COLONIAL SPANISH HORSE IN THE USA THE COLONIAL SPANISH HORSE IN THE USA: HISTORY AND CURRENT STATUS CABALLOS CRIOLLOS EN LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS: HISTORIA Y SITUACION ACTUAL Sponenberg, D.P. Virginia Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Blacksburg, VA 406l. USA Additional Keywords Palabras clave adicionales Horse breeds. Razas equinas. SUMMARY Colonial spanish horses in the USA descend Colors vary widely, and indeed include variants from horses introduced from Spain during the not common in other populations descending conquest of the New World. They are a direct from spanish horses. The colors include black, remnant of the iberian horses of the 1500s, and bay, chestnut, sorrel, grullo, dun, red dun, conserve this type of horse in present populations. buckskin, palomino, cream, and an unusual The colonial spanish horses brought to the chocolate brown based series of colors. Patterns present United States of America all came from of white include grey, roan, ticked, frosted roan, the region of present day Mexico, and these in as well as tobiano, frame overo, sabino overo, turn descend from the original spanish imports and the leopard complex of colors. to the Antilles. Other south american and The colonial spanish horse type is registered caribbean horse populations had later, direct, in different registries: Spanish Mustang Registry, input from horses directly from Spain. Their less Spanish Barb Breeders Association, Southwest select origin makes the north american horses Spanish Mustang Association, Florida Cracker interesting historically as well as biologically, Horse Association, and American Indian Horse since they are closer in type to those horses Registry. These registries all register a similar originally introduced into the New World than type of horse, but all have slightly different are other present types and breeds. emphasis or exclude certain different The colonial spanish horses in the USA are subpopulations from registration. The registries generally small and compactly made, with convex are open, but only horses of colonial spanish type to subconvex facial profiles. Muscling tends to that have accurate histories and phenotypes can be long and tapering, and the croups slope be entered into the herdbooks. Therefore, in distinctively with low set tails. The horses are spite of the open herdbooks, these registries are used for a wide variety of uses, although endurance all involved in true purebreed conservation of and pleasure riding are the most common tasks. the colonial spanish horses. Arch. vol. 41, núm. 154 335-348 335. Archivos de zootecnia,Zootec. 41 (extra):(extra), p.1992. SPONENBERG RESUMEN sólo pueden incluirse en los herdbooks caballos de tipo criollo con historias y genotipos muy Los caballos criollos españoles en USA, precisos. Por eso, a pesar de permanecer abiertos descienden de los llevados desde España durante los registros están todos implicados en la la conquista del Nuevo Mundo. Son un remanente conservaciónde la pureza de los caballos criollos. directo de los caballos españoles del descubri- miento y conservan este tipo de caballo en las poblaciones actuales. Los caballos criollos de GENERAL HISTORY origen español en USA proceden de los del actual México y estos, a la vez, de las importaciones The spanish colonial horse descends originales españolas a las Antillas. Otras poblacio- from the once vast population of nes de caballos caribeños o sudamericanos spanish horses in the USA. The tuvieron, posteriormente, impacto de caballos ancestors of these horses were brought traídos directamente desde España. Su origen to the New World by the spanish menos selecto hace a los caballos norteamerica- conquistadors and were instrumental nos interesantes desde puntos de vista históricos in their ability to conquer the native y biológicos, pues son más parecidos a los civilizations (Cunningham-Graham, caballos originalmente introducidos en el Nuevo 1989; Denhardt, 1975 and Dobie, Mundo que otros tipos o razas. 1952). The source of the original Los caballos criollos españoles en USA, son horses was Spain, and this was at a generalmente pequeños y compactos con perfiles time when the spanish horse was convexos o subconvexos. La muscultura tiende being widely used for improvement a ser alargada y delgada y la grupa cae of horse breeding throughout Europe marcadamente con inserción baja de la cola. Los (Loch, 1986). The spanish horse of caballos son empleados para una amplia variedad the time of the conquest had a major de usos aunque la resistencia y paseo son las impact on most european light horse tareas más frecuentes. Los colores varían types (this was before breeds). The ampliamente y, por cierto, incluyen variantes spanish horse itself then became rare, que no son comunes en otras poblaciones que and was supplanted as the commonly descienden de los caballos españoles. Los colores used improver of indigenous types by incluyen negro, bayo, castaño, alazán, ceniciento, the Thoroughbred and Arabian. These pardo, pardo rojo, palomino, crema y una three (Spanish, Thoroughbred, and