of the most important
  figures in the development of
  Western Christianity.
 Augustine developed many of
  his doctrines while
  attempting to resolve
  theological conflicts with
  Donatism and Pelagianism,
  two heretical Christian
  movements.
Confession
 The work outlines Augustine's sinful youth and his conversion
  to Christianity.
 first Western autobiography ever written, and was an
  influential model for Christian writers throughout the
  following 1000 years of the Middle Ages.
John Milton (1608-1674)
 English poet, whose rich,
  dense verse was a powerful
  influence on succeeding
  English poets, and whose
  prose was devoted to the
  defense of civil and
  religious liberty.
Paradise Lost
 Milton’s masterpiece and one of the greatest poems in world
  literature.
 It is written in 12 books that vividly tell the story of Satan’s
  rebellion against God and his tempting of Adam and Eve to
  eat the forbidden fruit of the tree of knowledge.
 It is richly ornamented with references to classical mythology
  and literature, echoes of the Bible, figures of speech, metrical
  devices, allegorical representations, puns, and concealed
  rhymes
William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
 English playwright and
  poet, recognized in much
  of the world as the greatest
  of all dramatists. Hundreds
  of editions of his plays have
  been published, including
  translations in all major
  languages.
Shakespeare’s play
 Exploring elemental themes of power, justice, love, and death
  in his tragedies, comedies, histories, romances.
 Creating realistic stage characters whose appeal comes in
  their truly human motives, actions, and flaws.
 also notable for their use of soliloquies, in which a character
  makes a speech to him- or herself so the audience can
  understand the character's inner motivations and conflict
 Adding innumerable phrases and quotations to the English
  language
Classification of Shakespeare’s play
 Comedies- The Comedy of Error, Two Gentlemen of Verona,
    A Midsummer Night’s dream, Merchant of Venice
   Tragedies- Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet Julius Caesar, Macbeth
   Romance- The Tempest, Pericle, Prince of Tyre, Cymbelin
   Histories- King John, Richard II, Richard III
   Problem play- All’s Well that ends well, Troilus and Cressida,
    Measure for Measure
Shakespearean Sonnets
 He wrote 154 sonnets, first published in 1609
 The rhyme scheme of the sonnets is abab, cdcd, efef, gg. A
  theme is developed and elaborated in the quatrains, and a
  concluding thought is presented in the couplet.
 The first 126 sonnets are apparently addressed to a handsome
  young nobleman, presumably the author’s patron.
 The next 28 sonnets are written to a ―dark lady,‖ whom the
  poet seemingly cannot resist.
 His sonnets are a sensational story of love, lust and disloyalty
  that may not have been inspired by his own experience
Sample Shakespearean Sonnet
 Let me not to the marriage of true minds (a)
  Admit impediments, love is not love (b)
  Which alters when it alteration finds, (a)
   Or bends with the remover to remove. (b)
   O no, it is an ever fixed mark (c)
   That looks on tempests and is never shaken; (d)
   It is the star to every wand'ring bark, (c)
   Whose worth's unknown although his height be taken. (d)
     Love's not time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks (e)
     Within his bending sickle's compass come, (f)
     Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, (e)
      But bears it out even to the edge of doom: (f)
       If this be error and upon me proved, (g)
       I never writ, nor no man ever loved. (g)
 Sonnet 118
Sir Thomas More (1478-1535)
 English statesman and writer,
  known for his religious stance
  against King Henry VIII that
  cost him his life.
 Sir Thomas More was known
  for his intelligence and
  devotion to the Catholic
  church. That devotion put
  him at odds with his one-time
  friend, King Henry VIII, who
  had More beheaded for
  refusing to sanction, as lord
  chancellor, Henry’s divorce
  from Catherine of Aragón.
Utopia
 a satirical account of life on the fictitious island of Utopia.
 On this island the interests of the individual are subordinate
  to those of society at large, all people must do some work,
  universal education and religious toleration are practiced,
  and all land is owned in common.
