2002 Economic Census-Manufacturing Reports_Industry Series_ Medical Instruments

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					Surgical and
Medical Instrument
Manufacturing: 2002                                              Issued December 2004


                                                                 EC02-31I-339112 (RV)




2002 Economic Census
Manufacturing
Industry Series




                       U.S. Department of Commerce
                       Economics and Statistics Administration
                       U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
                  This report was prepared in the Manufacturing and Construction Division under the direction of Judy M.
                  Dodds, Assistant Division Chief for Census and Related Programs who was responsible for the overall
                  planning, management, and coordination. Robert Reinard, Chief, Consumer Goods Industries Branch,
                  assisted by Suzanne Conard, Susan DiCola, and James Hinckley, and Raphael Corrado,
                  Tom Flood, Robert Miller, and Robert Rosati, Special Assistants, performed the planning and
                  implementation. Bill Baldwin, Phillip Brown, Chris Cunningham, Karen Harshbarger, Tom Ickes,
                  Evelyn Jordan, Cathy Knudsen, Robert Lee, Jennifer Leotta, Michael Perkinson,
                  LaTanya Steele, Aronda Stovall, Susan Sundermann, Dora Thomas, and Ronanne Vinson,
                  provided primary staff assistance. Mendel D. Gayle, Chief, Census and Related Programs Support
                  Branch, assisted by Kimberly DePhillip, Section Chief, performed overall coordination of the
                  publication process. Patrick Duck, Michael Flaherty, Taylor C. Murph, Wanda Sledd, and
                  Veronica White provided primary staff assistance.

                  Mathematical and statistical techniques, as well as the coverage operations, were provided by
                  Paul Hsen, Assistant Division Chief for Research and Methodology Programs, assisted by Stacey Cole,
                  Chief, Manufacturing Methodology Branch, and Robert Struble, Section Chief. Jeffrey Dalzell and
                  Cathy Gregor provided primary staff assistance.

                  Eddie J. Salyers, Assistant Division Chief of Economic Planning and Coordination Division, was
                  responsible for overseeing the editing and tabulation procedures and the interactive analytical software.
                  Dennis Shoemaker and Kim Wortman, Special Assistants, John D. Ward, Chief, Analytical Branch,
                  and Brandy L. Yarbrough, Chief, Edit Branch, were responsible for developing the systems and
                  procedures for data collection, editing, review, and correction. Donna L. Hambric, Chief of the
                  Economic Planning Staff, was responsible for overseeing the systems and information for dissemination.
                  Douglas J. Miller, Chief, Tables and Dissemination Branch, assisted by Lisa Aispuro, Jamie Fleming,
                  Keith Fuller, Andrew W. Hait, and Kathy G. Padgett were responsible for developing the data
                  dissemination systems and procedures.

                  The Geography Division staff, Robert LaMacchia, Chief, developed geographic coding procedures and
                  associated computer programs.

                  The Economic Statistical Methods and Programming Division, Howard R. Hogan, Chief, developed and
                  coordinated the computer processing systems. Barry F. Sessamen, Assistant Division Chief for Post
                  Collection, was responsible for design and implementation of the processing system and computer
                  programs. Gary T. Sheridan, Chief, Macro Analytical Branch, assisted by Apparao V. Katikineni and
                  Edward F. Johnson provided computer programming and implementation.

                  The Systems Support Division provided the table composition system. Robert Joseph Brown, Table
                  Image Processing System (TIPS) Senior Software Engineer, was responsible for the design and
                  development of the TIPS, under the supervision of Robert J. Bateman, Assistant Division Chief,
                  Information Systems.

                  The staff of the National Processing Center performed mailout preparation and receipt operations,
                  clerical and analytical review activities, and data entry.

                  Margaret A. Smith, Bernadette J. Beasley, Michael T. Browne, and Alan R. Plisch of the
                  Administrative and Customer Services Division, Walter C. Odom, Chief, provided publication and
                  printing management, graphics design and composition, and editorial review for print and electronic
                  media. General direction and production management were provided by James R. Clark, Assistant
                  Division Chief, and Susan L. Rappa, Chief, Publications Services Branch.

                  Special acknowledgment is also due the many businesses whose cooperation contributed to the
                  publication of these data.
       Surgical and
 Medical Instrument
Manufacturing: 2002                              Issued December 2004


                                                 EC02-31I-339112 (RV)




            2002 Economic Census
                         Manufacturing
                           Industry Series




         U.S. Department of Commerce
                     Donald L. Evans,
                              Secretary
                Theodore W. Kassinger,
                       Deputy Secretary

  Economics and Statistics Administration
                      Kathleen B. Cooper,
                         Under Secretary for
                           Economic Affairs

                        U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
                    Charles Louis Kincannon,
                                      Director
     ECONOMICS
  AND STATISTICS
 ADMINISTRATION



Economics
and Statistics
Administration
Kathleen B. Cooper,
Under Secretary
for Economic Affairs




U.S. CENSUS BUREAU
Charles Louis Kincannon,
Director
Hermann Habermann,
Deputy Director and
Chief Operating Officer
Vacant,
Principal Associate
Director for Programs
Frederick T. Knickerbocker,
Associate Director
for Economic Programs
Thomas L. Mesenbourg,
Assistant Director
for Economic Programs
William G. Bostic, Jr.,
Chief, Manufacturing
and Construction Division
                  CONTENTS




                                           Introduction to the Economic Census                                           v
                                           Manufacturing                                                                ix

                                           Tables

                                           1.    Historical Statistics for the Industry: 2002 and Earlier Years         1
                                           2.    Industry Statistics for Selected States: 2002                          2
                                           3.    Detailed Statistics by Industry: 2002                                  3
                                           4.    Industry Statistics by Employment Size: 2002                           4
                                           5.    Industry Statistics by Primary Product Class Specialization:
                                                  2002                                                                  5
                                           6a.   Products Statistics: 2002 and 1997                                     6
                                           6b.   Product Class Shipments for Selected States: 2002 and 1997
                                           7.    Materials Consumed by Kind: 2002 and 1997                              8

                                           Appendixes

                                           A.    Explanation of Terms                                                A–1
                                           B.    NAICS Codes, Titles, and Descriptions                               B–1
                                           C.    Methodology                                                         C–1
                                           D.    Geographic Notes
                                           E.    Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas
                                           F.    Comparability of Product Classes and Product Codes: 2002 to
                                                  1997                                                               F–1
                                                    Not applicable for this report.




Manufacturing Industry Series                                                                     Surgical & Medical Instrument Mfg   iii
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Introduction to the Economic Census


PURPOSES AND USES OF THE ECONOMIC CENSUS

The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the
nation’s economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the
general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 191, and 224) directs the Census
Bureau to take the economic census every 5 years, covering years ending in “2” and “7.”

The economic census furnishes an important part of the framework for such composite measures
as the gross domestic product estimates, input/output measures, production and price indexes,
and other statistical series that measure short-term changes in economic conditions. Specific uses
of economic census data include the following:

• Policymaking agencies of the federal government use the data to monitor economic activity and
  to assess the effectiveness of policies.

• State and local governments use the data to assess business activities and tax bases within
  their jurisdictions and to develop programs to attract business.

• Trade associations study trends in their own and competing industries, which allows them to
  keep their members informed of market changes.

• Individual businesses use the data to locate potential markets and to analyze their own produc-
  tion and sales performance relative to industry or area averages.

INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATIONS

Data from the 2002 Economic Census are published primarily according to the 2002 North Ameri-
can Industry Classification System (NAICS). NAICS was first adopted in the United States, Canada,
and Mexico in 1997. The 2002 Economic Census covers the following NAICS sectors:

21                          Mining
22                          Utilities
23                          Construction
31-33                       Manufacturing
42                          Wholesale Trade
44-45                       Retail Trade
48-49                       Transportation and Warehousing
51                          Information
52                          Finance and Insurance
53                          Real Estate and Rental and Leasing
54                          Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
55                          Management of Companies and Enterprises
56                          Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services
61                          Educational Services
62                          Health Care and Social Assistance
71                          Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation
72                          Accommodation and Food Services
81                          Other Services (except Public Administration)

(Not listed above are the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting sector (NAICS 11), partially
covered by the census of agriculture conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the
Public Administration sector (NAICS 92), largely covered by the census of governments conducted
by the Census Bureau.)

The 20 NAICS sectors are subdivided into 100 subsectors (three-digit codes), 317 industry groups
(four-digit codes), and, as implemented in the United States, 1,179 industries (six-digit codes).

2002 Economic Census                                                                 Introduction   v
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
RELATIONSHIP TO HISTORICAL INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATIONS

Prior to the 1997 Economic Census, data were published according to the Standard Industrial Clas-
sification (SIC) system. While many of the individual NAICS industries correspond directly to indus-
tries as defined under the SIC system, most of the higher level groupings do not. Particular care
should be taken in comparing data for retail trade, wholesale trade, and manufacturing, which are
sector titles used in both NAICS and SIC, but cover somewhat different groups of industries. The
1997 Economic Census Bridge Between NAICS and SIC demonstrates the relationships between
NAICS and SIC industries. Where changes are significant, it may not be possible to construct time
series that include data for points both before and after 1997.

Most industry classifications remained unchanged between 1997 and 2002, but NAICS 2002
includes substantial revisions within the construction and wholesale trade sectors, and a number
of revisions for the retail trade and information sectors. These changes are noted in industry defi-
nitions and will be demonstrated in the Bridge Between NAICS 2002 and NAICS 1997.

For 2002, data for enterprise support establishments (those functioning primarily to support the
activities of their company’s operating establishments, such as a warehouse or a research and
development laboratory) are included in the industry that reflects their activities (such as ware-
housing). For 1997, such establishments were termed auxiliaries and were excluded from industry
totals.

BASIS OF REPORTING

The economic census is conducted on an establishment basis. A company operating at more than
one location is required to file a separate report for each store, factory, shop, or other location.
Each establishment is assigned a separate industry classification based on its primary activity and
not that of its parent company. (For selected industries, only payroll, employment, and classifica-
tion are collected for individual establishments, while other data are collected on a consolidated
basis.)

GEOGRAPHIC AREA CODING

Accurate and complete information on the physical location of each establishment is required to
tabulate the census data for states, metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas, counties, and
corporate municipalities (places) including cities, towns, townships, villages, and boroughs.
Respondents were required to report their physical location (street address, municipality, county,
and state) if it differed from their mailing address. For establishments not surveyed by mail (and
those single-establishment companies that did not provide acceptable information on physical
location), location information from administrative sources is used as a basis for coding.

AVAILABILITY OF ADDITIONAL DATA

All results of the 2002 Economic Census are available on the Census Bureau Internet site
(www.census.gov) and on digital versatile discs (DVD-ROMs) for sale by the Census Bureau. The
American FactFinder system at the Internet site allows selective retrieval and downloading of the
data. For more information, including a description of reports being issued, see the Internet site,
write to the U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC 20233-6100, or call Customer Services at 301-
763-4100.

HISTORICAL INFORMATION

The economic census has been taken as an integrated program at 5-year intervals since 1967 and
before that for 1954, 1958, and 1963. Prior to that time, individual components of the economic
census were taken separately at varying intervals.

The economic census traces its beginnings to the 1810 Decennial Census, when questions on
manufacturing were included with those for population. Coverage of economic activities was
expanded for the 1840 Decennial Census and subsequent censuses to include mining and some
commercial activities. The 1905 Manufactures Census was the first time a census was taken apart

vi   Introduction                                                              2002 Economic Census
                                                                       U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
from the regular decennial population census. Censuses covering retail and wholesale trade and
construction industries were added in 1930, as were some service trades in 1933. Censuses of
construction, manufacturing, and the other business censuses were suspended during World War
II.

The 1954 Economic Census was the first census to be fully integrated, providing comparable cen-
sus data across economic sectors and using consistent time periods, concepts, definitions, classi-
fications, and reporting units. It was the first census to be taken by mail, using lists of firms pro-
vided by the administrative records of other federal agencies. Since 1963, administrative records
also have been used to provide basic statistics for very small firms, reducing or eliminating the
need to send them census report forms.
The range of industries covered in the economic census expanded between 1967 and 2002. The
census of construction industries began on a regular basis in 1967, and the scope of service
industries, introduced in 1933, was broadened in 1967, 1977, and 1987. While a few transporta-
tion industries were covered as early as 1963, it was not until 1992 that the census broadened to
include all of transportation, communications, and utilities. Also new for 1992 was coverage of
financial, insurance, and real estate industries. With these additions, the economic census and the
separate census of governments and census of agriculture collectively covered roughly 98 percent
of all economic activity. New for 2002 is coverage of four industries classified in the agriculture,
forestry, and fishing sector under the SIC system: landscape architectural services, landscaping
services, veterinary services, and pet care services.
Printed statistical reports from the 1992 and earlier censuses provide historical figures for the
study of long-term time series and are available in some large libraries. Reports for 1997 were
published primarily on the Internet and copies of 1992 reports are also available there. CD-ROMs
issued from the 1987, 1992, and 1997 Economic Censuses contain databases that include all or
nearly all data published in print, plus additional statistics, such as ZIP Code statistics, published
only on CD-ROM.

SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION
More information about the scope, coverage, classification system, data items, and publications
for the 2002 Economic Census and related surveys is published in the Guide to the 2002 Economic
Census at www.census.gov/econ/census02/guide. More information on the methodology, proce-
dures, and history of the census will be published in the History of the 2002 Economic Census at
www.census.gov/econ/www/history.html.




2002 Economic Census                                                                  Introduction   vii
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
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viii   Introduction                                           2002 Economic Census
                                                      U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Manufacturing


SCOPE

The Manufacturing sector (sector 31-33) comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical,
physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products.
The assembling of component parts of manufactured products is considered manufacturing,
except in cases where the activity is appropriately classified in Sector 23, Construction.

Establishments in the manufacturing sector are often described as plants, factories, or mills and
characteristically use power-driven machines and materials-handling equipment. However, estab-
lishments that transform materials or substances into new products by hand or in the worker’s
home and those engaged in selling to the general public products made on the same premises
from which they are sold, such as bakeries, candy stores, and custom tailors, may also be
included in this sector. Manufacturing establishments may process materials or may contract with
other establishments to process their materials for them. Both types of establishments are
included in manufacturing.

The materials, substances, or components transformed by manufacturing establishments are raw
materials that are products of agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, or quarrying, as well as prod-
ucts of other manufacturing establishments. The materials used may be purchased directly from
producers, obtained through customary trade channels, or secured without recourse to the market
by transferring the product from one establishment to another, under the same ownership. The
new product of a manufacturing establishment may be finished in the sense that it is ready for
utilization or consumption, or it may be semifinished to become an input for an establishment
engaged in further manufacturing. For example, the product of the alumina refinery is the input
used in the primary production of aluminum; primary aluminum is the input to an aluminum wire
drawing plant; and aluminum wire is the input for a fabricated wire product manufacturing estab-
lishment.

The subsectors in the manufacturing sector generally reflect distinct production processes related
to material inputs, production equipment, and employee skills. In the machinery area, where
assembling is a key activity, parts and accessories for manufactured products are classified in the
industry of the finished manufactured item when they are made for separate sale. For example, a
replacement refrigerator door would be classified with refrigerators and an attachment for a piece
of metal working machinery would be classified with metal working machinery. However, compo-
nents, input from other manufacturing establishments, are classified based on the production
function of the component manufacturer. For example, electronic components are classified in
Subsector 334, Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing; and stampings are classified in
Subsector 332, Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing.

Manufacturing establishments often perform one or more activities that are classified outside the
manufacturing sector of NAICS. For instance, almost all manufacturing has some captive research
and development or administrative operations, such as accounting, payroll, or management.
These captive services are treated the same as captive manufacturing activities. When the services
are provided by separate establishments, they are classified to the NAICS sector where such ser-
vices are primary, not in manufacturing.

The boundaries of manufacturing and the other sectors of the classification system can be some-
what blurry. The establishments in the manufacturing sector are engaged in the transformation of
materials into new products. Their output is a new product. However, the definition of what con-
stitutes a new product can be somewhat subjective. As clarification, the following activities are

2002 Economic Census                                                              Manufacturing    ix
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
considered manufacturing in NAICS: milk bottling and pasteurizing; water bottling and process-
ing; fresh fish packaging (oyster shucking, fish filleting); apparel jobbing (assigning of materials
to contract factories or shops for fabrication or other contract operations); as well as contracting
on materials owned by others; printing and related activities; ready-mixed concrete production;
leather converting; grinding of lenses to prescription; wood preserving; electroplating, plating,
metal heat treating, and polishing for the trade; lapidary work for the trade; fabricating signs and
advertising displays; rebuilding or remanufacturing machinery (i.e., automotive parts); ship repair
and renovation; machine shops; and tire retreading.

