Helsinki-Tallinn Twin City of Science by lonyoo

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									Helsinki-Tallinn Twin City of Science
 Life Science and Biotechnology Report




   On behalf of
   Culminatum Ltd Oy – Helsinki Region Centre of Expertise, Finland
   www.culminatum.fi


   Prepared by
   Hydrios Biotechnology Ltd, Finland
   www.hydrios.com


   May 2004
Foreword
From a geographical perspective, Helsinki and Tallinn are among the closest capitals in
Europe. A regular helicopter route covers the 82-kilometer distance between the city
centres in less than 20 minutes! Seven shipping companies offer trips between Helsinki
and Tallinn. From April to October, there are approximately 30 departures a day from
Helsinki to Tallinn! In addition to geographic proximity, Finns and Estonians both
belong to the Fenno-Ugric family and are, thus, also united by many cultural
similarities. In terms of cultural exchange, the popularity of visiting neighboring
countries, accelerating after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, is without
precedent; annually, about 6.5 million trips are made between Finland and Estoniaa.
Notably, by 2002, 12,000 Estonians already lived regularly in Finland, most in the
greater Helsinki region. This trend of increasing cultural and economical collaboration
is likely to continue.

Knowledge, education, research and innovation are corner stones of the Finnish and
Estonian economies, and very likely to increase in importance in the future. Both
countries are committed to investing significantly into technological research and
development (R&D) as well as in the development of human capital. During the last 5-
10 years, life science and biotechnology have received significant special attention and
funding in both countries. In these two fields, Finland and Estonia possess globally
renowned scientists and research groups. Finland joined the European Union (EU) in
1995 and has been a member of the European Monetary Union since 1999. Estonia,
on the other hand, has very recently (1.5.2004) become a member of the EU. In some
ways, this new situation will alter the means and character of the collaboration between
Finland and Estonia.

The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the life science and
biotechnology fields in the greater Helsinki and Tallinn regions (including Tartu) as well
as to act as a catalyst for the development of new cooperation between these two
regions. Although this report is based on our personal views, we hope that the vision
and recommendations here accurately reflect the opinion of the interviewees and other
people active in the fields of life science and biotechnology. Finally, we would like to
thank all the persons, who participated in the making of this report in different ways
(see the acknowledgements and the list of interviewees towards the end of this report).


                                                       Sincerely,
                                                       Niklas von Weymarn, D.Sc. (Tech.)
                                                       Juha Laurén, MD




a
    Anon., Helikopteriyritys Copterline ennustaa Viro-buumille jatkoa, Kauppalehti 6.4.2004.
Executive Summary
Although approximately similar in population size, the Uusimaa region and Estonia
differ in many ways. The Uusimaa region’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita is
clearly higher than that of Estonia. On the other hand, Estonia’s annual GDP growth
rate has been remarkable, surpassing the OECD average by several percentage
points. When looking at R&D expenditures as a percentage of GDP, Finland is one of
the frontrunners with 3.5 % of GDP invested into R&D in 2002, while the equivalent
figure for Estonia was just 0.8 %. Helsinki and Tallinn, and their surrounding regions
are focal points for life science and biotechnology R&D and industry. Globally,
however, these regions are still relatively small.

Despite obvious opportunities, life science and biotechnology collaboration between
the greater Helsinki and Tallinn regions has not been fully exploited. Hence, the
number of R&D collaborations identified was very low. Typically, the interactions
between researchers from the two regions have occurred on an ad hoc basis, rather
than due to long-term strategic planning. The future looks different. New efforts, such
as the ScanBalt (www.scanbalt.org) and BioBaltic Industry Group organizations as well
as the Baltic Sea Knowledge Region Project (www.bskr.org), seem to be striving
towards setting common strategic goals and bringing the countries around the Baltic
Sea towards closer collaboration.

