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Animal Testing Adam Hazenfeld Drew Loper Ryan Burket Todd Handley Introduction Todd – will be discussing current practices in animal testing, what companies do… Adam – will be discussing deontological perspectives in animal testing. Drew – will also be discussing deontological perspectives on animal testing. Ryan – will be discussing the practices that companies should be performing. What companies do… Revlon Cosmetics was one of the first large companies to fund research for alternatives with a $750,000 contribution to the Rockefeller University in 1979.( are they doing this because they are animal testing and don’t want to look like they are totally insensitive to this issue?) Proctor and Gamble are estimated to use up to 50,000 animals per year for testing. In 1991 the started testing on several guinea pigs to see irritancy for sunscreens, for which there was already data available. British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV) recently uncovered details of an experiment carried out for Colgate- Palmolive by Columbia University in which guinea pigs were locked into small plastic tubes and a strong solution of surfactant was applied for four hours a day for three days, causing cracked and bleeding skin on the animals. Statistics from 2001 to 2002 The total number of procedures on animals in 2002 rose to 2.7 million, an increase of 4% from the previous year. (2001 had seen the lowest number of procedures reported since the current legislation in 1986). 60% of all procedures on living animals are performed without any form of anaesthesia. Procedures on genetically manipulated (transgenic) animals now represent a quarter of all procedures, and have increased by 12% from last year. Procedures on transgenic animals have consistently risen every year since 1990 when they represented a mere 1.5% of the total. The number of procedures on mice, rats. sheep, pigs, birds and fish increased in 2002. Procedures on dogs and primates were similar to the previous year. Procedures guinea pigs, hamsters, rabbits, cats, amphibians, and horses/donkeys/crossbreeds decreased. Stats from 2001 to 2002 (cont’) There were no procedures on octopus, greyhounds, camelids, baboons or great apes. No great apes (that is chimpanzees, gorillas, and orang-utans) have been used in Great Britain since before the introduction of the current legislation in 1986. Categories of research: Procedures on animals for fundamental biological research increased by 11%, and now represent 31% of the total. Use of animals for the research, development and testing of drugs has been decreasing for several years and now account for 24% of the total. Toxicity tests accounted for 18% of all procedures. Toxicity testing of foodstuffs, household products, and agricultural chemicals increased, while tests of industrial substances decreased. Testing of cosmetic products or ingredients is no longer permitted in the UK. There was a disturbing increase in tests to detect cancer-causing substances and short-term lethal toxicity tests. Eye irritancy tests and pyrogenicity tests continued to decrease in 2002 – alternatives Stats from 2001 to 2002 (cont’) Procedures on animals for the production of monoclonal antibodies fell by 28%. All these procedures were for the initial immunization of animals, and none were for raising monoclonal antibodies in the abdomens of living animals (ascites method), thanks to the development of cell culture alternatives. There were 31 infringements recorded during 2002. Of these, 26 were categorised as Class Two or Three infringements, and as such are defined as potentially criminal offences. However, no licences were revoked and there were no prosecutions. 3 Principles of Deontology Responsibilities you are obligated to do -Stronger the relationship more responsibility to that relationship Determine if you are using someone solely as a means to an end Some Actions are Unethical -Uses Kant’s Categorical Imperative “I ought not act…” Responsibilities you are obligated to do? Humans – Humans -Greater relationship to each other Duty to find cures for diseases and ailments that affect humans Rational Beings- Animals are not capable of formulating and acting out of respect of the moral law Responsibilities you are obligated to do? (cont…) We have duty not to abuse animals for the point of personal pleasure We have a duty to minimize the amount of unnecessary suffering in animals Have a duty to find alternative methods of animal testing Using someone solely as a means to an end Animals are not rational beings Ethical to use animals in testing Caution against wastefulness and excessive cruelty Kant-animals have value in serving human purposes Deciding if actions are ethical Outcomes do not decide if actions are ethical Actions are done out of duty Some actions are clearly wrong and some are right Kant’s Categorical Imperative Ross’s Prima Facie Duties Some duties more important than others Duty which has to be performed unless its outweighed by another duty Finding a cure for Cancer, AIDS, etc… Minimizing Pain The Minimum Pain Principle Pain Studies without Consciousness Training of Scientists Attitudes of Scientists Consider animals as subjects Maximal Theoretical Expertise and Technical Skill Trends of Animals Used in Experiments in the US 250 200 150 100 50 0 73 75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89 91 Dogs Cats Primates Great Britain Animal Experimentation 1980 total was 4.6 million animals 1990 total was 3.2 million animals Reduction of over 30 percent Canada Animal Experimentation 1977 total was 2.1 million 1989 total was 1.3 million 38 percent decrease Primate use has decreased by 55 percent Netherlands Animal Experimentation 1988 total was 1.1 million 1990 total was 951,000 A reduction of 10.5 percent The Three R’s Replacement alternatives Refinement alternatives Reduction alternatives Reduction Alternative Methods for obtaining comparable levels of information Experimental design and inappropriate statistical analysis problems Goes back to initial training of scientists Examples for Reduction Computer modeling Advanced analytical techniques In vitro techniques Other alternative testing methods Conclusion Although animal testing is necessary and ethical, as humans we have the duty to minimize the harm involved and reduce the number of animals used in experimentation. Questions?
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