infrecuente serie de colores basados en el pardo Arabian) are responsible for the chocolate. Las formas de blanco incluyen gris, general worldwide erosion of genetic ruanos, overos y el complejo de colores leopardo. variability in horse breeds. The Spanish El tipo de caballo criollo está registrado en type subsequently became rare and is varias registros Spanish Mustang Registry, Spanish now itself in need of conservation. Barb Breeders Association, Southwest Spanish Following centuries of divergent Mustang Association, Florida Cracker Horse selection the horse currently in Spain Association y American Indian Horse Registry. is distinct from the Colonial Spanish Todos ellos incluyen un tipo similar de caballo, Horse (Cabrera, 1985 and Loch, 1986). pero cada uno de ellos hace énfasis sobre ligeras The selection presures and goals in peculiaridades o excluye ciertas subpoblaciones North America, South America, and del registro. Los registros están abiertos, pero Spain all differed from one another. Archivos de zootecnia, vol. 41, núm. 154 (extra), p. 336. COLONIAL SPANISH HORSE IN THE USA These differences in selection unexplored lands the conquest produced divergent horse breeds from endeavor became more highly regarded a single original base. The result is and consequently more highly selected that the current New World remnants horses were added to the original are very important to horse imports. conservation since they differ from In the case of North America the Iberian horses. The north american most common immediate source of remnants are especially interesting colonial spanish horses was Mexico since they probably most closely rather than the Caribbean. Even the represent the original, less selected, eastern populations brought into type of iberian horse brought to the Florida and the southeast were New World. imported from Mexico and not from The original horses from Spain the closer Caribbean sources (Chard, came to the Caribbean Islands where 1980). The general pattern of the populations were increased before development of horse populations in export to the mainland (Cabrera, what is now the United States involved 1985). The horses coming to the single event, direct introduction, with Caribbean varied in quality and origin, subsequent diffusion of horses to but most were from southern regions from one area into neighboring areas. in Spain. While the intent was to Once horses had been introduced into import horses of high quality this was an area there was rarely if ever sometimes frustrated by a tendency subsequent addition of horses directly for the horseowning conquistadors to from Spain into these local populations. sell the high quality horses in Spain This history of relatively slow before departure, replacing them with diffusion with little ongoing lower quality animals, and pocketing introduction is in contrast to the horse the difference in price (Cunningham- populations further south (Cabrera, Graham, 1989). Horse herds were 1985). Horse populations from most increased on the Caribbean Islands of the south american areas were and then were used to found mainland started by initial introductions from populations, fint in Mexico and then the Antilles as well as large elsewhere. introductions of selected horses which The conquest of the New World came directly from Spain. South was not viewed as a wholly worthwhile american horses also benefitted from endeavor in the early days of its repeated introductions of individual beginning, so very little care was horses of excellent quality from both taken in the selection of the original the Caribbean and also from Spain. animals sent to the West Indies These high quality horses were (Cabrera, 1985). If anything, poorer imported by wealthy landowners or quality animals were asured due to powerful political figures. The result the shortness of supply of horses in of the pattern of introduction is that Iberia at the time. Following the the horses of Central and South discovery of gold reserves and vast, America tend to be somewhat distinct Archivos de zootecnia, vol. 41, núm. 154 (extra), p. 337. SPONENBERG from those in North America since Carolinas to Florida, west through the northern horses descend from Tennessee, and then throughout all of horses initially less highly selected the western mountains and great plains than those further south. (Dobie, 1952). In the northeast and The distribution of colonial spanish central east the colonists were from horses in North America, at least northwest Europe, and in those areas initially, tended to follow the pattern northern european horses were more of spanish settlement and influence. common than the colonial spanish This involved the mission chains in type. However, even in these northern California, as well as those in Arizona, and eastern areas the colonial spanish New Mexico, and Texas (Denhardt, horse was highly valued and 1975). One frequently overlooked contributed to the overall mix of contribution is the important american horses. Due to the wide missionary influx into the southeast geographic distribution of pure of the present