Exclusions. There are activities that are sometimes considered manufacturing, but for NAICS are
classified in another sector. These activities include logging, classified in Sector 11, Agriculture,
Forestry, Fishing and Hunting is considered a harvesting operation; the beneficiating of ores and
other minerals, classified in Sector 21, Mining, is considered part of the activity of mining; the
construction of structures and fabricating operations performed at the site of construction by con-
tractors, is classified in Sector 23, Construction; establishments engaged in breaking of bulk and
redistribution in smaller lots, including packaging, repackaging, or bottling products, such as
liquors or chemicals; the customized assembly of computers; sorting of scrap; mixing paints to
customer order; and cutting metals to customer order, classified in Sector 42, Wholesale Trade or
Sector 44-45, Retail Trade, produce a modified version of the same product, not a new product;
and publishing and the combined activity of publishing and printing, classified in Sector 51, Infor-
mation, perform the transformation of information into a product where as the value of the prod-
uct to the consumer lies in the information content, not in the format in which it is distributed
(i.e., the book or software diskette).

The tabulations for this sector do not include central administrative offices, warehouses, or other
establishments that serve manufacturing establishments within the same organization. Data for
such establishments are classified according to the nature of the service they provide. For
example, separate headquarters establishments are reported in NAICS Sector 55, Management of
Companies and Enterprises.

The reports described below exclude establishments of firms with no paid employees. These
“nonemployers,” typically self-employed individuals or partnerships operating businesses that
they have not chosen to incorporate, are reported separately in Nonemployer Statistics. The con-
tribution of nonemployers, relatively small for this sector, may be examined at
www.census.gov/nonemployerimpact.

The reports described below cover all manufacturing establishments with one or more paid
employees.

Definitions. Industry categories are defined in Appendix B, NAICS Codes, Titles, and Descrip-
tions. Other terms are defined in Appendix A, Explanation of Terms.

REPORTS

The following reports provide statistics on this sector:

Industry Series. There are 473 reports, each covering a single NAICS industry (six-digit code).
These reports include such statistics as number of establishments, employment, payroll, value
added by manufacture, cost of materials consumed, value of shipments, capital expenditures, etc.
The industry reports also include data for states with 100 employees or more in the industry. The
data in industry reports are preliminary and subject to change in the following reports.

Geographic Area Series. There are 51 separate reports, one for each state and the District of
Columbia. Each state report presents similar statistics at the “all manufacturing” level for each
state and its metropolitan and micropolitan areas with 250 employees or more, and for counties,
consolidated cities, and places with 500 employees or more. The state reports also include six-
digit NAICS level data for industries with 100 employees or more in the state.

Subject Series:

x   Manufacturing                                                              2002 Economic Census
                                                                       U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
• Industry-Product Analysis Summary. This report presents value of shipments, value of
  product shipments, percentage of product shipments of the total value of shipments, and per-
  centage of distribution of value of product shipments on the NAICS six-digit industry level and
  by the six- and seven-digit product code levels. It also includes miscellaneous receipts at the
  six- and seven-digit product code levels by NAICS six-digit industry levels.

• General Summary. This report contains industry and geographic area statistics summarized in
  one report. It includes higher levels of aggregation than the industry and state reports, as well
  as revisions to the data made after the release of the industry and state reports.

• Product Summary. This report summarizes the products data published in the industry
  reports. This report also includes a table with data for products that are primary to more than
  one industry, which are not in the industry reports.

• Materials Summary. This report summarizes the materials data published in the industry
  reports.

• Concentration Ratio Summary. This report publishes data on the percentage of value of ship-
  ments and value added accounted for by the 4-, 8-, 20-, and 50-largest companies for each
  manufacturing industry. Also shown in this report are Herfindahl-Herschmann indexes for each
  industry.

• Location of Manufacturing Plants Summary. This report contains statistics on the number
  of establishments for the three-and six-digit NAICS industry by state, county, place, and ZIP
  Code by employment-size of the establishment.

ZIP Code Statistics. This report contain statistics on the number of establishments for the three-
and six-digit NAICS industry by employment-size of the establishment by ZIP Code.

Other reports. Data for this sector are also included in reports with multisector coverage, includ-
ing Nonemployer Statistics, Comparative Statistics, Bridge Between 2002 NAICS and 1997 NAICS,
Business Expenses, and the Survey of Business Owners reports.

GEOGRAPHIC AREAS COVERED

The level of geographic detail varies by report. Maps are available at
www.census.gov/econ2002maps. Notes specific to areas in the state are included in Appendix D,
Geographic Notes.

 1. The United States as a whole.

 2. States and the District of Columbia.

 3. Metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas with 250 employees or more. A core based sta-
    tistical areas (CBSA) contains a core area with a substantial population nucleus, together with
    adjacent communities having a high degree of social and economic integration with that core.
    CBSAs are differentiated into metropolitan and micropolitan statistical areas based on size cri-
    teria. Both metropolitan and micropolitan areas are defined in terms of entire counties, and
    are listed in Appendix E, Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas.

     a. Metropolitan Statistical Areas (metro areas). Metro areas have at least one urbanized area of
        50,000 or more population, plus adjacent territory that has a high degree of social and eco-
        nomic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties.

     b. Micropolitan Statistical Areas (micro areas). Micro areas have at least one urban cluster of
        at least 10,000 but less than 50,000 population, plus adjacent territory that has a high
        degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties.

     c. Metropolitan Divisions (metro divisions). If specified criteria are met, a metro area contain-
        ing a single core with a population of 2.5 million or more may be subdivided to form
        smaller groupings of counties referred to as Metropolitan Divisions.

2002 Economic Census                                                                Manufacturing      xi
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
      d. Combined Statistical Areas (combined areas). If specified criteria are met, adjacent metro
         and micro areas, in various combinations, may become the components of a new set of
         areas called Combined Statistical Areas. The areas that combine retain their own designa-
         tions as metro or micro areas within the larger combined area.

4. Counties and county equivalents defined as of January 1, 2002, with 500 employees or more.
   Counties are the primary divisions of states, except in Louisiana where they are called par-
   ishes and in Alaska where they are called boroughs, census areas, and city and boroughs.
   Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, and Virginia have one place or more that is independent of any
   county organization and constitutes primary divisions of their states. These places are treated
   as counties and as places.

5. Economic places with 500 employees or more.

      a. Municipalities of 2,500 inhabitants or more defined as of January 1, 2002. These are areas
         of significant population incorporated as cities, boroughs, villages, or towns according to
         the 2000 Census of Population. For the economic census, boroughs and census areas in
         Alaska and boroughs in New York are not included in this category.

      b. Consolidated cities defined as of January 1, 2002. Consolidated cities are consolidated
         governments that consist of separately incorporated municipalities.

      c. Townships in Michigan, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, and towns in New York, Wisconsin,
         and the six New England states with 10,000 inhabitants or more (according to the 2000
         Census of Population).

      d. Balance of county. Areas outside the entities listed above, including incorporated munici-
         palities with populations of fewer than 2,500, town and townships not qualifying as noted
         above, and the remainders of counties outside places are categorized as “Balance of
         county.”

DOLLAR VALUES

All dollar values presented are expressed in current dollars; i.e., 2002 data are expressed in 2002
dollars, and 1997 data, in 1997 dollars. Consequently, when making comparisons with prior
years, users of the data should consider the changes in prices that have occurred.

All dollar values are shown in thousands of dollars.

COMPARABILITY OF THE 1997 AND 2002 ECONOMIC CENSUSES

Both the 2002 Economic Census and the 1997 Economic Census present data based on the North
American Industry Classification System (NAICS). While there were revisions to selected industries
for 2002, this sector is not affected by those revisions.

For 2002, there have been several additional data tables added, which did not exist in 1997.
These tables for 2002 include products primary to more than one industry, industry-product
analysis, e-commerce value of shipments, and leased and nonleased detail employment statistics
by subsectors.

RELIABILITY OF DATA

All data compiled for this sector are subject to nonsampling errors. Nonsampling errors can be
attributed to many sources: inability to identify all cases in the actual universe; definition and
classification difficulties; differences in the interpretation of questions; errors in recording or cod-
ing the data obtained; and other errors of collection, response, coverage, processing, and estima-
tion for missing or misreported data. Selected data in tables titled “Detailed Statistics” are based
on the Annual Survey of Manufactures and are subject to sampling errors as well as nonsampling
errors.

xii   Manufacturing                                                               2002 Economic Census
                                                                          U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
No direct measurement of these effects has been obtained except for estimation for missing or
misreported data, as by the percentages shown in the tables. Precautionary steps were taken in all
phases of the collection, processing, and tabulation of the data in an effort to minimize the effects
of nonsampling errors. More information on the reliability of the data is included in Appendix C,
Methodology.

DISCLOSURE

In accordance with federal law governing census reports (Title 13 of the United States Code), no
data are published that would disclose the operations of an individual establishment or company.
However, the number of establishments in a specific industry or geographic area is not considered
a disclosure; therefore, this information may be released even though other information is with-
held. Techniques employed to limit disclosure are discussed at
www.census.gov/epcd/ec02/disclosure.htm.

The disclosure analysis for “industry statistics” files is based on the total value of shipments.
When the total value of shipments cannot be shown without disclosing information for individual
companies, the complete line is suppressed except for capital expenditures. Nonetheless, the sup-
pressed data are included in higher-level totals. A separate disclosure analysis is performed for
capital expenditures, which can be suppressed even though value of shipments data are pub-
lished.

AVAILABILITY OF MORE FREQUENT ECONOMIC DATA

The Census Bureau conducts the Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) in each of the 4 years
between the economic censuses. The ASM is a probability-based sample of approximately 55,000
establishments and collects many of the same industry statistics (including employment, payroll,
value of shipments, etc.) as the economic census. However, there are selected statistics not
included in the ASM. Among these are the number of companies and establishments, detailed
product and materials data, and substate geographic data. In addition to the ASM, the Census
Bureau conducts the Current Industrial Reports (CIR) program. The CIR program publishes selected
detailed product statistics for selected manufacturing industries at the U.S. level annually and, in
some cases, monthly and/or quarterly. The Census Bureau also conducts the monthly Manufactur-
ers’ Shipments, Inventories, and Orders (M3) Program, which publishes detailed statistics for
manufacturing industries at the U.S. level.
In addition, the County Business Patterns program offers annual statistics on the number of estab-
lishments, employment, and payroll classified by industry within each county, and Statistics of
U.S. Businesses provides annual statistics classified by the employment size of the enterprise, fur-
ther classified by industry for the United States, and by broader categories for states and metro-
politan areas.

CONTACTS FOR DATA USERS

Questions about these data may be directed to the U.S. Census Bureau, Manufacturing & Construc-
tion Division, Information Services Center, 301-763-4673 or ask.census.gov.

ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

The following abbreviations and symbols are used with these data:
A           Standard error of 100 percent or more
D           Withheld to avoid disclosing data of individual companies; data are included in higher level totals
F           Exceeds 100 percent because data include establishments with payroll exceeding revenue
N           Not available or not comparable
S           Withheld because estimates did not meet publication standards
X           Not applicable
Z           Less than half the unit shown

a           0 to 19 employees
b           20 to 99 employees
c           100 to 249 employees


2002 Economic Census                                                               Manufacturing    xiii
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
e         250 to 499 employees
f         500 to 999 employees
g         1,000 to 2,499 employees
h         2,500 to 4,999 employees
i         5,000 to 9,999 employees
j         10,000 to 24,999 employees
k         25,000 to 49,999 employees
l         50,000 to 99,999 employees
m         100,000 employees or more

p         10 to 19 percent estimated
q         20 to 29 percent estimated
r         Revised
s         Sampling error exceeds 40 percent
nsk       Not specified by kind
–         Represents zero (page image/print only)
(CC)      Consolidated city
(IC)      Independent city




xiv    Manufacturing                                        2002 Economic Census
                                                    U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Table 1.        Historical Statistics for the Industry: 2002 and Earlier Years
[Data based on the 2002 Economic Census and the 2002 Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM). For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and explanation of
 terms, see note at end of table. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

                                                                             All employees                   Production workers
                                                                    All                                                                                                Total           Total     Total capital
                Industry and year1                             estab                                                                                  Value           cost of       value of        expendi
                                                       Com       lish                       Payroll                 Hours          Wages              added         materials    shipments              tures
                                                     panies2   ments3     Number4         ($1,000)    Number4      (1,000)        ($1,000)          ($1,000)        ($1,000)       ($1,000)         ($1,000)

339112, Surgical and medical instrument
 manufacturing                             2002       1 216     1 352     103   131   4   581   564    57   663   115   325   1   784   879    15   079   751   6   541   030   21   819   423      r930   691
                                           2001           N         N     105   417   4   764   252    60   568   112   993   1   776   974    16   880   557   6   783   831   23   559   230    1 066    011
                                           2000           N         N     103   653   4   421   627    58   273   112   101   1   661   079    16   317   796   5   717   279   21   778   210       919   264
                                           1999           N         N     105   956   4   294   525    61   968   118   684   1   724   690    15   307   724   5   500   276   20   624   416       832   356
                                           1998           N         N     108   837   4   257   081    65   163   124   613   1   736   104    14   311   821   5   673   796   19   940   659       712   223
                                           1997       1 456     1 594     105   016   4   015   772    63   366   124   251   1   665   856    13   148   075   5   145   141   18   292   919       721   701

         1Statistics presented for years ending in 2 and 7 are census data. Interim census years are derived in a representative sample of manufacturing establishments canvassed in the Annual Survey
of Manufactures (ASM).
         2For the census, a company is defined as a business organization consisting of one establishment or more under common ownership or control.
         3Includes establishments with payroll at any time during the year.
         4Number of employees figures represent average number of production workers for pay period that includes the 12th of March, May, August, and November plus other employees for payroll
period that includes the 12th of March.

          Note: The data in this table are based on the 2002 Economic Census and the 2002 Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM). To maintain confidentiality, the Census Bureau suppresses data to
protect the identity of any business or individual. The census results in this table contain sampling errors and nonsampling errors. Data users who create their own estimates using data from American
FactFinder tables should cite the Census Bureau as the source of the original data only. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For full technical documentation, see Appendix C.