 These conditions are contrasted with those of English society,
  to the substantial disadvantage of the latter
Charles Dickens(1812-1870)
 the best-known and, to many people,
  the greatest English novelist of the 19th
  century.
 A moralist, satirist, and social reformer,
  Dickens crafted complex plots and
  striking characters that capture the
  panorama of English society.
 Dickens’s novels criticize the injustices
  of his time, especially the brutal
  treatment of the poor in a society
  sharply divided by differences of
  wealth.
 Dickens’s novels rank among the
  funniest and most gripping ever
  written, among the most passionate and
  persuasive on the topic of social justice,
  and among the most psychologically
  telling and insightful works of fiction.
A Tale of Two Cities
 A historical novel by Charles Dickens, set in London and
  Paris before and during the French Revolution.
 It depicts the plight of the French proletariat under the brutal
  oppression of the French aristocracy in the years leading up
  to the revolution, and the corresponding savage brutality
  demonstrated by the revolutionaries toward the former
  aristocrats in the early years of the revolution.
Jane Austen (1775-1817)
 English novelist, noted for
  her witty studies of early-
  19th-century English society.
 Austen portrayed the quiet,
  day-to-day life of members of
  the upper middle class. Her
  works combine romantic
  comedy with social satire and
  psychological insight.
 Exploring themes of
  marriage, family, and
  everyday country life in witty
  novels with strong heroines
Pride and Prejudice
 Austen’s first undoubted masterpiece
 The book focuses on the Bennet family and the search of the
  Bennet daughters for suitable husbands.
 Austen illuminates the topic of husband hunting and marriage
  in an acquisitive society and shows most of its aspects and
  consequences—comic, trivial, sensual, opportunistic,
  desperate, and hopeless
Lewis Carroll (1832-98)
 Charles Lutwidge Dodgson
 English author,
  mathematician, and
  logician, best known for his
  creation of the immortal
  fantasy Alice's Adventures in
  Wonderland.
Alice in Wonderland
 It tells the story of a girl
  named Alice who falls down a
  rabbit-hole into a fantasy
  world populated by peculiar
  and anthropomorphic
  creatures.
 It is considered to be one of
  the most characteristic
  examples of the genre of
  literary nonsense, and its
  narrative course and
  structure has been
  enormously influential,
  mainly in the fantasy genre.
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
 English philosopher and
  statesman, one of the
  pioneers of modern
  scientific thought.
 Introduced essay in
  England
 His works established and
  popularized an inductive
  methodology for scientific
  inquiry, often called the
  Baconian method or simply,
  the scientific method.
Scandinavian Literature
Scandinavian Literature
 the literature in the languages of the Nordic countries of
  Northern Europe. The Nordic countries include Denmark,
  Finland, Iceland, Norway (including Svalbard), Sweden and
  associated autonomous territories (Åland, Faroe Islands and
  Greenland).The majority of these nations and regions use
  North Germanic languages.
Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906)
 Well-constructed plays
  dealing realistically with
  psychological and social
  problems won him
  recognition as the father of
  modern drama.
 Drama became a serious and
  realistic presentation of the
  psychological and social
  problems of the people
 He attacked the hypocrisy of
  social conventions and
  selfishness and self-
  satisfaction of people
Hans Christian Anderson (1805-1875)
  Danish author, whose fairy tales
   have been translated into 150
   languages and have inspired plays,
   ballets, films, and works of
   sculpture and painting.
  Among his best-known stories are
   "The Steadfast Tin Soldier", "The
   Snow Queen", "The Little
   Mermaid", "Thumbelina", "The
   Little Match Girl", "The Ugly
   Duckling" and "The Red Shoes".
  Andersen's tales of fantasy, were
   innovative in their handling of
   sophisticated feelings and ideas
   and in their use of the vocabulary
   and constructions of spoken
   language.
Emperor’s New Clothes
 The fable tells the story of
  a king who believed only
  wise people could see the
  clothes made for him by a
  crafty tailor. He paraded
  nude down the road of his
  kingdom, wearing his
  ―new‖ clothes.

				
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