United States. These populations of colonial spanish horses, missions were in northern Florida, as well as their contribution to other and the southern portions of crossbred types, the colonial spanish Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia. horses were the most common of all From this influence the local native horses throughout North America at tribes developed their advanced that time. They were widely used for plantation agricultural systems which riding as well as draft. involved the breeding of excellent The colonial spanish horse became spanish horses as well as other types to be generally considered as too of livestock. small for cavalry use by the europeans, Following the missionaries were and was slowly supplanted by taller the agriculturalists, and both of these and heavier types from the northeast groups increased the numbers of as an integral part of northern european horses and their widespread use. expansion in North America (Ryden, Horses also were acquired by native 1970). In the final stages the tribes and quickly diffused throughout replacement of the spanish horses by most of the western portions of the non spanish types was fairly rapid, present United States. The horse and was made even more so by the allowed these tribes to become highly extermination of the horse herds of mobile warrior nomads, and this the native americans during the final changed both the tribes and the stages of their subjection in the late distribution of the horses considerably. 1800’s. The close association of the Added to these mission, rancher, and spanish horse with both native native tribal herds were vast feral american and mexican cultures and herds of purely spanish horses which peoples also caused these horses to increased from lost and strayed animals diminish in contrast to the more (Dobie, 1952 and Ryden, 1970). highly favored larger horses of the About 1700 the purely spanish dominant anglo derived culture, whose horse occurred in an arc from the horses tended to have breeding Archivos de zootecnia, vol. 41, núm. 154 (extra), p. 338. COLONIAL SPANISH HORSE IN THE USA predominantly of northern european straight across as in most other modern types. The decline of the colonial breeds. The chest is deep from the spanish horse resulted in only a handful side view, and usually accounts for of animals left of the once vast herds. about half of the height of the horse This handful has founded the present from the ground to the withers. The breed, and so these are the horses of croup is generally sloped, and the tail interest when considering the history is set low on the body. The rear of the current breed. quarters vary from fairly massive and heavily muscled to a more slenderly built and less excessively muscled CONFORMATION, TYPE, AND conformation. From the side there is COLORS usually a break in the curve of the hind quarter somewhere in the area of The colonial spanish horse is the base of the tail, rather than the generally a small horse, although size full even curve of the most breeds is increasing with improved nutrition with northern european breeding. and some selection among breeders, The muscling is characteristically (Spanish Mustang Registry, 1975). long and tapering, even in the heavily The height is around 180 cm, usually muscled individuals. Leg conformation varying from 130 to 185 cm, but up is generally sound, with ample angles to 150 cm in some exceptional horses. in the joints and strong, harmonious Weight varies with height, but most relationships between the lengths of are around 350 to 800 kg. Distinctive the varying parts of the limbs. Hooves conformational features include heads are small, and chestnuts and ergots which generally have straight to are small or missing altogether. concave (more rarely slightly convex) Shoulders are long and well angulated, foreheads and a nose which is convex. and withers usually sharp. This is a fairly typical subconvex One myth frequently told is that spanish type head, in contrast to the these horses have only five lumbar straighter nasal profile of most other vertebrae. They are more likely to breed types available in North have five than are most other breeds, America. The heads vary somewhat but many pure colonial spanish horses between long, finely made heads to also have six lumbar vertebrae, as has shorter, deeper heads. Both are typical been demonstrated by work done in of spanish colonial horses. Spanish Argentina on Criollos, Thoroughbreds, colonial horses typically have narrow Barbs and Arabians (Cabrera, 1905). but deep chests, with the front legs The colonial spanish horses do usually leaving the body fairly close together. have short, strong backs regardless of It is difficult to describe this aspect of the number of vertebrae. conformation without making it sound Colors of the colonial spanish horse defective, when in actuality it is a vary widely, and it is through the strong, serviceable conformation. The spanish influence that many other chest is usually vee shaped rather than north american horse breeds gain Archivos de zootecnia, vol. 41, núm. 154 (extra), p. 339. SPONENBERG some of their distinctive colors. feral herds. Such pure horses became Colonial spanish horses come in a full rare fairly early in this century due to range of solid colors including black, the practice of shooting the spanish bay, brown, chestnut, sorrel, grullo, stallions and replacing them with zebra and red dun, buckskin, draft or Thoroughbred type stallions palomino, and cream. Other solid in an attempt to improve the feral colors such as the lighter chocolate herds as sources of draft or remount brown based colors, and even silver stock. Isolated pockets of uncontami- dapple, occur rarely as well. In many nated horses remained in various horses these base colors are combined areas of the western United States. with white hairs or patches to result These were assembled by early in grey, roan, paint (tobiano, frame conservers of the spanish colonial overo, and sabino overo types) and horses in a successful effort to conserve the leopard complex of blankets, the spanish type. Especially important roans, and dark spots usually associated in the conservation of this type was with the Appaloosa breed. Different the Brislawn family. Many Brislawn breeders select for various of these horses came from herds in Utah, colors and patterns, but all can be especially from the Bookcliffs regions. shown from artwork to be present in Other feral horses of pure spanish the spanish horses at the time of the type were included, but these were conquest. Many of these colors and fewer in number and only patterns, especially the spotting incompletely sampled the genetic patterns, are now rare or extinct in material in herds that were themselves some of the present iberian breeds few in number and widely dispersed. derived from the same genetic base as As a result many of the foundation the spanish colonial horses. At least feral horses contributed to the overall one of these patterns, the frame mix of breeding, but did not found overo, seems to have been limited to distinct strains of breeding the spanish colonial horse, although representing any of the isolated pockets from that limited occurrence it has of pure spanish feral horses. Only a now spread to a few other breeds. very few feral strains persist as distinct Another pattern, the tobiano spotting strains within the overall colonial pattern, is somewhat controversial as spanish horse. being present in the original spanish Feral horses of the Cerbat colonial horses, but is certainly present Mountains in Arizona have remained in north american strains known to as a distinct strain. The Cerbat herds have descended from it. have a known history of purity on their present range since 1862. The Cerbat horses from the original capture FOUNDATION STRAINS OF in the 1960s have recently been THE PRESENT BREED supplemented by more recent Bureau of Land Management captures from FERAL STRAINS. Some of the purely the same ranges. The newer horses are spanish horses remained in isolated identical in type to the older ones, Archivos de zootecnia, vol. 41, núm. 154 (extra), p. 340. COLONIAL SPANISH HORSE IN THE USA giving added credence to the history. had higher immediate value than the The strain is used by several breeders purebreds. To the extent that the of colonial spanish horses. The horses incursion of outside breeding is come from a very restricted range, allowed to continue or to increase the and are very uniformly conformed. Riger will be lost as a source of They also have some unique bloodtypes spanish colonial breeding, which is a (bc combination in the system), which fate typical of most of the feral herds is another indication of their value of spanish type. for conservation. The feral Cerbat Most feral herds remaining today herds are still pure, and are being are crossbred with non-spanish horses. managed by the Bureau of Land Recent success, especially with the Management to remain pure within Cerbat horses, has stimulated some themselves. These feral herds will investigation into the feral herds that hopefully continue to be a source of are controlled by the Bureau of Land this unique genetic type along with Management for other herds of spanish animals of the same strain being type. If other herds of the correct raised domestically. type are found then the history of the Another feral group is the Riger feral horses in the area will be mustangs from Oregon. These are considered, along with bloodtyping feral horses of spanish type that are information, in order to determine if selected to be dun, grullo, or red dun. any of these herds should be added to This narrow range of colors is the list of spanish type herds. The inappropriately considered by some Pryor Mountain herds are currently to be overwhelmingly connected to the subject of such investigations. pure spanish ancestry. Riger horses Any pure herds can be managed to are managed both in the feral herds guard against incursion of non-spanish and in herds of private breeders. The horses. A conservation program that excess horses from the range herds helps the purely spanish horses has are periodically rounded up and sold