Manufacturing Industry Series                                                                                                                 Surgical & Medical Instrument Mfg                             1
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Table 2.         Industry Statistics for Selected States: 2002
[States that are a disclosure or with less than 100 employees are not shown. Data based on the 2002 Economic Census. For information on confidentiality protection, nonsampling error, explanation of
 terms, and geographical definitions, see note at end of table. For information on geographic areas followed by *, see Appendix D. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

                                                       All establishments2      All employees                  Production workers

                                                                  With 20                                                                                                                          Total
         Industry and geographic area                                em                                                                                                Total            Total     capital
                                                                    ploy                                                                             Value            cost of        value of   expendi
                                                                   ees or                    Payroll                   Hours         Wages           added          materials     shipments        tures
                                                  E1      Total     more     Number3       ($1,000)    Number3        (1,000)       ($1,000)       ($1,000)         ($1,000)        ($1,000)    ($1,000)

339112, Surgical and medical instrument
 manufacturing
          United States                            2     1 352        601    103 131     4 581 564       57 663     115  325     1 784    879   15 079 751         6 541 030     21 819 423     r930   691
California                                         2       264        116     20 682     1 016 163        9 078      18  388       298    341    3 117 540         1 466 892      4 607 015     r241   080
Colorado                                           –        33         15      2 366        97 981        1 182       2  535        34    889      565 536            99 795        662 381       r17  175
Connecticut                                        1        39         19      4 273       196 764        2 631       5  469        90    053      518 268           404 370      1 043 566       r30  735
Florida                                            3        75         32      6 627       266 911        4 279       7  888       113    191      848 873           293 151      1 135 679       r71  591
Illinois                                           1        45         16      1 605        57 928        1 031       2  121        29    468      174 370            74 546        247 536       r19  569
Indiana                                            1        39         18      3 016       104 284        2 193       4  420        63    373      225 437           158 647        382 310         r7 734
Iowa                                               5         8          3        364        10 013          305          621         6    505       27 017            12 662         39 603           r788
Kansas                                             –         7          3        255         9 490          176          322         5    270      189 287            13 226        213 063        r2 005
Maryland                                           6        24          9      1 118        39 704          819        1 682        24    612      101 441            42 520        142 985      r21 125
Massachusetts                                      2        92         57      8 361       397 213        4 370        8 787       130    995    1 293 366           505 425      1 836 135      r63 296


Michigan                                           5         32        13      1   260      49   419        792        1   609       23   532      261   833          85   413      346   039    r10     550
Minnesota                                          2         66        34      6   669     355   633      2 775        5   647       95   388      718   545         306   149    1 047   832    r63     998
Missouri                                           3         26        12      1   527      54   484        994        1   399       27   516      178   132          55   369      235   233      r6    185
New Hampshire                                      3         18         8      1   661      72   576      1 023        2   085       35   737      213   591         103   470      303   908    r15     718
New Jersey                                         2         59        23      2   724     117   803      1 508        3   023       43   917      484   275         141   159      631   788    r17     535
New York                                           3         69        32      6   872     270   103      4 157        8   121      109   081      684   321         409   435    1 091   528    r49     136
North Carolina                                     3         31        16      2   736     103   674      1 922        4   012       53   633      502   376         178   595      680   801    r25     173
Ohio                                               3         45        21      3   217     129   491      1 956        4   025       54   726      325   921         121   758      457   532    r19     458
Oklahoma                                           2          8         5          355      12   946        226            445        5   676       35   191          50   616       85   721      r1    560
Oregon                                             2         19         3          325      15   179        160            321        5   731       46   043          12   769       57   849      r4    706

Pennsylvania                                       3         72        33      8 555       385   508      4 567        9 476        187   751    1 152   107         489   554    1 633   859    r65     825
Rhode Island                                       3          7         4        226         9   576        142          268          4   206       19   127           8   071       27   662            r930
Tennessee                                          1         23         9        559        18   011        453          925         11   474      107   206          33   104      140   337      r3    643
Texas                                              1         59        23      3 797       160   865      2 468        4 782         76   314      477   710         265   329      741   631    r25     090
Utah                                               2         19        14      2 883       133   335      1 523        3 143         38   643      435   454         160   915      594   672    r31     475
Virginia                                           3          7         4        346        11   245        259          493          6   565       45   564          31   519       76   220      r1    249
Washington                                         1         34        12        900        46   603        385          755         11   807      157   102          60   814      218   108      r8    190
Wisconsin                                          –         27        14      1 735        83   907        904        1 842         31   683      355   460         175   217      529   255    r13     853

         1Some payroll and sales data for small single establishment companies with up to 20 employees (cutoff varied by industry) were obtained from administrative records of other government
agencies rather than from census report forms. These data were then used in conjunction with industry averages to estimate statistics for these small establishments. This technique was also used for a
small number of other establishments whose reports were not received at the time data were tabulated. The following symbols are shown where estimated data account for 10 percent or more of the
figures shown: 1–10 to 19 percent; 2–20 to 29 percent; 3–30 to 39 percent; 4–40 to 49 percent; 5–50 to 59 percent; 6–60 to 69 percent; 7–70 to 79 percent; 8–80 to 89 percent; 9–90 percent or more.
         2Includes establishments with payroll at any time during the year.
         3Number of employees figures represent average number of production workers for pay period that includes the 12th of March, May, August, and November plus other employees for payroll
period that includes the 12th of March.

         Note: The data in this table are based on the 2002 Economic Census. To maintain confidentiality, the Census Bureau suppresses data to protect the identity of any business or individual. The
census results in this table contain nonsampling errors. Data users who create their own estimates using data from American FactFinder tables should cite the Census Bureau as the source of the original
data only. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For full technical documentation, see Appendix C. For geographical definitions, see Appendix D.




2    Surgical & Medical Instrument Mfg                                                                                                              Manufacturing Industry Series
                                                                                                                                                               U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Table 3.          Detailed Statistics by Industry: 2002
[Data based on the 2002 Economic Census and the 2002 Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM). For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error,
 nonsampling error, and explanation of terms, see note 2 at end of table. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

                                                                 Item                                                                                            Value

339112, Surgical and medical instrument manufacturing
Companies1                                                                                                               number                                  1 216

All establishments2                                                                                                      number                                  1 352
   Establishments with 1 to 19 employees                                                                                 number                                    751
   Establishments with 20 to 99 employees                                                                                number                                    363
   Establishments with 100 employees or more                                                                             number                                    238

All employees3                                                                                                           number                             103 131
Total compensation                                                                                                        $1,000                          5 588 684
  Annual payroll                                                                                                          $1,000                          4 581 564
  Total fringe benefits                                                                                                   $1,000                          1 007 120

Production workers, average for year                                                                                     number                                 57    663
  Production workers on March 12                                                                                         number                                 58    004
  Production workers on May 12                                                                                           number                                 58    260
  Production workers on August 12                                                                                        number                                 57    206
  Production workers on November 12                                                                                      number                                 57    078

Production worker hours                                                                                                    1,000                            115 325
Production worker wages                                                                                                   $1,000                          1 784 879

Total cost of materials                                                                                                   $1,000                          6 541 030
  Materials, parts, containers, packaging, etc., used                                                                     $1,000                          5 304 602
  Resales                                                                                                                 $1,000                            978 147
  Purchased fuels                                                                                                         $1,000                             15 485
  Purchased electricity                                                                                                   $1,000                            104 874
  Contract work                                                                                                           $1,000                            137 922

Quantity of electricity purchased for heat and power                                                                  1,000 kWh                           1 587 263
Quantity of electricity generated less sold for heat and power                                                        1,000 kWh                                   D

Total value of shipments                                                                                                  $1,000                         21   819     423
  Primary products value of shipments                                                                                     $1,000                         19   199     632
  Secondary products value of shipments                                                                                   $1,000                          1   271     753
  Total miscellaneous receipts                                                                                            $1,000                          1   348     038
    Value of resales                                                                                                      $1,000                          1   137     972
    Contract receipts                                                                                                     $1,000                               72     529
    Other miscellaneous receipts                                                                                          $1,000                              137     537

Primary products specialization ratio                                                                                    percent                                 94
Value of primary products shipments made in all industries                                                                $1,000                         20 482 718
  Value of primary products shipments made in this industry                                                               $1,000                         19 199 632
  Value of primary products shipments made in other industries                                                            $1,000                          1 283 086

Coverage ratio                                                                                                           percent                                      94

Value added                                                                                                               $1,000                         15 079 751

Total inventories, beginning of year                                                                                      $1,000                          2 729 352
  Finished goods inventories                                                                                              $1,000                          1 121 498
  Work in process inventories                                                                                             $1,000                            534 223
  Materials and supplies inventories                                                                                      $1,000                          1 073 631

Total inventories, end of year                                                                                            $1,000                          2 476       789
  Finished goods inventories                                                                                              $1,000                            944       769
  Work in process inventories                                                                                             $1,000                            512       310
  Materials and supplies inventories                                                                                      $1,000                          1 019       710

Gross value of depreciable assets (acquisition costs) at beginning of year                                                $1,000                         r8 047 899
  Total capital expenditures (new and used)                                                                               $1,000                              r930
                                                                                                                                                                691
    Buildings and other structures (new and used)                                                                         $1,000                              r186
                                                                                                                                                                698
    Machinery and equipment (new and used)                                                                                $1,000                              r743
                                                                                                                                                                993
      Automobiles, trucks, etc., for highway use                                                                          $1,000                                r15
                                                                                                                                                                945
      Computers and peripheral data processing equipment                                                                  $1,000                                r98
                                                                                                                                                                266
      All other expenditures for machinery and equipment                                                                  $1,000                              r629
                                                                                                                                                                782
  Total retirements                                                                                                       $1,000                              r596
                                                                                                                                                                929
Gross value of depreciable assets at end of year                                                                          $1,000                         r8 381 661


Depreciation charges during year                                                                                          $1,000                              r691    175

Total rental payments                                                                                                     $1,000                              249 480
  Buildings and other structures                                                                                          $1,000                              157 452
  Machinery and equipment                                                                                                 $1,000                               92 028

Total other expenses4                                                                                                     $1,000                          1 963 280
  Response coverage ratio5                                                                                               percent                                 80
    Repair and maintenance services of buildings and/or machinery4                                                        $1,000                             90 181
    Communications services4                                                                                              $1,000                             59 412
    Legal services4                                                                                                       $1,000                            112 463
    Accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services4                                                                       $1,000                             23 836
    Advertising and promotional services4                                                                                 $1,000                            120 729
    Expensed computer hardware and supplies and purchased computer services4                                              $1,000                             42 130
    Refuse removal (including hazardous waste) services4                                                                  $1,000                             10 868
    Management consulting and administrative services4                                                                    $1,000                            108 576
    Taxes and license fees4                                                                                               $1,000                             60 118
    All other expenses4                                                                                                   $1,000                          1 334 966

         1For the census, a company is defined as a business organization consisting of one establishment or more under common ownership or control.
         2Includes establishments with payroll at any time during the year.
         3Number of employees figures represent average number of production workers for pay period that includes the 12th of March, May, August,       and November
plus other employees for payroll period that includes the 12th of March.
         4Based on 2002 Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) sample data.
         5A response coverage ratio is derived for this item by calculating the ratio of the weighted employment (establishment data multiplied by sample weight) for
those Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) establishments that reported to the weighted total employment for all ASM establishments classified in this industry.

         Note 1: The amounts shown for other expenses reflect only those services that establishments purchase from other companies.

         Note 2: The data in this table are based on the 2002 Economic Census and the 2002 Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM). To maintain confidentiality, the
Census Bureau suppresses data to protect the identity of any business or individual. The census results in this table contain sampling errors and nonsampling errors.
Data users who create their own estimates using data from American FactFinder tables should cite the Census Bureau as the source of the original data only. For
explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For full technical documentation, see Appendix C.




Manufacturing Industry Series                                                                                                           Surgical & Medical Instrument Mfg   3
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Table 4.         Industry Statistics by Employment Size: 2002
[Data based on the 2002 Economic Census. For information on confidentiality protection, nonsampling error, and explanation of terms, see note at end of table. For meaning of abbreviations and
 symbols, see introductory text]

                                                                     All employees                       Production workers                                                                         Total
                                                                                                                                                                   Total             Total         capital
         Employment size class                     All estab                                                                                       Value          cost of         value of       expendi
                                                         lish                       Payroll                       Hours          Wages             added        materials      shipments            tures
                                             E1       ments2      Number3         ($1,000)      Number3          (1,000)        ($1,000)         ($1,000)       ($1,000)         ($1,000)        ($1,000)

339112, Surgical and medical
 instrument manufacturing
         All establishments                   2       1 352       103 131      4 581 564          57 663       115 325        1 784 879     15 079 751        6 541 030      21 819 423         r930    691
Establishments with
  1 to 4 employees                            9         388              839      32   912             528            900       14   946          93   750       32   622         128   702        r3   793
  5 to 9 employees                            8         178          1   180      51   198             701        1   374       21   766         163   808       53   342         216   636        r5   756
  10 to 19 employees                          6         185          2   503     109   466         1   443        2   752       44   627         337   505      113   901         449   354       r16   201
  20 to 49 employees                          3         219          6   916     308   229         3   877        7   701      116   351         779   555      314   496     1   107   131       r40   384
  50 to 99 employees                          3         144         10   037     429   822         5   883       11   904      175   451     1   214   593      441   240     1   673   061       r73   351
  100 to 249 employees                        2         141         22   033     954   610        12   637       25   424      365   390     3   141   097    1 272   599     4   428   705     r194    621
  250 to 499 employees                        1          47         16   803     734   136        10   141       19   969      314   737     2   777   138      962   956     3   743   746     r142    496
  500 to 999 employees                        1          38         25   181   1 201   740        13   571       27   818      444   658     4   009   144    2 153   830     6   193   223     r226    199
  1,000 to 2,499 employees                    2          12         17   639     759   451         8   882       17   483      286   953     2   563   161    1 196   044     3   878   865     r227    890
  2,500 employees or more                     –           –                –             –               –              –              –                 –              –                 –               –

Administrative records4                       9         606          3 592       152 799           2 206          4 248         66 882           471 160        156 061           627 221         r18   834

        1Some     payroll and sales data for small single establishment companies with up to 20 employees (cutoff varied by industry) were obtained from administrative records of other government
agencies rather than from census report forms. These data were then used in conjunction with industry averages to estimate statistics for these small establishments. This technique was also used for a
small number of other establishments whose reports were not received at the time data were tabulated. The following symbols are shown where estimated data account for 10 percent or more of the
figures shown: 1–10 to 19 percent; 2–20 to 29 percent; 3–30 to 39 percent; 4–40 to 49 percent; 5–50 to 59 percent; 6–60 to 69 percent; 7–70 to 79 percent; 8–80 to 89 percent; 9–90 percent or more.
         2Includes establishments with payroll at any time during the year.
         3Number of employees figures represent average number of production workers for pay period that includes the 12th of March, May, August, and November plus other employees for payroll
period that includes the 12th of March.
         4Some payroll and sales data for small single establishment companies with up to 20 employees (cutoff varied by industry) were obtained from administrative records of other government
agencies rather than from census report forms. These data were then used in conjunction with industry averages to estimate statistics for these small establishments. Data are also included in respective
size classes shown.

         Note: The data in this table are based on the 2002 Economic Census. To maintain confidentiality, the Census Bureau suppresses data to protect the identity of any business or individual. The
census results in this table contain nonsampling errors. Data users who create their own estimates using data from American FactFinder tables should cite the Census Bureau as the source of the original
data only. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For full technical documentation, see Appendix C.




4    Surgical & Medical Instrument Mfg                                                                                                                 Manufacturing Industry Series
                                                                                                                                                             U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Table 5.          Industry Statistics by Primary Product Class Specialization: 2002
[Data based on the 2002 Economic Census. For information on confidentiality protection, nonsampling error, and explanation of terms, see note at end of table. For meaning of abbreviations and
 symbols, see introductory text]

                                                                             All employees                   Production workers                                                                    Total
 Industry or                                                     All                                                                                               Total             Total        capital
   product         Industry or primary product class        estab                                                                                  Value          cost of         value of      expendi
 class code                                                   lish                         Payroll                   Hours         Wages           added        materials      shipments           tures
                                                            ments1        Number2        ($1,000)    Number2        (1,000)       ($1,000)       ($1,000)       ($1,000)         ($1,000)       ($1,000)

339112          Surgical and medical instrument
                 manufacturing                               1 352        103 131     4 581 564       57 663      115 325     1 784 879      15 079 751       6 541 030      21 819 423         r930   691

3391120           Surgical and medical instruments           1 352        103 131     4 581 564       57 663      115 325     1 784 879      15 079 751       6 541 030      21 819 423         r930   691

          1Includes establishments with payroll at any time during the   year.
          2Number of employees figures represent average number          of production workers for pay period that includes the 12th of March, May, August, and November plus other employees for payroll
period that includes the 12th of March.

         Note: The data in this table are based on the 2002 Economic Census. To maintain confidentiality, the Census Bureau suppresses data to protect the identity of any business or individual. The
census results in this table contain nonsampling errors. Data users who create their own estimates using data from American FactFinder tables should cite the Census Bureau as the source of the original
data only. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For full technical documentation, see Appendix C.




Manufacturing Industry Series                                                                                                                Surgical & Medical Instrument Mfg                          5
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Table 6a.          Products Statistics: 2002 and 1997
[Includes quantity and value of products of this industry produced by (1) establishments classified in this industry (primary) and (2) establishments classified in other industries (secondary). Transfers of
  products of this industry from one establishment of a company to another establishment of the same company (interplant transfers) are also included. Data based on the 2002 Economic Census. For
  information on confidentiality protection, nonsampling error, and explanation of terms, see note 2 at end of table. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

                                                                                                                                       Number of                                  Product shipments
     Product                                                                                                                       companies with
                                                                        Product                                                      shipments of          Quantity of
      code
                                                                                                                                        $100,000        production for                                  Value
                                                                                                                                         or more          all purposes           Quantity             ($1,000)

339112              Surgical and medical instrument manufacturing                                                        2002                     N                  X                  X        20 482 718
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X        17 367 955

3391120               Surgical and medical instruments                                                                   2002                     N                  X                  X        20 482 718
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                 N
33911201                Orthopedic and surgical instruments                                                              2002                     N                  X                  X         4 662 300
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                 N
3391120101                 Surgical instruments, including suture needles and ear,
                            eye, nose, and throat instruments                                                            2002                  123                   X                  X         3 667 242
                                                                                                                         1997                    N                   X                  X                 N
3391120106                 Orthopedic instruments, excluding ear, eye, nose, and
                            throat instruments                                                                           2002                    47                  X                  X             995 058
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                   N
33911202                Medical and surgical diagnostic apparatus, excluding
                         electromedical diagnostic apparatus                                                             2002                     N                  X                  X         3 030 758
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                 N
3391120211                 Medical and surgical metabolism and blood pressure
                            diagnostic apparatus, excluding electromedical diagnostic
                            apparatus                                                                                    2002                    22                  X                  X             298 466
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                   N
3391120216                 Other medical and surgical diagnostic apparatus (including
                            optical diagnostic apparatus), excluding electromedical
                            diagnostic apparatus                                                                         2002                    81                  X                  X         2 732 292
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                 N
33911203                Medical and surgical syringes and hypodermic needles                                             2002                     N                  X                  X         1 545 501
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                 N
3391120321                 Medical and surgical syringes                                                                 2002                    23                  X                  X         1 192 863
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                 N
3391120326                 Medical and surgical hypodermic needles                                                       2002                    19                  X                  X           352 638
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                 N
33911204                Medical and surgical blood transfusion and IV equipment,
                         including blood donor kits                                                                      2002                     N                  X                  X         1 313 599
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                 N
3391120431                 Medical and surgical blood transfusion and IV equipment,
                            including blood donor kits                                                                   2002                    41                  X                  X         1 313 599
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                 N
33911205                Medical and surgical catheters                                                                   2002                     N                  X                  X         2 720 139
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                 N
3391120536                 Medical and surgical catheters                                                                2002                    75                  X                  X         2 720 139
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                 N
33911206                Other medical and surgical apparatus and instruments,
                         excluding parts                                                                                 2002                     N                  X                  X         4 498 071
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                 N
3391120641                 Medical and surgical anesthetic apparatus and
                            instruments                                                                                  2002                    22                  X                  X             681 512
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                   N
3391120646                 Medical and surgical bone nails, plates, and screws, and
                            other internal fixation devices                                                              2002                    40                  X                  X         1 275 962
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                 N
3391120651                 Medical and surgical mechanical therapy apparatus                                             2002                    13                  X                  X           212 684
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                 N
3391120671                 Other medical and surgical apparatus and instruments,
                            excluding parts                                                                              2002                  133                   X                  X         2 327 913
                                                                                                                         1997                    N                   X                  X                 N
33911207                Parts for medical and surgical apparatus and instruments                                         2002                    N                   X                  X           942 301
                                                                                                                         1997                    N                   X                  X                 N
3391120766                 Parts for medical and surgical apparatus and instruments                                      2002                  100                   X                  X           942 301
                                                                                                                         1997                    N                   X                  X                 N
3391120Y                Surgical and medical instruments, nsk, total                                                     2002                    N                   X                  X         1 770 049
                                                                                                                         1997                    N                   X                  X                 N
3391120YWW                 Surgical and medical instruments, nsk, for
                            nonadministrative record establishments                                                      2002                     N                  X                  X         1 180 412
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                 N
3391120YWY                 Surgical and medical instruments, nsk, for administrative
                            record establishments                                                                        2002                     N                  X                  X             589 637
                                                                                                                         1997                     N                  X                  X                   N

        Note 1: For some establishments, data have been estimated from central unit values that are based on quantity value relationships of reported data. The following symbols are used when
percentage of each quantity figure estimated in this manner equals or exceeds 10 percent of published figure: p–10 to 19 percent estimated; q–20 to 29 percent estimated. If 30 percent or more is
estimated, figure is replaced by S.

         Note 2: The data in this table are based on the 2002 Economic Census. To maintain confidentiality, the Census Bureau suppresses data to protect the identity of any business or individual. The
census results in this table contain nonsampling errors. Data users who create their own estimates using data from American FactFinder tables should cite the Census Bureau as the source of the original
data only. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For full technical documentation, see Appendix C.




6    Surgical & Medical Instrument Mfg                                                                                                                  Manufacturing Industry Series
                                                                                                                                                               U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Table 6b.            Product Class Shipments for Selected States: 2002 and 1997
[Not applicable for this report.]




Manufacturing Industry Series                                             Surgical & Medical Instrument Mfg   7
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Table 7.          Materials Consumed by Kind: 2002 and 1997
[Includes quantity and cost of materials consumed or put into production by establishments classified only in this industry. Data based on the 2002 Economic Census. For information on confidentiality
  protection, nonsampling error, and explanation of terms, see note 2 at end of table. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text]

  Material code                                                                 Material consumed                                                                                         Delivered cost
                                                                                                                                                                         Quantity               ($1,000)

339112             Surgical and medical instrument manufacturing
00900001           Total materials                                                                                                                  2002                        X             5 304 602
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X             4 358 602
33441200           Printed circuit boards (without inserted components) for electronic circuitry                                                    2002                        X                 9 561
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                     N
001900C4           Printed circuit assemblies, loaded boards, and modules (printed circuit boards with inserted
                    electronic components)                                                                                                          2002                        X                  53 164
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                       N

001900B7           Resistors, capacitors, transformers, electron tubes, semiconductors, and other electronic
                    components                                                                                                                      2002                        X                 100 052
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                 265 140
33593101           Current carrying wiring devices                                                                                                  2002                        X                  20 088
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                       N
33531201           Electric motors and generators                                                                                                   2002                        X                  18 459
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                       N

33272203           Metal bolts, nuts, screws, washers, rivets, and other screw machine products                                                     2002                        X                  31 229
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                  65 515
332000A7           Metal boilers, condensers, and parts (excluding forgings)                                                                        2002                        X                  98 313
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                       N
33151001           Iron and steel castings (rough and semifinished)                                                                                 2002                        X                  25 197
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                   5 651

33152011           Nonferrous (aluminum, copper, etc.) castings (rough and semifinished)                                                            2002                        X                  14   985
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                  12   012
33120001           Steel shapes and forms (excluding castings, forgings, and fabricated metal products)                                             2002                        X                  48   111
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                  78   204
331000AJ           Nonferrous metal shapes and forms (excluding castings, forgings, and fabricated metal
                    products)                                                                                                                       2002                        X                  22 407
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                  25 056

31323000           Nonwoven fabrics                                                                                                                 2002                        X                  11 728
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                       N
31321017           Broadwoven fabrics                                                                                                               2002                        X                   4 630
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                       N
32521105           Plastics resins consumed in the form of granules, pellets, powders, liquids, etc.                                                2002                        X                 165 406
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                 188 194

32610013           Plastics products consumed in the form of sheets, rods, tubes, film, and other shapes                                            2002                        X                 282   859
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                 207   371
32610009           Fabricated plastics products                                                                                                     2002                        X                 557   524
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                 404   084
32600017           Fabricated rubber products (excluding tires, tubes, hose, belting, and gaskets)                                                  2002                        X                  60   780
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                  58   965

33910000           Surgical and orthopedic supplies (including sutures and hypodermic needles for further
                    manufacture or assembly)                                                                                                        2002                        X             1 070 988
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X               632 932
332000A9           Sheet metal products (excluding stampings)                                                                                       2002                        X                31 962
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                     N
32552001           Adhesives and sealants                                                                                                           2002                        X                21 240
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                 9 313

32221001           Paperboard containers, boxes, and corrugated paperboard                                                                          2002                        X                 100 576
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                 130 329
32210015           Paper and paperboard products (excluding paperboard boxes, containers, and corrugated
                    paperboard)                                                                                                                     2002                        X                  36   868
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X                  44   839
00970099           All other materials and components, parts, containers, and supplies                                                              2002                        X             1   272   864
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X             1   029   445
00971000           Materials, ingredients, containers, and supplies, nsk                                                                            2002                        X             1   245   611
                                                                                                                                                    1997                        X             1   201   552

        Note 1: For some establishments, data have been estimated from central unit values that are based on quantity value relationships of reported data. The following symbols are used when
percentage of each quantity figure estimated in this manner equals or exceeds 10 percent of published figure: p–10 to 19 percent estimated; q–20 to 29 percent estimated. If 30 percent or more is
estimated, figure is replaced by S.

         Note 2: The data in this table are based on the 2002 Economic Census. To maintain confidentiality, the Census Bureau suppresses data to protect the identity of any business or individual. The
census results in this table contain nonsampling errors. Data users who create their own estimates using data from American FactFinder tables should cite the Census Bureau as the source of the original
data only. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For full technical documentation, see Appendix C.




8    Surgical & Medical Instrument Mfg                                                                                                              Manufacturing Industry Series
                                                                                                                                                           U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Appendix A.
Explanation of Terms

BEGINNING- AND END-OF-YEAR INVENTORIES

Respondents were asked to report their beginning-of-year and end-of-year inventories at cost or
market. Effective with the 1982 Economic Census, this change to a uniform instruction for report-
ing inventories was introduced for all sector reports. Prior to 1982, respondents were permitted to
value inventories using any generally accepted accounting method (FIFO, LIFO, market, to name a
few). Beginning in 1982, LIFO users were asked to first report inventory values prior to the LIFO
adjustment and, then, to report the LIFO reserve and the LIFO value after adjustment for the
reserve.

Inventory data by stage of fabrication

Total inventories and three detailed components (1)finished goods, (2)work-in-process, and
(3)materials, supplies, fuels, etc., were collected.

When using inventory data by stage of fabrication for “all industries” and at the three-digit subsec-
tor level, it should be noted that an item treated as a finished product by an establishment in one
industry may be reported as a raw material by an establishment in a different industry. For
example, the finished-product inventories of a steel mill would be reported as raw materials by a
stamping plant. Such differences are present in the inventory figures by stage of fabrication
shown for all publication levels.

COST OF MATERIALS

This term refers to direct charges actually paid or payable for items consumed or put into produc-
tion during the year, including freight charges and other direct charges incurred by the establish-
ment in acquiring these materials. It includes the cost of materials or fuel consumed, whether pur-
chased by the individual establishment from other companies, transferred to it from other
establishments of the same company, or withdrawn from inventory during the year.

Included in this item are:

 1. Cost of parts, components, containers, etc. Includes all raw materials, semifinished goods,
    parts, containers, scrap, and supplies put into production or used as operating supplies and
    for repair and maintenance during the year.

 2. Cost of products bought and sold in the same condition.

 3. Cost of fuels consumed for heat and power. Includes the cost of materials or fuel consumed,
    whether purchased by the individual establishment from other companies, transferred to it
    from other establishments of the same company, or withdrawn from inventory during the
    year.

 4. Cost of purchased electricity. The cost of purchased electric energy represents the amount
    actually used during the year for heat and power. In addition, information was collected on
    the quantity of electric energy generated by the establishment and the quantity of electric
    energy sold or transferred to other plants of the same company.

 5. Cost of contract work. This term applies to work done by others on materials furnished by the
    manufacturing establishment. The actual cost of the material is to be reported on the cost of
    materials, parts, and containers line of this item. The term ‘‘Contract Work’’ refers to the fee a
    company pays to another company to perform a service.

Manufacturing                                                                       Appendix A    A–1
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Specific materials consumed

In addition to the total cost of materials, which every establishment was required to report, infor-
mation also was collected for most manufacturing industries on the consumption of major materi-
als used in manufacturing. The inquiries were restricted to those materials that were important
parts of the cost of production in a particular industry and for which cost information was avail-
able from manufacturers’ records. If less than $25,000 of a listed material was consumed by an
establishment, the cost data could be reported in the “Cost of all other materials” Census material
code 00970099.

Also, the cost of materials for small establishments for which administrative records or short
forms were used was imputed into the “Materials not specified by kind” Census materials code
00971000.

Duplication in cost of materials and value of shipment

The aggregate of the cost of materials and value of shipments figures for industry groups and for
all manufacturing industries includes large amounts of duplication since the products of some
industries are used as materials by others. This duplication results, in part, from the addition of
related industries representing successive stages in the production of a finished manufactured
product. Examples are the addition of flour mills to bakeries in the food group and the addition of
pulp mills to paper mills in the paper and allied products group of industries.
Estimates of the overall extent of this duplication indicate that the value of manufactured prod-
ucts exclusive of such duplication (the value of finished manufactures) tends to approximate two-
thirds of the total value of products reported in the survey.
Duplication of products within individual industries is significant within a number of industry
groups, e.g., machinery and transportation industries. These industries frequently include com-
plete machinery and their parts. In this case, the parts made for original equipment are materials
consumed for assembly plants in the same industry.

Even when no significant amount of duplication is involved, value of shipments figures are defi-
cient as measures of the relative economic importance of individual manufacturing industries or
geographic areas because of the wide variation in ratio of materials, labor, and other processing
costs of value of shipments, both among industries and within the same industry.

Before 1962, cost of materials and value of shipments were not published for some industries
which included considerable duplication. Since then, these data have been published for all indus-
tries at the U.S. level and beginning in 1964, for all geographic levels.

SELECTED PURCHASED SERVICES

Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM) establishments were requested to provide information on
the cost of selected purchased services for the repair and maintenance services of buildings
and/or machinery; communication services; legal services; accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping
services; advertising and promotional services; expensed computer hardware and supplies and
purchased computer services; refuse removal services; management consulting and administra-
tive services; taxes and license fees; and all other expenses not previously stated. Each of these
items reflects the costs paid directly by the establishment and excludes salaries paid to employ-
ees of the establishment for these services. These expenses are normally considered as nonpro-
duction related costs purchased from other companies.

Included in the cost of selected purchased services for the repair and maintenance services of
buildings and/or machinery are payments made for all maintenance and repair work on buildings
and equipment. Payments made to other establishments of the same company and for repair and
maintenance of any leased property also are included. Excluded from this item are extensive
repairs or reconstruction that was capitalized, which is considered capital expenditures; costs
incurred directly by the establishment in using its own work force to perform repairs and mainte-
nance work; and repairs and maintenance provided by the building or machinery owner as part of
the rental contract.

A–2   Appendix A                                                                          Manufacturing
                                                                      U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Included in the cost of selected purchased services for communication is the actual expense
incurred or payable during the year for any type of communication. Such types of communication
include telephone, data transmission, telegraph, Internet, connectivity, FAX, telex, photo transmis-
sion, paging, cellular telephone, on-line access and related services, etc.

Included in the cost of selected purchased services for legal services are payments made to other
companies for these services that were paid directly by the establishment. Excluded are the sala-
ries paid to employees of the establishment for these services.
Included in the cost of selected accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services are payments
made to other companies for these services that were paid directly by the establishment.
Excluded are the salaries paid to employees of this establishment for these services.

Included in the cost of selected advertising and promotional services are payments made to other
companies for these services that were paid directly by the establishment. These include pay-
ments for printing, media coverage, and other services and materials. Excluded are the salaries
paid to employees of this establishment for these services.

Included in the cost of selected expensed computer hardware and supplies and purchased com-
puter services are actual expenses incurred or payable during the year for this item. Purchases for
computer hardware and supplies, computer services (software, data transmission, processing ser-
vices, Web design, etc.) are all included. Excluded are services provided by other establishments
of the same company (such as a separate central data processing unit).
Included in the cost of selected purchased refuse removal services are payments made to other
companies for these services that were paid directly by the establishment, including costs for haz-
ardous waste removal or treatment. Excluded are all costs included in rental payments or as capi-
tal expenditures and the salaries paid to employees of the establishment for these services.
Included in the cost of selected purchased management consulting and administrative services are
payments made to other companies for these services that were paid directly by the establish-
ment. Excluded are the salaries paid to employees of this establishment for these services.
Included in the cost of selected purchased taxes and license fees are payments made to other
companies for these services that were paid directly by the establishment, excluding income,
sales, payroll, and excise taxes. Excluded are also the salaries paid to employees of this establish-
ment for these services.

Response coverage ratio
A response coverage ratio is a measure of the extent to which respondents report for an item. The
estimate is made by calculating the ratio value of the weighted total employment data for all the
ASM establishments that report the item to the weighted total employment data for all ASM estab-
lishments classified in an industry (reporters and nonreporters).

DEPRECIATION CHARGES FOR FIXED ASSETS
This item includes depreciation and amortization charged during the year against assets. Depre-
ciation charged against fixed assets acquired since the beginning of the year and against assets
sold or retired during the year are components of this category. Respondents were requested to
make certain that they did not report accumulated depreciation.

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES

This item includes all full-time and part-time employees on the payrolls of operating manufactur-
ing establishments during any part of the pay period that included the 12th of the months speci-
fied on the report form. Included are employees on paid sick leave, paid holidays, and paid vaca-
tions; not included are proprietors and partners of unincorporated businesses.

These individuals comprise of all full-time and part-time employees who are on the payrolls of
establishments who worked or received pay for any part of the pay period including the 12th of
March, May, August, and November.

Manufacturing                                                                      Appendix A    A–3
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
The “all employees” number is the average number of production workers plus the number of
other employees in mid-March. The number of production workers is the average for the payroll
periods including the 12th of March, May, August, and November

Production Workers
The “production workers” number includes workers (up through the line-supervisor level) engaged
in fabricating, processing, assembling, inspecting, receiving, storing, handling, packing, ware-
housing, shipping (but not delivering), maintenance, repair, janitorial and guard services, product
development, auxiliary production for plant’s own use (e.g., power plant), recordkeeping, and
other services closely associated with these production operations at the establishment covered
by the report. Employees above the working-supervisor level are excluded from this item.