several advantages. It keeps the feral to interested buyers. The Riger herds colonial spanish horse in the original currently vary somewhat, and reflect environment so that selection pressures a phenomenon common in the feral keep working to produce environmen- herds of the western United States. tally resistant horses. If any such Some of the Riger horses are still of spanish herds remain they are probably spanish type, but others show very, very few in number, but are incursions of outside influence, interesting and essential for probably Quarter Horse. These conservation due to their rarity. crossbred horses are larger than the original type, and are also excellent general purpose saddle horses. Such NATIVE AMERICAN STRAINS. Feral desirable crossbreds are the reason horses were not the only group to for the original rarity of the spanish contribute to the colonial spanish colonial horses since the crossbreds horse of today. Many foundation Archivos de zootecnia, vol. 41, núm. 154 (extra), p. 341. SPONENBERG horses came from the horse herds of history of isolation surrounding these native americans. The native herds herds. These tribes became important were especially important early in as mediators between several of the this century. Most of these tribal more western tribes and the US horses have only influenced the present government, and it is likely that breed through individual horses and exchange of horses between tribes not through groups of horses that occurred during the many meetings continue to be bred pure within the that were held. strain. Tribes contributing foundation Some individual families were horses to the present breed include important in preserving the tribal Cheyenne, Lakota, Paiute, Navajo, horses. The Whitmire line, also and a few others. The search is always including horses from the Corntassle on for breeders or families that have family, is a Cherokee line that can be kept the original type pure, but these traced back to the removal from become rarer and rarer as the years go Etocha, Georgia in 1835. It probably by. goes back even further as court records A few tribal types have continued from 1775 indicate that these families to be bred as distinct strains. The had horses then. These horses were Choctaw and Cherokee horses are always kept within the line on the among these. Both of these tribes, in female side, although outside stallions addition to the Chickasaw and Creek, were occasionally introduced. The were avid horse breeders in their stallions were of Mexican, Choctaw, original homes in the southeast, having or Comanche breeding, and were obtained their original stock from the therefore also spanish. The outside spanish missions and settlements stallions were carefully and specifically before control of the area shifted to selected to be as similar to the Cherokee the British. The quality of the native strain as could be had. This consistency tribal horses is specifically mentioned of pure breeding is in stark contrast as being excellent in various travel to the usual crossbreeding favored by journals. Following removal of these european americans dealing with tribes to what is now Oklahoma they horses at this time. Many of the continued to breed horses. The basis Cherokee horses that remain today for these Oklahoma herds was horses are gaited, and many are unusual brought from the southeast on the color patterns. At least some of the Trail of Tears, but no doubt some Mexican stallions used were of leopard western horses were added as well. type color patterns, while today many The original horses were spanish, of the descendants are unusual paint obtained at fint from the chain of patterns. missions across the deep South in The major Choctaw families that early spanish colonial days. The preserved the horses until recently additions were surely spanish as well were the Brame, Crisp, Locke, Self, and some have unique bloodtypes as Thurman, and Carter families. Horses evidence of the accuracy of the oral were run on the open range in areas Archivos de zootecnia, vol. 41, núm. 154 (extra), p. 342. COLONIAL SPANISH HORSE IN THE USA where other types of horses were not figure not only in the background of kept. These families had hundreds of the colonial spanish horses but were horses of consistent spanish type and also used in the American Quarter widely varying colors including the Horse. Most of the old ranch strains spanish roan sabino type, leopard and were spanish in the 1800’s, with the blanketed, and others. Many have the later addition of horses from the unique frame overo paint pattern of northeast. These additions were spotting. The Choctaw horses are probably Morgans, light draft horses, occasionally gaited. Thoroughbreds, and the old, eastern From the hundreds of Choctaw sort of Quarter Horse. The population and Cherokee horses that were of ranch horses was bred increasingly available as recently as 1975 there are awar from its spanish base. From this now very few. This is due to the somewhat consistent spanish base were dispersal of many large herds following developed the more common breeds the deaths of some of the elderly that are associated with the American breeders. Probably only 50 pure West: American Quarter Horse, Paint, Choctaw and Cherokee horses could Appaloosa. These have been largely be assembled in 1988, but some few separated on the basis of color, but breeders are trying to assure that this were originally part of a population type continues to the future as a part that included all of these colors. As of the overall breeding of spanish selection has proceeded in these breeds horses. with continuous outcrossing to Other native tribal horses are rare Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horse and poorly documented. There is the original spanish influence has always hope that a few of the old become minimal. strains are being quietly kept by some One rancher that kept the original tribal breeders. This is especially spanish type was Ilo Belsky. He likely in the fullblood communities ranched in Nebraska and his herd which tend to be fairly isolated and began from horses that were treasure the old original cultures of accompanying cattle driven from the tribes. Work is currently underway Texas in the late 1800’s. The best to find and assess these strains before horses were kept, and then were they are lost as elderly breeders can selectively bred for most of Ilo’s long no longer maintain them. This is a life. Belsky horses are now very rare high priority for the conservation of as an unique strain of spanish horses, the spanish colonial horse, although but they do figure in the background only a very, very few of these strains of many spanish Mustangs and spanish are likely to persist. Barbs. Belsky popularized these horses as ranch horses very early in the RANCHER STRAINS. Another history of the conservation of this important subtype of colonial spanish type of horse. His horses were horses is the rancher strains. Some of commonly roan, grey, dun, or dark these, such as the Waggoner horses, colors. Archivos de zootecnia, vol. 41, núm. 154 (extra), p. 343. SPONENBERG Another important rancher strain horses. These are the horses of the is the Romero strain. These are from Wilbur-Cruce family. This strain was a ranch near Cebolla, New Mexico begun with 25 mares and a stallion where spanish type horses were raised that were bought in 1885 from a horse for generations. The Romero ranch trader from northern Mexico. The passed to the McKinley family, but horses originated in the region of by now few if any horses of the Mexico that was the area of Father original strain are still maintained on Kino’s missions. This area had been a the original ranch. These horses figure source of high quality horses since heavily in some lines of spanish Barb around 1700. The original horses horses. were kept as a closed strain except for Gilbert Jones, currently of Finley, a single horse used for two years in Oklahoma, was also instrumental in the 1930’s. This horse is described as maintaining spanish horses. Due to having been a paint Morgan from his moving from Texas to New Mexico Colorado. The description and location and thence to Oklahoma his herd had make it more likely that he was some influences from a wide variety of sort of spanish horse. This stallion sources. Early horses he had included was traded for some of the Wilbur- many Kiowa, Comanche, and Cruce strain and was turned out on Chickasaw horses as well as some the range. The ruggedness of the from anglo ranchers such as Tom range combined with his being the Waggoner. Some of the tribal horses newly introduced stallion in a range were from strains of buffalo runners with older, local stallions, make it once frequently used on the Llano doubtful that he contributed much to Estacado of Texas. These horses were the herd. all blended into a single strain. Later The Wilbur-Cruce herd was in the development of the strain were brought to the attention of breeders many Choctaw and Cherokee horses, of colonial spanish horses in 1989, and these represent a high proportion and illustrates an important point of the breeding of several Jones when dealing with landraces. It is horses today. His herd is one of the critical to the conservation of the few sources of Waggoner, Tom East, genetic resource of these populations Kiowa and Comanche breeding left for the organized studbooks to remain today. open and receptive to inclusion of As is typical of landrace type new pure herds as they are recognized populations, newly discovered herds and documented. As time goes on of colonial spanish horses continue to such new herds will be recognized come to the attention of breeders of only rarely. They will always contain this type of horse. A recently found valuable genetic material for herd of horses in Sasabe, Arizona fits conservation and are always important into the rancher strain category, new discoveries. The Wilbur-Cruce although it also is the last remnant (so horses are more variable in type than far known) of spanish mission type the horses in the registries, even Archivos de zootecnia, vol. 41, núm. 154 (extra), p. 344. COLONIAL SPANISH HORSE IN THE USA though they do have a spanish