All Other Employees

The “other employees” covers nonproduction employees of the manufacturing establishment
including those engaged in factory supervision above the line-supervisor level. It includes sales
(including driver-salespersons), sales delivery (highway truck drivers and their helpers), advertis-
ing, credit, collection, installation and servicing of own products, clerical and routine office func-
tions, executive, purchasing, financing, legal, personnel (including cafeteria, medical, etc.), profes-
sional, and technical employees. Also included are employees on the payroll of the manufacturing
establishment engaged in the construction of major additions or alterations utilized as a separate
work force.

TOTAL FRINGE BENEFITS
This item is the employer’s costs for social security tax, unemployment tax, workmen’s compen-
sation insurance, state disability insurance pension plans, stock purchase plans, union-negotiated
benefits, life insurance premiums, and insurance premiums on hospital and medical plans for
employees.
Fringe benefits are divided into legally required expenditures and payments for voluntary pro-
grams. The legally required portion consists primarily of federal old age and survivors’ insurance,
unemployment compensation, and workers’ compensation. Payments for voluntary programs
include all programs not specifically required by legislation, whether they were employer initiated
or the result of collective bargaining. They include the employer portion of such plans as insur-
ance premiums, premiums for supplemental accident and sickness insurance, pension plans,
supplemental unemployment compensation, welfare plans, stock purchase plans on which the
employer payment is not subject to withholding tax, and deferred profit-sharing plans. They
exclude such items as company-operated cafeterias, in-plant medical services, free parking lots,
discounts on employee purchases, and uniforms and work clothing for employees.

GROSS VALUE OF DEPRECIABLE ASSETS (ACQUISITION COSTS) AT BEGINNING OF YEAR
(BOY) AND END OF YEAR (EOY)

Total value of depreciable assets is collected on all census forms.

It shows the value of depreciable assets for the beginning of year (BOY) and end of year (EOY).
The data encompass all fixed depreciable assets on the books of establishments. The values
shown (book value) represent the actual cost of assets at the time they were acquired, including
all costs incurred in making the assets usable (such as transportation and installation). Included
are all buildings, structures, machinery, and equipment (production, office, and transportation
equipment) for which depreciation reserves are maintained. Excluded are nondepreciable capital
assets including inventories and intangible assets, such as timber and mineral rights.

The definition of fixed depreciable assets is consistent with the definition of capital expenditures.
For example, expenditures include actual capital outlays during the year rather than the final
value of equipment put in place and buildings completed during the year.
Accordingly, the value of assets at the end of the year includes the value of construction in
progress.

A–4   Appendix A                                                                            Manufacturing
                                                                        U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
In addition, respondents were requested to make certain that assets at the beginning of the year
plus capital expenditures, less retirements, equaled assets at the end of the year.

ESTABLISHMENT
An establishment is a single physical location where business is conducted or where services or
industrial operations are performed. Data in this sector includes those establishments where
manufacturing is performed. A separate report was required for each manufacturing establish-
ment (plant) with one employee or more that were in operation at any time during the year.
An establishment not in operation for any portion of the year was requested to return the report
form with the proper notation in the “Operational Status” section of the form. In addition, the
establishment was requested to report data on any employees, capital expenditures, inventories,
or shipments from inventories during the year.

Company
A company or (“enterprise”) is comprised of all the establishments that operate under the owner-
ship or control of a single organization. A company may be a business, service, or membership
organization; consist of one or several establishments; and operate at one or several locations. It
includes all subsidiary organizations, all establishments that are majority-owned by the company
or any subsidiary, and all the establishments that can be directed or managed by the company or
any subsidiary.
A company may have one or many establishments. Examples include product and service sales
offices (retail and wholesale), industrial production plants, processing or assembly operations,
mines or well sites, and support operations (such as an administrative office, warehouse, cus-
tomer service center, or regional headquarters). Each establishment should receive, complete, and
return a separate census form.
If the company operated at different physical locations, even if the individual locations were pro-
ducing the same line of goods, a separate report was requested for each location. If the company
operated in two or more distinct lines of manufacturing at the same location, a separate report
was requested for each activity.

PAYROLL
This item includes the gross earnings of all employees on the payrolls of operating manufacturing
establishments paid in the calendar year. Respondents were told they could follow the definition
of payrolls used for calculating the federal withholding tax. It includes all forms of compensation,
such as salaries, wages, commissions, dismissal pay, bonuses, vacation and sick leave pay, and
compensation in kind, prior to such deductions as employees’ social security contributions, with-
holding taxes, group insurance, union dues, and savings bonds. The total includes salaries of
officers of corporations; it excludes payments to proprietors or partners of unincorporated con-
cerns. Also excluded are payments to members of Armed Forces and pensioners carried on the
active payrolls of manufacturing establishments.
The census definition of payrolls is identical to that recommended to all federal statistical agen-
cies by the Office of Management and Budget. It should be noted that this definition does not
include employers’ social security contributions or other nonpayroll labor costs, such as employ-
ees’ pension plans, group insurance premiums, and workers’ compensation.
The ASM provides estimates of employers’ total supplemental labor costs (those required by fed-
eral and state laws and those incurred voluntarily or as part of collective bargaining agreements).

PRODUCT CODES AND CLASSES OF PRODUCTS
NAICS United States industries are identified by a six-digit code. The longer code accommodates
the large number of sectors and allows more flexibility in designing subsectors. Each product or
service is assigned a ten-digit code. The product coding structure represents an extension by the
Census Bureau of the six-digit industry classifications of the manufacturing and mining sectors.
The classification system operates so that the industrial coverage is progressively narrower with
the successive addition of digits.

Manufacturing                                                                      Appendix A    A–5
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
As in previous censuses, data were collected for most industries on the quantity and value of indi-
vidual products shipped. Since the 1997 census programs, information is collected on the output
of almost 10,000 individual product items.

In the manufacturing sector for 2002, there are 21 subsectors (three-digit NAICS), 86 industry
groups (four-digit NAICS), 184 NAICS industries (five-digit NAICS) that are comparable with Cana-
dian and Mexican classification, and 473 U.S. industries (six-digit NAICS). Product classes and
products of the manufacturing industries have been assigned codes based on the industry from
which they originate. There are 1,450 product classes (seven-digit codes), 5,674 census products,
and an additional 3,746 ten-digit product codes. The ten-digit products are considered the pri-
mary products of the industry with the same first six digits.

The list of products for which separate information was collected was prepared after consultation
with industry and government representatives.

Comparability with previous figures was given considerable weight in the selection of product cat-
egories, so that comparable 1992 information is presented for most products.

Typically, both quantity and value of shipments information were collected. However, if quantity
was not significant or could not be reported by manufacturers, only value of shipments was col-
lected.

Shipments include both commercial shipments and transfers of products to other plants of the
same company. For industries in which a considerable portion of the total shipments is trans-
ferred to other plants of the same company, separate information on interplant transfers also was
collected. Moreover, for products that are used to a large degree within the same establishment as
materials or components in the fabrication of other products, total production and often con-
sumption of the item within the plant (quantity produced and consumed) was collected. Typically,
the information on production also was collected for products for which there are significant dif-
ferences between total production and shipments in a given year because of wide fluctuations in
finished goods inventories. Other measures of output of products with long production cycles
were used as appropriate and feasible.

PRODUCTION-WORKER HOURS

This item covers all hours worked or paid for at the manufacturing plant, including actual over-
time hours (not straight-time equivalent hours). It excludes hours paid for vacations, holidays, or
sick leave when the employee was not at the establishment.

QUANTITY OF ELECTRICITY PURCHASED FOR HEAT AND POWER

Data on the cost of purchased electric energy were collected on all census forms. However, data
on the quantity of purchased electric energy were collected only on the Annual Survey of Manufac-
tures (ASM) form. In addition, information is collected on the quantity of electric energy generated
by the establishment and the quantity of electric energy sold or transferred to other plants of the
same company.

RENTAL PAYMENTS

Total rental payments are collected on all census forms. However, the breakdown between rental
payments for buildings and other structures and rental payments for machinery and equipment is
collected only on the ASM forms. This item includes rental payments for the use of all items for
which depreciation reserves would be maintained, if they were owned by the establishment, e.g.,
structures and buildings, and production, office, and transportation equipment. Excluded are roy-
alties and other payments for the use of intangibles and depletable assets and land rents where
separable.

When an establishment of a multiestablishment company was charged rent by another part of the
same company for the use of assets owned by the company, it was instructed to exclude that cost
from rental payments.

A–6   Appendix A                                                                          Manufacturing
                                                                      U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
However, the book value (original cost) of these company-owned assets was to be reported as
assets of the establishment at the end of the year.

If there were assets at an establishment rented from another company and the rents were paid
centrally by the head office of the establishment, the company was instructed to report these
rental payments as if they were paid directly by the establishment.


RETIREMENTS OF DEPRECIABLE ASSETS

Included in this item is the gross value of assets sold, retired, scrapped, destroyed, etc., during
the calendar year. When a complete operation or establishment changed ownership, the respon-
dent was instructed to report the value of the assets sold at the original cost as recorded in the
books of the seller. The respondent also was requested to report retirements of equipment or
structures owned by a parent company that the establishment was using as if it were a tenant.


CAPITAL EXPENDITURES FOR NEW AND USED PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

Represents the total new and used capital expenditures reported by establishments in operation
and any known plants under construction.

These data include expenditures for:

 1. Permanent additions and major alterations to manufacturing and mining establishments.

 2. New and used machinery and equipment used for replacement and additions to plant capac-
    ity, if they are of the type for which depreciation, depletion, or (for mining establishments)
    Office of Minerals Exploration accounts are ordinarily maintained. In addition, for mining
    establishments, these data include expenditures made during the year for development and
    exploration of mineral properties. For manufacturing establishments, these data are broken
    down into three types.

     a. Automobiles, trucks, etc. for highway use. These include vehicles acquired under a lease-
        purchase agreement and excludes vehicles leased or normally designed to transport mate-
        rials, property, or equipment on mining, construction, petroleum development, and similar
        projects. These vehicles are of such size or weight as to be normally restricted by state
        laws or regulations from operating on public highways. It also excludes purchases of
        vehicles that are purchased by a company for highway use.

     b. Computers and peripheral data processing equipment. This item include all purchases of
        computers and related equipment.

     c. All other expenditures for machinery and equipment excluding automobiles and computer
        equipment.

Capital expenditures include work done by contract, as well as by the establishment’s own work-
force.

These data exclude expenditures for land and mineral rights and cost of maintenance and repairs
charged as current operating expenses.


VALUE ADDED

This measure of manufacturing activity is derived by subtracting the cost of materials, supplies,
containers, fuel, purchased electricity, and contract work from the value of shipments (products
manufactured plus receipts for services rendered). The result of this calculation is adjusted by the
addition of value added by merchandising operations (i.e., the difference between the sales value
and the cost of merchandise sold without further manufacture, processing, or assembly) plus the
net change in finished goods and work-in-process between the beginning- and end-of-year inven-
tories.

Manufacturing                                                                      Appendix A     A–7
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
For those industries where value of production is collected instead of value of shipments, value
added is adjusted only for the change in work-in-process inventories between the beginning and
end of year. For those industries where value of work done is collected, the value added does not
include an adjustment for the change in finished goods or work-in-process inventories.
“Value added” avoids the duplication in the figure for value of shipments that results from the use
of products of some establishments as materials by others. Value added is considered to be the
best value measure available for comparing the relative economic importance of manufacturing
among industries and geographic areas.

VALUE OF SHIPMENTS
This item covers the received or receivable net selling values, f.o.b. plant (exclusive of freight and
taxes), of all products shipped, both primary and secondary, as well as all miscellaneous receipts,
such as receipts for contract work performed for others, installation and repair, sales of scrap, and
sales of products bought and sold without further processing. Included are all items made by or
for the establishments from material owned by it, whether sold, transferred to other plants of the
same company, or shipped on consignment. The net selling value of products made in one plant
on a contract basis from materials owned by another was reported by the plant providing the
materials.
In the case of multiunit companies, the manufacturer was requested to report the value of prod-
ucts transferred to other establishments of the same company at full economic or commercial
value, including not only the direct cost of production but also a reasonable proportion of “all
other costs” (including company overhead) and profit.
In addition to the value for NAICS defined products, aggregates of the following categories of mis-
cellaneous receipts are reported as part of a total establishment’s value of product shipments:
Reported contract work — receipts for work or services that a plant performed for others on their
materials. Value of resales — sales of products brought and sold without further manufacture, pro-
cessing, or assembly. Other miscellaneous receipts — such as repair work, installation, sales of
scrap, etc.
Industry primary product value of shipments represents one of the three components of value of
shipments. These components are: Primary products value of shipments. Secondary product value
of shipments. Total miscellaneous receipts.
Primary product shipments is used in the calculations of industry specialization ratio and industry
coverage ratio. The term “Value of primary products shipments made in this industry” is used in
this publication and refers to the same data.

Duplication in cost of materials and value of shipment
The aggregate of the cost of materials and value of shipments figures for industry groups and for
all manufacturing industries includes large amounts of duplication since, the products of some
industries are used as materials by others. This duplication results, in part, from the addition of
related industries representing successive stages in the production of a finished manufactured
product. Examples are the addition of flour mills to bakeries in the food group and the addition of
pulp mills to paper mills in the paper and allied products group of industries.
Estimates of the overall extent of this duplication indicate that the value of manufactured prod-
ucts exclusive of such duplication (the value of finished manufactures) tends to approximate two-
thirds of the total value of products reported in the annual survey.
Duplication of products within individual industries is significant within a number of industry
groups, e.g., machinery and transportation industries. These industries frequently include com-
plete machinery and their parts. In this case, the parts made for original equipment are materials
consumed for assembly plants in the same industry.
Even when no significant amount of duplication is involved, value of shipments figures are defi-
cient as measures of the relative economic importance of individual manufacturing industries or
geographic areas because of the wide variation in ratio of materials, labor, and other processing
costs of value of shipments, both among industries and within the same industry.

A–8   Appendix A                                                                           Manufacturing
                                                                       U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Before 1962, cost of materials and value of shipments were not published for some industries that
included considerable duplication. Since then, these data have been published for all industries at
the U.S. level and beginning in 1964, for all geographic levels.

Specialization and coverage ratio
These items are not collected on the report forms, but are derived from the data shown in Table 3.
An establishment is classified in a particular industry, if its shipments of primary products of that
industry exceed in value its shipments of the products of any other single industry.

An establishment’s shipments include those products assigned to an industry (primary products),
those considered primary to other industries (secondary products), and receipts for miscellaneous
activities (merchandising, contract work, resales, etc.).

Specialization and coverage ratio have been developed to measure the relationship of primary
product shipments to the data on shipments for the industry shown in Tables 1 through 5 and
data on product shipments shown in Tables 6a and 6b.
Specialization ratio represents the ratio of primary product shipments to total product shipments
(primary and secondary, excluding miscellaneous receipts) for the establishments classified in the
industry.
Coverage ratio represents the ratio of primary products shipped by the establishments classified
in the industry to the total shipments of such products that are shipped by all manufacturing
establishments wherever classified.




Manufacturing                                                                      Appendix A    A–9
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Appendix B.
NAICS Codes, Titles, and Descriptions

339112 SURGICAL AND MEDICAL INSTRUMENT MANUFACTURING

This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing medical, surgi-
cal, ophthalmic, and veterinary instruments and apparatus (except electrotherapeutic, electro-
medical and irradiation apparatus). Examples of products made by these establishments are
syringes, hypodermic needles, anesthesia apparatus, blood transfusion equipment, catheters, sur-
gical clamps, and medical thermometers.




Manufacturing                                                                  Appendix B    B–1
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Appendix C.
Methodology

SOURCES OF THE DATA

The manufacturing sector includes approximately 350,000 establishments. This number includes
those industries in the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) definition of manu-
facturing. The amount of information requested from manufacturing establishments was depen-
dent upon a number of factors. The more important considerations were the size of the company
and whether it was included in the Annual Survey of Manufactures (ASM).

Establishments in the 2002 Economic Census are divided into those sent report forms and those
not sent report forms. The coverage of and the method of obtaining census information from each
are described below:

 1. Establishments sent a report form:

     a. ASM sample establishments. This group accounts for approximately 15 percent of all
        manufacturing establishments. The ASM panel covers all the units of large manufacturing
        establishments, as well as a sample of the medium and smaller establishments. The prob-
        ability of selection was proportionate to size. For more information, see the Description of
        the ASM Survey Sample.

         In an economic census year, the ASM report form (MA-10000) replaces the first page of the
         regular census form for those establishments included in the ASM. In addition to informa-
         tion on employment, payroll, and other items normally requested on the regular census
         form, establishments in the ASM sample were requested to supply additional information
         on gross book value of assets and capital expenditures. ASM establishments were also
         requested to provide information on retirements, depreciation, rental payments, and
         supplemental labor costs. For establishments not included in the ASM, these additional
         items were estimated using relationships observed in the ASM establishment data. The cen-
         sus statistics for these variables are a sum of the ASM establishment data and the esti-
         mated data for non-ASM establishments. ASM establishments were also requested to pro-
         vide information for selected purchased services. The census statistics for the purchased
         service items were derived solely from the ASM establishments. See Appendix A. Explana-
         tion of Terms, for an explanation of these items. The census part of the report form is 1 of
         220 versions containing product, material, and special inquiries. The diversity of manufac-
         turing activities necessitated the use of this many forms to canvass the 473 manufacturing
         industries. Each form was developed for a group of related industries.

         Appearing on each form was a list of products primary to the group of related industries,
         as well as secondary products and miscellaneous services that establishments classified in
         these industries were likely to perform. Respondents were requested to identify the prod-
         ucts, the value of each product, and, in certain cases, the quantity of the product shipped
         during the survey year. Space also was provided for the respondent to describe products
         not specifically identified on the form.

         The report form also contained a materials-consumed inquiry, which varied from form to
         form depending on the industries being canvassed. The respondents were asked to review
         a list of materials generally used in their production processes. From this list, each estab-
         lishment was requested to identify those materials consumed during the survey year, the
         cost of each, and, in certain cases, the quantity consumed. Once again, space was provided

Manufacturing                                                                       Appendix C C–1
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
        for the respondent to describe significant materials not listed on the form.

        A wide variety of special inquiries were included to measure activities peculiar to a given
        industry, such as operations performed and equipment used.
      b. Large and medium establishments (non-ASM). Approximately 30 percent of all manufactur-
         ing establishments were included in this group. A variable cutoff, based on administrative-
         record payroll data and determined on an industry-by-industry basis, was used to select
         those establishments that were to receive 1 of the 220 economic census — manufacturing
         regular forms. The first page, requesting establishment data for items such as employment
         and payroll, was standard but did not contain the detailed statistics included on the ASM
         form. The product, material, and special inquiry sections supplied were based on the his-
         torical industry classification of the establishment.
      c. Small single-establishment companies (non-ASM). This group includes approximately 15
         percent of all manufacturing establishments. For those industries where application of the
         variable cutoff for administrative-record cases resulted in a large number of small establish-
         ments being included in the mail canvass, an abbreviated “short form” was used. These
         establishments received 1 of the 31 versions of the short form, which requested summary
         product and material data and totals but no details on employment, payroll, cost of materi-
         als, inventories, and capital expenditures.

        Use of the short form has no adverse effect on published totals for the industry statistics,
        because the same data were collected on the short form as on the long form. However,
        detailed information on products and materials consumed was not collected on the short
        form; thus, its use would increase the value of the “not specified by kind” (nsk) categories.
2. Establishments not sent a report form:
      a. Small single-establishment companies not sent a report form. Approximately 40 percent of
         the manufacturing establishments were small single-establishment companies that were
         excused from filing a census report. Selection of these establishments was based on two
         factors: annual payroll and the Census Bureau’s ability to assign the correct six-digit NAICS
         industry classification to the establishment. For each six-digit NAICS industry code, an
         annual payroll cutoff was determined. These cutoffs were derived so that the establish-
         ments with payroll less than the cutoff were expected to account for no more than 3 per-
         cent of the value of shipments for the industry. Generally, all single-establishment compa-
         nies with less than 5 employees were excused, while all establishments with more than 20
         employees were mailed forms. Establishments below the cutoff that could not be directly
         assigned a six-digit NAICS code were mailed a classification report that requested informa-
         tion for assigning NAICS industry codes. Establishments below the cutoff that could be
         directly assigned a six-digit NAICS code were excused from filing any report. For below cut-
         off establishments, information on the physical location, payroll, and receipts was obtained
         from the administrative records of other federal agencies under special arrangements that
         safeguarded their confidentiality.

        Estimates of data for these small establishments were developed using industry averages
        in conjunction with the administrative information. The value of shipments and cost of
        materials were not distributed among specific products and materials for these establish-
        ments, but were included in the product and material “not specified by kind” (nsk) catego-
        ries.

        The industry classification codes included in the administrative-record files were assigned
        on the basis of brief descriptions of the general activity of the establishment. As a result,
        an indeterminate number of establishments were erroneously coded to a six-digit NAICS
        industry. This was especially true whenever there was a relatively fine line of demarcation
        between industries or between manufacturing and nonmanufacturing activity.

        Sometimes the administrative-record cases had only two- or three-digit NAICS group classi-
        fication codes available in the files. For manufacturing, these establishments were sent a

C–2    Appendix C                                                                            Manufacturing
                                                                         U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
         separate classification form, which requested information on the products and services of
         the establishment. This form was used to code many of these establishments to the appro-
         priate six-digit NAICS level. Establishments that did not return the classification form were
         coded later to those six-digit NAICS industries identified as “All other” industries within the
         given subsector.

         As a result of these situations, a number of small establishments may have been misclassi-
         fied by industry. However, such possible misclassification has no significant effect on the
         statistics, other than on the number of companies and establishments.

         The total establishment count for individual industries should be viewed as an approxima-
         tion rather than a precise measurement. The counts for establishments with 20 employees
         or more are far more reliable than the count of total number of establishments.

     b. All nonemployers, i.e., all firms subject to federal income tax, with no paid employees, dur-
        ing 2002 are excluded as in previous censuses. Data for nonemployers are not included in
        this report, but are released in the annual Nonemployer Statistics series.

The report forms used to collect information for establishments in this sector are available at
help.econ.census.gov/econhelp/resources/.
A more detailed examination of census methodology is presented in the History of the Economic
Census at www.census.gov/econ/www/history.html.

INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS
The classifications for all establishments covered in the 2002 Economic Census — Manufacturing
are classified in 1 of 473 industries in accordance with the industry definitions in the North Ameri-
can Industry Classification System (NAICS), United States, 2002 manual. There were no changes
between the 2002 edition and the 1997 edition affecting this sector. When applicable, Appendix F
of this report shows the product class and product comparability between the two systems for
data in this report.
In the NAICS system, an industry is generally defined as a group of establishments that have simi-
lar production processes. To the extent practical, the system uses supply-based or production-
oriented concepts in defining industries. The resulting group of establishments must be signifi-
cant in terms of number, value added by manufacture, value of shipments, and number of
employees.
The coding system works in such a way that the definitions progressively become narrower with
successive additions of numerical digits. In the manufacturing sector for 2002, there are 21 sub-
sectors (three-digit NAICS), 86 industry groups (four-digit NAICS), 184 NAICS industries (five-digit
NAICS) that are comparable with Canadian and Mexican classification, and 473 U.S. industries (six-
digit NAICS). Product classes and products of the manufacturing industries have been assigned
codes based on the industry from which they originate. There are 1,450 product classes (seven-
digit codes), 5,674 census products, and an additional 3,746 ten-digit product codes. The ten-
digit products are considered the primary products of the industry with the same first six digits.
For the 2002 Economic Census — Manufacturing, all establishments were classified in particular
industries based on the products they produced. If an establishment made products of more than
one industry, it was classified in the industry with the largest product value. For 2002, there were
no “resistance rules” or “frozen industries.”
In ASM years, establishments included in the ASM sample with certainty weights are reclassified
by industry only if the change in the primary activity from the prior year is significant or if the
change has occurred for 2 successive years. This procedure prevents reclassification when there
are minor shifts in product mix.
In ASM years, establishments included in the ASM sample with noncertainty weight are not shifted
from one industry classification to another. They are retained in the industry where they were clas-
sified in the base census year. However, in the following census year, these ASM plants are
allowed to shift from one industry to another.

Manufacturing                                                                         Appendix C C–3
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
The results of these rules covering the switching of plants from one industry classification to
another are that some industries comprise different mixes of establishments in different survey
years. Hence, comparisons between prior-year and current-year published totals, particularly at
the six-digit NAICS level, should be viewed with caution. This is particularly true for the compari-
son between the data shown for a census year versus the data shown for the previous ASM year.

As previously noted, the small establishments that may have been misclassified by industry are
usually administrative-record cases whose industry codes were assigned on the basis of incom-
plete descriptions of the general activity of the establishment. Such possible misclassifications
have no significant effect on the statistics other than on the number of companies and establish-
ments.

Establishments frequently make products classified both in their industry (primary products) and
other industries (secondary products). Industry statistics (employment, payroll, value added by
manufacture, value of shipments, etc.) reflect the activities of the establishments that may make
both primary and secondary products. Product statistics, however, represent the output of all
establishments without regard for the classification of the producing establishment. For this rea-
son, when relating the industry statistics, especially the value of shipments, to the product statis-
tics, the composition of the industry’s output should be considered.

The extent to which industry and product statistics may be matched with each other is measured
by the primary product specialization ratio and the coverage ratio. The primary product special-
ization ratio is the proportion of industry shipments accounted for by the primary products of
establishments classified in the industry. The coverage ratio is the proportion of product ship-
ments accounted for by establishments classified in the industry.

ESTABLISHMENT BASIS OF REPORTING

The 2002 Economic Census — Manufacturing is conducted on an establishment basis. A company
operating at more than one location is required to file a separate report for each location or estab-
lishment. The ASM also is conducted on an establishment basis, but separate reports are filed for
just those establishments selected in the sample. Companies engaged in distinctly different lines
of activity at one location are requested to submit separate reports, if the plant records permit
such a separation and if the activities are substantial in size.

In 2002, as in earlier years, a minimum size limit was set for inclusion of establishments in the
census. All establishments employing one person or more at any time during the census year are
included. The same size limitation has applied since 1947 in censuses and annual surveys of
manufactures. In the 1939 and earlier censuses, establishments with less than $5,000 value of
products were excluded. The change in the minimum size limit in 1947 does not appreciably
affect the historical comparability of the census figures, except for data on number of establish-
ments for a few industries.

The 2002 Economic Census — Manufacturing excludes data for central administrative offices
(CAOs). These would include separately operated administrative offices, warehouses, garages, and
other auxiliary units that service manufacturing establishments of the same company. These data
are published in a separate report series.

DESCRIPTION OF THE ASM SURVEY SAMPLE

The ASM sample is drawn for the second survey year after a census. The most recent sample was
drawn for the 1999 survey year based on the 1997 Economic Census — Manufacturing. This
sample will be in place through the 2003 ASM.

In 1997, there were approximately 370,000 individual manufacturing establishments. For sample
efficiency and cost considerations, the establishments in the 1997 manufacturing population were
partitioned into two components for developing estimates within the ASM. The details of each are
described below:

1. Mail stratum. The mail stratum of the survey is comprised of larger single-location manufac-
   turing companies and all manufacturing establishments of multiunit companies (companies

C–4   Appendix C                                                                           Manufacturing
                                                                       U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
     that operate at more than one physical location). Approximately 200,000 of the 370,000
     establishments in the 1997 census were assigned to the mail stratum. On an annual basis, the
     mail stratum is supplemented with larger, newly active single-location companies identified
     from a list provided by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and new manufacturing locations of
     multiunit companies identified from the Census Bureau’s Company Organization Survey (COS).

     For the 1999 survey, a new sample of approximately 58,000 individual establishments was
     selected from the mail stratum assembled from the 1997 census. Supplemental samples rep-
     resenting both 1998 and 1999 births (newly active establishments that were not included in
     the 1997 census) were also selected. Establishments selected for the sample are mailed an
     ASM survey questionnaire for each year through 2003.

     The 1999-2003 ASM sample design is similar to the one used since 1984. Companies in the
     1997 Economic Census — Manufacturing with manufacturing shipments of at least $500 mil-
     lion were defined as company certainties. For these large companies, each manufacturing
     establishment is included in the mail sample. For the 1999-2003 sample, there are approxi-
     mately 500 certainty companies collectively accounting for over 18,000 establishments.

     For the remaining portion of the mail component of the survey, the establishment was defined
     as the sample unit. All establishments with 250 employees or more were defined as employ-
     ment certainties. Across these arbitrary certainty classes, there were approximately 25,000
     establishments included in the sample with certainty. Collectively, these certainty establish-
     ments accounted for approximately 80 percent of the total value of shipments in the 1997
     Economic Census — Manufacturing.

     Smaller establishments in the remaining portion of the mail stratum were sampled with prob-
     abilities ranging from .02 to 1.00. The initial probabilities of selection assigned to these
     establishments were proportionate to a measure-of-size determined for each establishment.
     The measure-of-size was a function of the establishment’s 1997 industry classification and its
     1997 product class data. For each product class (1,755) and six-digit industry (473), a desired
     reliability constraint was specified. Using a technique developed by Dr. James R. Chromy of
     the Research Triangle Institute, the initial establishment probabilities were optimized such
     that the expected sample satisfied all industry and product class reliability constraints, while
     the sample size was minimized. This technique reduces the likelihood of selecting nonrepre-
     sentative samples for individual product classes or industries.

     This method of assigning probabilities based on product class shipments is motivated by the
     Census Bureau’s primary desire to produce reliable estimates of both product class and indus-
     try shipments. The high correlation between shipments and employment, value-added, and
     other general statistics assures that these variables will also be well represented by the
     sample. The actual sample selection procedure uses an independent chance of selection
     method (Poisson sampling) that permits us to prevent small establishments from being
     selected in consecutive samples without introducing a bias into the survey estimates.
 2. Nonmail stratum. The initial nonmail component of the survey was comprised of approxi-
    mately 170,000 small, single-establishment companies that were tabulated as administrative
    records in the 1997 Economic Census — Manufacturing. The nonmail stratum is also supple-
    mented annually using the list of newly active single-location companies provided by the
    Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and payroll cutoffs. Companies with payroll below the payroll
    cutoff are added to the nonmail stratum. For this portion of the population, sampling is not
    used. The data for this group are estimated based on selected information obtained annually
    from the administrative records of the IRS and Social Security Administration (SSA). This
    administrative information, which includes payroll, total employment, industry classification,
    and physical location, is obtained under conditions which safeguard the confidentiality of
    both tax and census records.
RELIABILITY OF DATA
All data compiled in the economic census are subject to nonsampling errors. Nonsampling errors
can be attributed to many sources during the development or execution of the census. The follow-
ing are two ways that further explain this method: ASM Estimating Procedure. Most of the ASM

Manufacturing                                                                      Appendix C C–5
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
estimates derived for the mail stratum are computed using a difference estimator. At the establish-
ment level, there is a strong correlation between the current-year data values and the correspond-
ing 1997 (base) data values. Therefore, within the mailed stratum, for each item at each level of
aggregation, an estimate of the “difference” between the current year and the base year is com-
puted from sample cases and added to the corresponding base-year values. For the 1998-2002
ASM estimates, the 1997 Economic Census — Manufacturing values serve as the base year. For
the 2003 ASM, the base will be updated to be the 2002 Economic Census — Manufacturing.

Due to the positive year-to-year correlation, estimates derived using this methodology are gener-
ally more reliable than comparable estimates developed from the current sample data alone. Esti-
mates for the capital expenditures variables are not generated using the difference estimator
because the year-to-year correlations are considerably weaker. The standard linear estimator is
used for these variables.

For the nonmail stratum, estimates for payroll and employment are directly tabulated from the
administrative-record data provided by IRS and SSA. Estimates of data other than payroll and
employment are developed from industry averages. Although the nonmail stratum contained
approximately 170,000 individual establishments in 1999, it accounts for less than 2 percent of
the estimate for total value of shipments at the total manufacturing level.

Corresponding estimates for the mail and nonmail components are combined to produce the esti-
mates included in this publication. ASM Data Qualifications. The estimates developed from the
sample are apt to differ somewhat from the results of a survey covering all companies in the
sample lists, but otherwise conducted under essentially the same conditions as the actual sample
survey. The estimates of the magnitude of the sampling errors (the difference between the esti-
mates obtained and the results theoretically obtained from a comparable, complete-coverage sur-
vey) are provided by the standard errors of estimates.

The particular sample selected for the ASM is one of many similar probability samples that, by
chance, might have been selected under the same specifications. Each of the possible samples
would yield somewhat different sets of results, and the standard errors are measures of the varia-
tion of all the possible sample estimates around the theoretically comparable, complete-coverage
values.

Estimates of the standard errors have been computed from the sample data for selected ASM sta-
tistics in this report. They are represented in the form of relative standard errors (the standard
errors divided by the estimated values to which they refer).