origin. contributions of distinct strains: feral, This variability is interesting in that native tribal, rancher, and Mexican. they are an example of a closed herd Some other sources have contributed that includes some of the spanish strains, such as strains from the types that differ from the usual Southeast United States. There his spanish colonial type favored by the some discussion among colonial early conservers of these horses. spanish horse breeders as to how pure these strains from Florida (Cracker horses) and the outer banks of the MEXICAN STRAINS. In addition to the East Coast (Banker ponies) are. feral, tribal, and rancher horses were One type of southeast horse is the some from Mexico. These Mexican Banker pony from the outer banks of horses usually were single horses and Virginia and the Carolinas. These not distinct strains comprising an descend from spanish horses, but in entire breeding population. One some islands have been subject to the exception was a group assembled by introductions of a variety of stallions Ira Yates, who also figures prominently of other breeds. A good example of in the history of the Texas Longhorn. this are the Chincoteague ponies. These Yates horses are small and are Recently mustang stallions from out dun or grullo. The horses were west have been added to the herds, originally from 150 miles southwest and before that there were of Mexico City. The original group, introductions of other horses and assembled in 1950, included two Shetland ponies. The history for some stallions and two mares. One stallion of the other island populations is was infertile. The line still continues more vague (Shackelford and today, which is evidence that Ocracoke). Some few of these horses inbreeding need not always result in are included in the Spanish Mustang the decline of a line of animals. Other Registry. Some crossing of the Banker individual Mexican horses came into ponies with western horses is the Jones line, and were horses from occurring, and to some extent this the Huasteca tribe. These horses came could blur the uniqueness of each from Southeast Mexico, and are population if ther become totally responsible for many of the leopard blended. type markings in some strains today. In Florida there are still some Other Mexican stallions were used in remnants of the spanish rancher horses the Jewel Whitmire line of Cherokee known as Cracker horses. These used horses, but the exact source of the to be the favored mount of the stallions is unknown. Florida cowboys (called crackers because of the whips they used). SOUTHEAST STRAINS. Most of the These horses were well adapted to the colonial spanish horses today can be environment and were useful in traced to the above sources and came working the local, spanish derived either as individual horses or as cracker cattle. In the rears of the dust Archivos de zootecnia, vol. 41, núm. 154 (extra), p. 345. SPONENBERG bowl (1930s) cattle from the western north american colonial spanish horses. drought stricken areas were moved This type varies somewhat from in, and with them came the rangier, more lightly built individuals screwworm. This radically changed to others that are more compactly and the sort of horse needed to work cattle more heavily made, but the range is since it was now necessary to rope and fairly narrow between these two types. hold cattle for treatment out on the The original spanish type was probably range. This required a larger horse even more variable, including some than the original type spanish horse, horses with higher set tails, broader and it lost favor to the Quarter Horse chests, and rounder conformation which had been bred to be bigger and generally. heavier. The influx of these western The reasons for the registries not cattle therefore caused the threat to accepting some of what might in fact both the cracker horse and the cracker be spanish types are based in the cattle, although both persist to the history of the conservation of colonial present day as rare remnants of once spanish horses in North America. numerous types. These horses were originally saved as a small minority of horses in the midst of a large population of horses based COLONIAL SPANISH HORSE on spanish breeding but then REGISTRIES deliberately crossed with draft, Thoroughbred, Morgan, and other The descendants of the colonial types derived from northern european Spanish horses are rarely referred to breeding, (Dobie, 1952 and Ryden, by this name, but rather are usually 1970). The range of spanish types that called Spanish Mustangs. The term are likely to be refused registry cannot Mustang generally carries with it the really be told externally from other connotation of feral horse, and this is types such as horses with Quarter somewhat unfortunate since many of Horse or Thoroughbred ancestry. Even these colonial spanish horses have though some such horses may be never had a feral background. These purely spanish they do pose a much present day remnants are descendants greater risk of introducing outside of the horses that were brought to the genetic influence than do those