In conjunction with its associated estimate, the relative standard error may be used to define con-
fidence intervals (ranges that would include the comparable, complete-coverage value for speci-
fied percentages of all the possible samples).

The complete-coverage value would be included in the range:

• From one standard error below to one standard error above the derived estimate for about two-
  thirds of all possible samples.

• From two standard errors below to two standard errors above the derived estimate for about 19
  out of 20 of all possible samples.

• From three standard errors below to three standard errors above the derived estimate for nearly
  all samples.

An inference that the comparable, complete-survey result would be within the indicated ranges
would be correct in approximately the relative frequencies shown. Those proportions, therefore,
may be interpreted as defining the confidence that the estimates from a particular sample would
differ from complete-coverage results by as much as one, two, or three standard errors, respec-
tively.




C–6   Appendix C                                                                          Manufacturing
                                                                      U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
For example, suppose an estimated total is shown at 50,000 with an associated relative standard
error of 2 percent, that is, a standard error of 1,000 (2 percent of 50,000). There is approximately
67 percent confidence that the interval 49,000 to 51,000 includes the complete-coverage total,
about 95 percent confidence that the interval 48,000 to 52,000 includes the complete-coverage
total, and almost certain confidence that the interval 47,000 to 53,000 includes the complete-
coverage total.

In addition to the sample errors, the estimates are subject to various response and operational
errors: errors of collection, reporting, coding, transcription, imputation for nonresponse, etc.
These operational errors also would occur if a complete canvass were to be conducted under the
same conditions as the survey. Explicit measures of their effects generally are not available. How-
ever, it is believed that most of the important operational errors were detected and corrected dur-
ing the Census Bureau’s review of the data for reasonableness and consistency. The small opera-
tional errors usually remain. To some extent, they are compensating in the aggregated totals
shown. When important operational errors were detected too late to correct the estimates, the
data were suppressed or were specifically qualified in the tables.

As derived, the estimated standard errors included part of the effect of the operational errors. The
total errors, which depend upon the joint effect of the sampling and operational errors, are usu-
ally of the order of size indicated by the standard error, or moderately higher. However, for par-
ticular estimates, the total error may considerably exceed the standard errors shown. Any figures
shown in the tables in this publication having an associated standard error exceeding 15 percent
may be combined with higher level totals, creating a broader aggregate, which then may be of
acceptable reliability.

DUPLICATION IN COST OF MATERIALS AND VALUE OF SHIPMENTS
Data for cost of materials and value of shipments include varying amounts of duplication, espe-
cially at higher levels of aggregation. This is because the products of one establishment may be
the materials of another. The value added statistics avoid this duplication and are, for most pur-
poses, the best measure for comparing the relative economic importance of industries and geo-
graphic areas.

VALUE OF INDUSTRY SHIPMENTS COMPARED WITH VALUE OF PRODUCT SHIPMENTS
The 2002 Economic Census — Manufacturing shows value of shipments data for industries and
products. In the industry statistics tables and files, these data represent the total value of ship-
ments of all establishments classified in a particular industry. The data include the shipments of
the products classified in the industry (primary to the industry), products classified in other indus-
tries (secondary to the industry), and miscellaneous receipts (repair work, sale of scrap, research
and development, installation receipts, and resales). Value of product shipments shown in the
products statistics tables and files represent the total value of all products shipped that are classi-
fied as primary to an industry regardless of the classification of the producing establishment.

DISCLOSURE
In accordance with federal law governing census reports (Title 13 of the United States Code), no
data are published that would disclose the operations of an individual establishment or company.
However, the number of establishments in a specific industry or geographic area is not considered
a disclosure; therefore, this information may be released even though other information is with-
held. Techniques employed to limit disclosure are discussed at
www.census.gov/epcd/ec02/disclosure.htm.

The disclosure analysis for the industry statistics files is based on the total value of shipments.
When the total value of shipments cannot be shown without disclosing information for individual
companies, the complete line is suppressed except for capital expenditures. Nonetheless, the sup-
pressed data are included in higher-level totals. A separate disclosure analysis is performed for
capital expenditures, which can be suppressed even though value of shipments data are pub-
lished.


Manufacturing                                                                        Appendix C C–7
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Appendix D.
Geographic Notes

Not applicable for this report.




2002 Economic Census                       Appendix D D–1
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Appendix E.
Metropolitan Areas and Micropolitan
Statistical Areas

Not applicable for this report.




2002 Economic Census                       Appendix E   E–1
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
Appendix F.
Comparability of Product Classes and
Product Codes: 2002 to 1997

  2002 published       2002 collected       1997 published     2002 published     2002 collected    1997 published     2002 published     2002 collected    1997 published

3391114             3391137                3391137           3391136 pt         3391136            3391135           3399111YWV         3399111YWV         3399111YWV
3391114100          3391137100             3391137100        3391136101         3391136101         3391135101
                                                             3391136106         3391136106         3391135106        3399113            3399113            3399113
                                                             3391136111         3391136111         3391135111        3399113101         3399113101         3399113101
3391116             3391125                3391123
                                                             3391136114         3262998111         3262998111        3399113111         3399113111         3399113111
3391116102          3391125106             3391123106
                                                             3391136116 pt      3262998125         3262998121 pt     3399113121 pt      3399113121 pt      3399113106
3391116105          3391125111             3391123111
                                                             3391136116 pt      3391136116         3391135116        3399113121 pt      3399113121 pt      3399113116
3391116109          3391125116             3391123116
                                                             3391136121         3391136121         3391135121        3399113YWV         3399113YWV         3399113YWV
3391116YWV          3391125YWV             3391123YWV
                                                             3391136131 pt      3262999156         3262999155 pt     3399115            3399115            3399115
3391118             3391110 pt             3391110 pt        3391136131 pt      3391136126         3391135126        3399115101         3399115101         3399115101
3391118120          3391110230             3391110230        3391136YWV pt      3262998YWV pt      3262998YWV pt     3399115111         3399115111         3399115111
3391118240          3391110110             3391110110        3391136YWV pt      3262999YWV pt      3262999YWV pt     3399115114 pt      3399115114 pt      3399115106
3391118YWV          3391110YWW pt          3391110YWW pt     3391136YWV pt      3391136YWV         3391135YWV        3399115114 pt      3399115114 pt      3399115116
                                                             339113W pt         326299W pt         326299W pt        3399115118         3399115118         3399115118
339111W pt          3391110 pt             3391110 pt                                                                3399115121         3399115121         3399115121
                                                             339113W pt         339113W pt         339113W pt        3399115YWV         3399115YWV         3399115YWV
339111W pt          339112W pt             339112W pt        339113WYWW pt      326299WYWW pt      326299WYWW pt
                                                             339113WYWW pt      339113WYWW pt      339113WYWW pt     3399117            3321165 pt         3321165 pt
                                                             339113WYWY pt      326299WYWY pt      326299WYWY pt     3399117100 pt      3321165293         3321165291 pt
339111W pt          339113W pt             339113W pt        339113WYWY pt      339113WYWY pt      339113WYWY pt     3399117100 pt      3321165YWV pt      3321165YWV pt
339111WYWW pt       3391110YWW pt          3391110YWW pt
339111WYWW pt       339112WYWW pt          339112WYWW pt     3391141            3391141            3391141           339911W pt         332116W pt         332116W pt
339111WYWW pt       339113WYWW pt          339113WYWW pt     3391141101         3391141101         3391141101        339911W pt         339911W            339911W
339111WYWY pt       3391110YWY             3391110YWY        3391141106         3391141106         3391141106        339911WYWW pt      332116WYWW pt      332116WYWW pt
339111WYWY pt       339112WYWY pt          339112WYWY pt     3391141111         3391141111         3391141111        339911WYWW pt      339911WYWW         339911WYWW
339111WYWY pt       339113WYWY pt          339113WYWY pt     3391141116         3391141116         3391141116        339911WYWY pt      332116WYWY pt      332116WYWY pt
                                                             3391141121         3391141121         3391141121        339911WYWY pt      339911WYWY         339911WYWY
3391120 pt          3391121 pt             3391121 pt        3391141226         3391141226         3391141226
                                                             3391141231         3391141231         3391141231        3399122 pt         3399122 pt         3399121 pt
3391120 pt          339112W pt             339112W pt        3391141236         3391141236         3391141236
                                                             3391141241         3391141241         3391141241        3399122 pt         3399125 pt         3399123 pt
3391120101          3391121101             3391121101                                                                3399122106         3399122106         3399121106 pt
3391120106          3391121106             3391121106        3391141246         3391141246         3391141246
                                                             3391141YWV         3391141YWV         3391141YWV        3399122121         3399122121         3399121121
3391120211          3391121211             3391121211                                                                3399122161 pt      3399122161 pt      3399121101
3391120216          3391121216             3391121216
3391120321          3391121321             3391121321        3391143            3391143            3391143           3399122161 pt      3399122161 pt      3399121111
3391120326          3391121326             3391121326        3391143101         3391143101         3391143101        3399122161 pt      3399122161 pt      3399121116
3391120431          3391121431             3391121431        3391143106         3391143106         3391143106        3399122161 pt      3399122161 pt      3399121YWV pt
3391120536          3391121536             3391121536        3391143111         3391143111         3391143111        3399122181         3399125181         3399123126 pt
3391120641          3391121641             3391121641        3391143116         3391143116         3391143116        3399122YWV pt      3399122YWV pt      3399121YWV pt
3391120646          3391121646             3391121646        3391143121         3391143121         3391143121        3399122YWV pt      3399125YWV pt      3399123YWV pt
                                                             3391143YWV         3391143YWV         3391143YWV
                                                                                                                     3399125            3399125 pt         3399123 pt
3391120651          3391121651             3391121651        339114W            339114W            339114W           3399125131         3399125131         3399123106 pt
3391120671 pt       3391121671 pt          3391121656        339114WYWW         339114WYWW         339114WYWW        3399125151         3399125151         3399123101
3391120671 pt       3391121671 pt          3391121661 pt     339114WYWY         339114WYWY         339114WYWY        3399125171 pt      3399125171 pt      3399123111
                                                                                                                     3399125171 pt      3399125171 pt      3399123116
3391120766          3391121766             3391121766        3391151            3391151            3391151           3399125171 pt      3399125171 pt      3399123YWV pt
3391120YWW pt       3391121YWV pt          3391121YWV pt     3391151101         3391151101         3391151101        3399125191         3399125191         3399123126 pt
3391120YWW pt       339112WYWW pt          339112WYWW pt     3391151106         3391151106         3391151106        3399125YWV         3399125YWV pt      3399123YWV pt
3391120YWY          339112WYWY pt          339112WYWY pt     3391151121 pt      3391151121 pt      3391151111
                                                             3391151121 pt      3391151121 pt      3391151116        339912W            339912W pt         339912W pt
3391132 pt          3262995 pt             3262995 pt        3391151YWV         3391151YWV         3391151YWV        339912WYWW         339912WYWW pt      339912WYWW pt
                                                                                                                     339912WYWY         339912WYWY pt      339912WYWY pt
3391132 pt          3391131                3391131           3391153            3391153            3391153
3391132101          3391131101             3391131101        3391153101         3391153101         3391153101        3399132            3399132 pt         3399131 pt
3391132104          3391131104             3391131104        3391153106         3391153106         3391153106        3399132100 pt      3399132121         3399131100 pt
3391132207          3391131207             3391131207        3391153YWV         3391153YWV         3391153YWV        3399132100 pt      3399132YWV pt      3399131100 pt
3391132211          3391131211             3391131211        3391155            3391155            3391155
3391132214          3391131214             3391131214                                                                3399133            3399133            3399133
                                                             3391155101         3391155101         3391155101        3399133406         3399133206         3399133206
3391132221          3391131221             3391131221        3391155206         3391155206         3391155206
3391132224          3391131224             3391131224                                                                3399133408         3399133208         3399133101
                                                             3391155YWV         3391155YWV         3391155YWV        3399133411         3399133211         3399133211
3391132227          3391131227             3391131227
3391132231          3391131231             3391131231        3391157            3391157            3391157           3399133416         3399133216         3399133316
3391132235 pt       3391131234 pt          3391131217        3391157101         3391157101         3391157101        3399133YWV         3399133YWV         3399133YWV
                                                             3391157206         3391157206         3391157206        3399135            3399135            3399135
3391132235 pt       3391131234 pt          3391131234        3391157YWV         3391157YWV         3391157YWV        3399135100         3399135100         3399135100
3391132337          3391131337             3391131337        339115B            339115B            339115B
3391132341          3391131341             3391131341        339115B101         339115B104         339115B101        339913W            339913W pt         339913W pt
3391132344          3391131344             3391131344        339115B106         339115B106         339115B106        339913WYWW         339913WYWW pt      339913WYWW pt
3391132347          3391131347             3391131347        339115B117 pt      339115B117 pt      339115B111        339913WYWY         339913WYWY pt      339913WYWY pt
3391132351          3391131351             3391131351        339115B117 pt      339115B117 pt      339115B116
3391132354          3391131354             3391131354                                                                3399140            3399140            3399140
                                                             339115B117 pt      339115B117 pt      339115B121        3399140301         3399140201         3399140201
3391132457          3391131457             3391131457        339115B125         339115B102         339115B125
3391132581          3391131581             3391131581                                                                3399140311         3399140211         3399140111
                                                             339115BYWV         339115BYWV         339115BYWV        3399140316         3399140216         3399140216
3391132584          3391131584             3391131584
                                                             339115W            339115W            339115W           3399140324 pt      3399140224 pt      3399140206
                                                             339115WYWW         339115WYWW         339115WYWW        3399140324 pt      3399140224 pt      3399140221 pt
3391132587          3391131587             3391131587        339115WYWY         339115WYWY         339115WYWY        3399140426         3399140326         3399140226
3391132588          3391131588             3391131591 pt                                                             3399140431         3399140331         3399140221 pt
3391132592          3391131592             3391131591 pt     3391160            3391160            3391160           3399140YWW pt      3399140YWW pt      3399140118
3391132594          3391131594             3391131594        3391160100         3391160100         3391160100        3399140YWW pt      3399140YWW pt      3399140YWW
3391132667          3391131567             3391131567        3391160YWW         3391160YWW         3391160YWW        3399140YWY         3399140YWY         3399140YWY
3391132669          3262995151             3262995151        3391160YWY         3391160YWY         3391160YWY
3391132671          3391131571             3391131571                                                                3399201            3399201            3399201
3391132674          3391131574             3391131574        3399111            3399111            3399111           3399201101         3399201101         3399201101
3391132677          3391131577             3391131577        3399111206         3399111206         3399111206        3399201106         3399201106         3399201106
3391132YWV pt       3262995YWV pt          3262995YWV pt     3399111421         3399111621         3399111421        3399201111         3399201111         3399201111
3391132YWV pt       3391131YWV             3391131YWV        3399111601         3399111301         3399111101        3399201116         3399201116         3399201116
                                                             3399111611         3399111311         3399111311        3399201121         3399201121         3399201121
3391136 pt          3262998 pt             3262998 pt        3399111726         3399111726         3399111526        3399201126         3399201126         3399201126
                                                             3399111731         3399111731         3399111531        3399201131         3399201131         3399201131
3391136 pt          3262999 pt             3262999 pt        3399111816         3399111516         3399111516        3399201YWV         3399201YWV         3399201YWV


Manufacturing                                                                                                                                        Appendix F         F–1
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
  2002 published     2002 collected    1997 published     2002 published     2002 collected    1997 published     2002 published        2002 collected      1997 published

3399203            3399203            3399203           3399327            3399324            3399327           339944W              339944W               339944W
3399203101         3399203101         3399203101        3399327301         3399324201         3399327101        339944WYWW           339944WYWW            339944WYWW
3399203206         3399203206         3399203206        3399327306         3399324206         3399327206        339944WYWY           339944WYWY            339944WYWY
3399203311         3399203311         3399203311        3399327311         3399324211         3399327211
3399203416         3399203416         3399203416        3399327316         3399324216         3399327216        3399501              3399501               3399501
3399203421         3399203421         3399203421        3399327321         3399324221         3399327221        3399501101           3399501101            3399501101
3399203YWV         3399203YWV         3399203YWV        3399327326         3399324226         3399327226        3399501206           3399501206            3399501206
                                                        3399327YWV         3399324YWV         3399327YWV        3399501311           3399501311            3399501311
3399205            3399205            3399205                                                                   3399501316           3399501316            3399501316
3399205101         3399205101         3399205101        3399328 pt         3262999 pt         3262999 pt        3399501321           3399501321            3399501321
3399205106         3399205106         3399205106                                                                3399501YWV           3399501YWV            3399501YWV
3399205YWV         3399205YWV         3399205YWV        3399328 pt         3399328            3399323 pt
                                                        3399328116         3399328116         3399323116        3399503              3399503               3399503
3399207            3399207            3399207           3399328121         3399328121         3399323121        3399503101           3399503101            3399503101
3399207101         3399207101         3399207101        3399328141 pt      3399328141 pt      3399323126        3399503106           3399503106            3399503106
3399207111         3399207111         3399207111        3399328141 pt      3399328141 pt      3399323131        3399503111           3399503111            3399503111
3399207131         3399207131         3399207131        3399328251         3399328251         3399323451        3399503116           3399503116            3399503116
3399207141         3399207141         3399207141        3399328366         3399328366         3399323566        3399503121           3399503121            3399503121
3399207198 pt      3399207198 pt      3399207121        3399328446         3399328446         3399323346        3399503126           3399503126            3399503126
3399207198 pt      3399207198 pt      3399207151        3399328511         3399328511         3399323261        3399503YWV           3399503YWV            3399503YWV
3399207198 pt      3399207198 pt      3399207199        3399328521         3399328521         3399323201
                                                        3399328531         3399328531         3399323241        3399505              3399505               3399505
3399207YWV         3399207YWV         3399207YWV                                                                3399505100 pt        3399505100 pt         3399505101
339920A pt         3262998 pt         3262998 pt        3399328551 pt      3262999145         3262999145        3399505100 pt        3399505100 pt         3399505106
                                                        3399328551 pt      3399328551 pt      3399323111 pt     3399505100 pt        3399505100 pt         3399505YWV
339920A pt         3399209            3399209           3399328551 pt      3399328551 pt      3399323206
                                                        3399328551 pt      3399328551 pt      3399323236        339950W              339950W               339950W
339920A101         3399209101         3399209101                                                                339950WYWW           339950WYWW            339950WYWW
339920A106         3399209106         3399209106        3399328551 pt      3399328551 pt      3399323256
                                                        3399328551 pt      3399328551 pt      3399323276        339950WYWY           339950WYWY            339950WYWY
339920A111         3399209111         3399209111
339920A116         3399209116         3399209116        3399328571         3399328571         3399323271        3399911              3399911               3399911
339920A118         3399209118         3399209121        3399328YWV pt      3262999YWV pt      3262999YWV pt     3399911111           3399911111            3399911111
339920A11A         339920911A         339920911A        3399328YWV pt      3399328YWV         3399323YWV pt     3399911121           3399911121            3399911121
339920A11F         339920911F         339920911F        3399329            3399326            3399329           3399911YWV           3399911YWV            3399911YWV
339920A11L pt      3262998128         3262998121 pt     3399329100         3399326100         3399329100
339920A11L pt      339920911K         339920911K                                                                3399913              3399913               3399913
339920A11N         339920911N         339920912U pt     339932W pt         326299W pt         326299W pt        3399913111           3399913111            3399913111
                                                                                                                3399913221           3399913221            3399913221
339920A11P         339920911P         339920911P        339932W pt         339932W pt         339932W pt        3399913331           3399913331            3399913331
339920A11R pt      339920911R pt      339920911U                                                                3399913341           3399913341            3399913341
339920A11R pt      339920911R pt      339920911Y        339932W pt         339999W pt         339999W pt        3399913351           3399913351            3399913351
339920A11V         339920911V         339920912A        339932WYWW pt      326299WYWW pt      326299WYWW pt     3399913YWV           3399913YWV            3399913YWV
339920A12C         339920912C         3399209141        339932WYWW pt      339932WYWW pt      339932WYWW pt
339920A12H pt      339920912H pt      3399209126        339932WYWW pt      339999WYWW pt      339999WYWW pt     3399915              3399915               3399915
339920A12H pt      339920912H pt      339920912F        339932WYWY pt      326299WYWY pt      326299WYWY pt     3399915111           3399915111            3399915111
339920A12H pt      339920912H pt      3399209131        339932WYWY pt      339932WYWY pt      339932WYWY pt     3399915221           3399915221            3399915221
339920A12H pt      339920912H pt      3399209136        339932WYWY pt      339999WYWY pt      339999WYWY pt     3399915231           3399915231            3399915231
339920A12H pt      339920912H pt      3399209146                                                                3399915241           3399915241            3399915241
                                                        3399411            3399411            3399411           3399915251           3399915251            3399915251
                                                        3399411101         3399411101         3399411101        3399915261           3399915261            3399915261
339920A12H pt      339920912H pt      3399209151 pt     3399411206         3399411206         3399411206
339920A156         3399209156         3399209156                                                                3399915YWV           3399915YWV            3399915YWV
                                                        3399411311         3399411311         3399411311
339920A166         3399209166         3399209166        3399411YWV         3399411YWV         3399411YWV        3399917              3399917               3399917
339920A181         3399209181         3399209181                                                                3399917111           3399917111            3399917111
339920A186         3399209186         3399209186        3399413            3399413            3399413           3399917121           3399917121            3399917121
339920A193         3399209193         3399209193        3399413101         3399413101         3399413101        3399917YWV           3399917YWV            3399917YWV
339920A194         3399209194         3399209196        3399413206         3399413206         3399413206
339920A195 pt      3399209195 pt      3399209171        3399413YWV         3399413YWV         3399413YWV        3399918              3399918               3399918
339920A195 pt      3399209195 pt      3399209191                                                                3399918111           3399918111            3399918111
339920A197         3399209197         339920912P        3399415            3399415            3399415           3399918121           3399918121            3399918121
                                                        3399415101         3399415101         3399415101        3399918131           3399918131            3399918131
339920A199 pt      3399209199 pt      339920912K        3399415113 pt      3399415113 pt      3399415106        3399918141           3399918141            3399918141
339920A199 pt      3399209199 pt      339920912U pt     3399415113 pt      3399415113 pt      3399415111        3399918251           3399918251            3399918251
339920A199 pt      3399209199 pt      3399209151 pt     3399415116         3399415116         3399415116        3399918YWV           3399918YWV            3399918YWV
339920A199 pt      3399209199 pt      3399209161        3399415YWV         3399415YWV         3399415YWV
339920A199 pt      3399209199 pt      3399209176                                                                3399919              3399919               3399919
                                                        339941W            339941W            339941W           3399919111           3399919111            3399919111
339920AYWV pt      3262998YWV pt      3262998YWV pt     339941WYWW         339941WYWW         339941WYWW
339920AYWV pt      3399209YWV         3399209YWV                                                                3399919141           3399919141            3399919141
                                                        339941WYWY         339941WYWY         339941WYWY        3399919161 pt        3399919161 pt         3399919121
339920W pt         326299W pt         326299W pt                                                                3399919161 pt        3399919161 pt         3399919131
                                                        3399421            3399421            3399421           3399919161 pt        3399919161 pt         3399919151
                                                        3399421101         3399421101         3399421101        3399919YWV           3399919YWV            3399919YWV
339920W pt         339920W            339920W           3399421106         3399421106         3399421106
339920WYWW pt      326299WYWW pt      326299WYWW pt     3399421211         3399421211         3399421211        339991W              339991W               339991W
339920WYWW pt      339920WYWW         339920WYWW        3399421316         3399421316         3399421316        339991WYWW           339991WYWW            339991WYWW
339920WYWY pt      326299WYWY pt      326299WYWY pt     3399421YWV         3399421YWV         3399421YWV        339991WYWY           339991WYWY            339991WYWY
339920WYWY pt      339920WYWY         339920WYWY
                                                        3399423            3399423            3399423           3399921              3399921               3399921
3399310            3399310 pt         3399310 pt        3399423101         3399423101         3399423101        3399921101           3399921111            3399921101
3399310106 pt      3399310106 pt      3399310106        3399423206         3399423206         3399423206        3399921106           3399921106            3399921106
3399310106 pt      3399310106 pt      3399310131 pt     3399423YWV         3399423YWV         3399423YWV        3399921YWV           3399921YWV            3399921YWV
3399310111 pt      3399310111 pt      3399310111
3399310111 pt      3399310111 pt      3399310131 pt     3399427 pt         333313E pt         333313D pt        3399923              3399923               3399923
3399310301         3399310301         3399310301                                                                3399923101           3399923101            3399923101
3399310321         3399310321         3399310321        3399427 pt         3399427 pt         3399425 pt        3399923106           3399923106            3399923106
3399310326         3399310326         3399310326        3399427100 pt      333313E111         333313D000 pt     3399923YWV           3399923YWV            3399923YWV
3399310516         3399310516         3399310216        3399427100 pt      333313EYWV pt      333313D000 pt
3399310YWW         3399310YWW pt      3399310YWW pt     3399427100 pt      3399427111         3399425000 pt     3399925              3399925               3399925
3399310YWY         3399310YWY pt      3399310YWY pt     3399427100 pt      3399427YWV pt      3399425000 pt     3399925101           3399925101            3399925101
                                                                                                                3399925106           3399925106            3399925106
3399322            3399322 pt         3399321 pt        339942W pt         333313W pt         333313W pt        3399925YWV           3399925YWV            3399925YWV
3399322101         3399322101         3399321101        339942W pt         339942W pt         339942W pt        3399927              3399927               3399927
3399322106         3399322106         3399321106        339942WYWW pt      333313WYWW pt      333313WYWW pt     3399927116           3399927116            3399927116
3399322111         3399322141         3399321111        339942WYWW pt      339942WYWW pt      339942WYWW pt     3399927201           3399927201            3399927201
3399322131         3399322131         3399321116 pt     339942WYWY pt      333313WYWY pt      333313WYWY pt     3399927206           3399927206            3399927206
3399322YWV         3399322YWV pt      3399321YWV pt     339942WYWY pt      339942WYWY pt      339942WYWY pt     3399927211           3399927211            3399927211
                                                                                                                3399927221           3399927221            3399927221
3399326 pt         3399325 pt         3399323 pt        3399430            3399430            3399430           3399927226           3399927226            3399927226
                                                        3399430101         3399430101         3399430101        3399927331           3399927331            3399927331
3399326 pt         3399325 pt         3399325           3399430106         3399430106         3399430106        3399927YWV           3399927YWV            3399927YWV
                                                        3399430211         3399430211         3399430211
3399326 pt         339999K pt         339999H pt        3399430321         3399430321         3399430321        339992W              339992W               339992W
3399326102 pt      3399325102 pt      3399323111 pt     3399430331 pt      3399430331 pt      3399430316        339992WYWW           339992WYWW            339992WYWW
3399326102 pt      3399325102 pt      3399325101        3399430331 pt      3399430331 pt      3399430326        339992WYWY           339992WYWY            339992WYWY
3399326106         3399325106         3399325106        3399430YWW         3399430YWW         3399430YWW
3399326116         3399325116         3399325116        3399430YWY         3399430YWY         3399430YWY        3399931              3399931               3399931
3399326118         3399325118         3399325111                                                                3399931101 pt        3399931101            3399931101
3399326121         3399325121         3399325121        3399441            3399441            3399441           3399931101 pt        3399931111            3399931111
3399326227 pt      3399325226         3399325226        3399441106         3399441106         3399441106        3399931106           3399931106            3399931106
3399326227 pt      339999K149         339999H151 pt     3399441201         3399441201         3399441201        3399931YWV           3399931YWV            3399931YWV
3399326231         3399325231         3399325231        3399441211         3399441211         3399441211
3399326236         3399325236         3399325236        3399441YWV         3399441YWV         3399441YWV        3399933              3399933               3399933
3399326YWV pt      3399325YWV pt      3399323YWV pt                                                             3399933106           3399933106            3399933106
3399326YWV pt      3399325YWV pt      3399325YWV        3399443            3399443            3399443           3399933111           3399933111            3399933101
3399326YWV pt      339999KYWV pt      339999HYWV pt     3399443100         3399443100         3399443100        3399933YWV           3399933YWV            3399933YWV


F–2      Appendix F                                                                                                                                      Manufacturing
                                                                                                                                   U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
  2002 published       2002 collected       1997 published     2002 published     2002 collected    1997 published     2002 published     2002 collected    1997 published

3399935             3399935                3399935           3399951            3399951            3399951           339999E pt         3261997 pt         3261997 pt
3399935106          3399935106             3399935106        3399951101         3399951101         3399951101
3399935112 pt       3399935112 pt          3399935101        3399951206         3399951206         3399951206        339999E pt         339999E            339999C
3399935112 pt       3399935112 pt          3399935111        3399951YWV         3399951YWV         3399951YWV        339999E101         339999E101         339999C101
3399935131 pt       3399935131 pt          3399935116                                                                339999E206         339999E206         339999C206
3399935131 pt       3399935131 pt          3399935121        3399953            3399953            3399953           339999E311         339999E311         339999C311
3399935131 pt       3399935131 pt          3399935126        3399953101         3399953111         3399953101        339999E313         3261997126         3261997121
3399935YWV          3399935YWV             3399935YWV        3399953106         3399953106         3399953106        339999E316         339999E316         339999C316
                                                             3399953YWV         3399953YWV         3399953YWV        339999EYWV pt      3261997YWV pt      3261997YWV pt
339993W             339993W                339993W                                                                   339999EYWV pt      339999EYWV         339999CYWV
339993WYWW          339993WYWW             339993WYWW        3399955            3399955            3399955
339993WYWY          339993WYWY             339993WYWY        3399955100         3399955100         3399955100        339999K pt         3352113 pt         3352113 pt
                                                             339995W            339995W            339995W           339999K pt         3399310 pt         3399310 pt
3399941             3399941                3399941           339995WYWW         339995WYWW         339995WYWW
3399941101          3399941101             3399941101        339995WYWY         339995WYWY         339995WYWY        339999K pt         339999K pt         339999H pt
3399941106          3399941106             3399941106                                                                339999K111         339999K111         339999H111
3399941311          3399941311             3399941311        3399991            3399991            3399991           339999K121         339999K121         339999H121
3399941316          3399941316             3399941316        3399991101         3399991101         3399991101        339999K151 pt      3352113120         3352113000 pt
3399941321          3399941321             3399941321        3399991106         3399991106         3399991106        339999K151 pt      3399310141         3399310131 pt
3399941YWV          3399941YWV             3399941YWV        3399991111         3399991111         3399991111        339999K151 pt      339999K151         339999H151 pt
                                                             3399991116         3399991116         3399991116        339999KYWV pt      3352113YWV pt      3352113000 pt
3399943             3399943                3399943           3399991121         3399991121         3399991121
3399943101          3399943101             3399943101                                                                339999KYWV pt      3399310YWW pt      3399310YWW pt
                                                             3399991YWV         3399991YWV         3399991YWV        339999KYWV pt      339999KYWV pt      339999HYWV pt
3399943206          3399943206             3399943206
3399943211          3399943211             3399943211        3399993            3399993            3399993           339999W pt         326199W pt         326199W pt
3399943YWV          3399943YWV             3399943YWV        3399993101         3399993101         3399993101
                                                             3399993106         3399993106         3399993106        339999W pt         335211W pt         335211W pt
3399945             3399945                3399945           3399993YWV         3399993YWV         3399993YWV
3399945101          3399945101             3399945101                                                                339999W pt         3399310 pt         3399310 pt
3399945106          3399945106             3399945106        3399995            3399995            3399995
3399945211          3399945211             3399945211        3399995100         3399995100         3399995100        339999W pt         339999W pt         339999W pt
3399945216          3399945216             3399945216        3399997            3399997            3399997           339999WYWW pt      326199WYWW pt      326199WYWW pt
3399945221          3399945221             3399945221        3399997100         3399997100         3399997100        339999WYWW pt      335211WYWW pt      335211WYWW pt
3399945226          3399945226             3399945226                                                                339999WYWW pt      3399310YWW pt      3399310YWW pt
3399945YWV          3399945YWV             3399945YWV        3399999            3399999            3399999           339999WYWW pt      339999WYWW pt      339999WYWW pt
                                                             3399999101         3399999101         3399999101        339999WYWY pt      326199WYWY pt      326199WYWY pt
339994W             339994W                339994W           3399999106         3399999106         3399999106        339999WYWY pt      335211WYWY pt      335211WYWY pt
339994WYWW          339994WYWW             339994WYWW        3399999111         3399999111         3399999111        339999WYWY pt      3399310YWY pt      3399310YWY pt
339994WYWY          339994WYWY             339994WYWY        3399999YWV         3399999YWV         3399999YWV        339999WYWY pt      339999WYWY pt      339999WYWY pt




Manufacturing                                                                                                                                        Appendix F         F–3
U.S. Census Bureau, 2002 Economic Census
EC02-31I-339112 (RV)   2002   Surgical and Medical Instrument Manufacturing: 2002   2002 Economic Census   Manufacturing   Industry Series   USCENSUSBUREAU

				
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