horses New World by the conquistadors, and of the more uniquely spanish types include some feral, some rancher, that are not confusable with these some mission, and some native other breed influences. By concentra- american strains. ting on the most unique of the north Various registries have had an american spanish types the registries important role in conserving the have also assured that this rare genetic colonial spanish horses. They have resource has been conserved with also focused their breeding on a minimal contamination, and are to be specific type of horses, which is the commended on their foresight for type described above as typical of doing so. Archivos de zootecnia, vol. 41, núm. 154 (extra), p. 346. COLONIAL SPANISH HORSE IN THE USA Certainly there is some wisdom in colonial type, and both have defined the registries limiting the range of this broadly to include both a rangier allowable types in order to produce and a heavier type of horse. consistent, predictable horses. It is The American Indian Horse equally important to recognize that Registry registers spanish type horses some horses that are considered outside as O (original) animals, in addition to the type desired by the registries are non-spanish types and crosses as R still entirely of pure spanish breeding. and RR. The AIHR diligently It is worthwhile to recognize that preserves the O types as a separate horses of newly found purely bred category. Many of the RIHR O animals spanish colonial horse herds may be are also registered with the SMR or more variable than the present horses SSMA. The Spanish Barb Breeders in the registries. When such newly Association began with horses from discovered herds are presented for the SMR and selected for a narrowly registration, the registries usually defined specific type. The result of accept only some and not all of the this is that offspring of registered horses from these herds, although the horses were not necessarily horses are all indeed of purely spanish registerable. The SBBR periodically breeding. plans to put other spanish or north The situation of the registries for African Barb breeding into the horses, the colonial spanish horse can be but this has not occurred yet and the confusing. The Spanish Mustang horses are still of north american Registry was founded by Bob Brislawn spanish colonial origin. The SBBR and others. It will accept only spanish horses tend to concentrate the Romero horses, and the books are open to and Belsky bloodlines, and are newly discovered horses that pass a therefore important as these are rare visual inspection and consideration in other registries. The type they of the horse’s origin and history. The prefer tends to be the cobbier of the SMR also includes the Banker ponies. types. The Southwest Spanish Mustang The Kiger mustang breeders have Association, begun by Gilbert Jones, banded together to form an association, is similar to the SMR and many horses and register both the pure spanish as are registered with both the SSMR well as the crossbred type of the and the SMR. The SSMA does not Kiger horses. An association for the register Banker ponies. If there is a Florida Cracker horse has recently been difference in the horses registered started, and the documentation with the two registries it is subtle, but and registration of foundation horses the SMR horses are largely of Brislawn are underway. The Chickasaw Horse origin (along with many others as Association registers horses that well), while the SSMA horses tend to resemble the type kept by the have more Choctaw, Cherokee, and Chickasaw tribe. These were very Jones breeding in them. Both have the popular horses in the 1800’s. Most of goal of conserving the purely spanish the present horses in this association Archivos de zootecnia, vol. 41, núm. 154 (extra), p. 347. SPONENBERG trace back to horses from the Blood Association is conserving only the Indian Reservation, and are therefore Florida Cracker type, and is still in its not lineal descendants of the Chickasaw early days. horse. The Florida Cracker Horse REFERENCES Cabrera, A. 1945. Caballos de América. Editorial Ewers, J.C. 1957. The Horse in Blackfoot Indian Sudamericana. Buenos Aires. Culture. Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 159, United Chard, T. 1940. Did the First Spanish Horses States Government Printing Office, Landed in Florida and Carolina Leave Progeny? Washington DC. American Anthropologist. 42:90-106. Loch, S. 1986. The Royal Horse of Europe J.A. Cunningham-Graham, R.B. 1989. The Horses Allen & Co., Ltd. London. Roe, F. O. 1955. of the Conquest. University of Oklahoma The Indian and the Horse. University of Press, Norman, OR. Oklahoma Press, Norman, OR. Denhardt, R.M. 1975. The Horse of the Ameri- Ryden, E. 1970. America’s Last Wild Horses. cas. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, E.P. Dutton & Co. Inc. New York. Spanish OR. Dobie, J.F. 1952. The Mustangs Mustang Registry. 1975. The Spanish Mustang Brambell Eouse. New York. Reqistry Handbook Spanish Mustang Registry, Oshoto, WY. Archivos de zootecnia, vol. 41, núm. 154 (extra), p. 348.