An essential step towards building a globally competitive local research area would be
to identify the core competences of that area and to invest together in the development
of these competences. We believe that, as partners, Helsinki and Tallinn possess
many such core competences within life science and biotechnology. Examples of
regional core competences are: biomedicine, genome research, bioinformatics and
bioengineering. We also believe that Helsinki and Tallinn have the will to take part in
developing a local research and innovation area in which both capitals and their
surrounding regions benefit from the cooperation and each others strengths.

Key recommendations of this report include:
   - intensified research collaboration activities in areas where both regions possess
       strong know-how (resulting in joint research groups and programs)
   - intensified joint participation in projects funded by different EU programs
   - intensified cooperation in the development of research and commercialization
       support structures (quality, intellectual property (IP) protection, licensing, etc.)
   - intensified teacher, under-, and postgraduate student exchange (enabled by,
       e.g., joint graduate schools and master’s programs)
   - shared use of expensive equipment and facilities

The potential for closer scientific and innovative collaboration between the greater
Helsinki and Tallinn regions is evident. We, thus, hope that this report and its
recommendations will result in intensified life science and biotechnology collaboration
activities between the two regions. Including the Stockholm and Turku regions located
nearby into the collaboration scheme would further enhance the attractiveness and
competitiveness of the area.
Table of Contents
Foreword
Executive Summary
1      Background............................................................................................................... 1
2     Life science and biotechnology in the greater Helsinki region ................................ 2
    2.1     Universities ..................................................................................................... 2
    2.2     Research institutes and organizations ............................................................ 3
    2.3     Research and teaching hospitals.................................................................... 4
    2.4     Polytechnics.................................................................................................... 5
    2.5     Science parks/incubators ................................................................................ 5
    2.6     Libraries .......................................................................................................... 6
    2.7     Financing ........................................................................................................ 6
    2.8     Entrepreneurship/commercialization............................................................... 6
    2.9     Industry ........................................................................................................... 7
3     Life science and biotechnology in the greater Tallinn region .................................. 8
    3.1     Universities ..................................................................................................... 8
    3.2     Research institutes and organizations ............................................................ 9
    3.3     Hospitals ....................................................................................................... 10
    3.4     Polytechnics.................................................................................................. 10
    3.5     Science parks/incubators .............................................................................. 10
    3.6     Libraries ........................................................................................................ 11
    3.7     Financing ...................................................................................................... 11
    3.8     Industry ......................................................................................................... 11
4     Existing agreements, collaboration, and networks ................................................ 13
    4.1    Agreements................................................................................................... 13
    4.2    Education ...................................................................................................... 13
    4.3    Research....................................................................................................... 14
    4.4    Industry ......................................................................................................... 14
    4.5    Other ............................................................................................................. 15
5      Vision and recommendations ................................................................................. 16
6      Acknowledgements ................................................................................................ 20


Appendices
   1. Life science and biotechnology core facilities in the greater Helsinki region
   2. Life science and biotechnology core facilities in Estonia
   3. Interviewees
   4. Questionnaire
   5. Academy of Finland’s Centres of Excellence in research in life science and
      biotechnology in the greater Helsinki region
   6. Estonian Centres of Excellence in research and Enterprise Estonia competence
      centres in life science and biotechnology
1 Background
This report was commissioned by Culminatum Ltd Oy Helsinki Region Centre of
Expertise, Finland (hereafter Culminatum Ltd) and prepared by Hydrios Biotechnology
Ltd, Finland during the two-month period, March-May 2004. This report is a part of a
larger EU-funded (Southern Finland Coastal Zone Interreg III A) entity called the
Helsinki-Tallinn Twin City of Science Project, with focus on information and
communication technology, materials and new technologies as well as life science and
biotechnology. This report is a part of the life science and biotechnology sub-focus. The
planning and preparation of the report was conducted in collaboration with Culminatum
Ltd and the Tallinn Technology Park Development Foundation, Estonia. A Steering
Group was also involved. A list of persons interviewed can be found in Appendix 3.
Persons, who significantly contributed to the making of this report, are listed in the
Acknowledgements section. The data for the report was collected through literature
searches, email correspondence, and interviews. In the interviews, a set of nine
questions was used as the basis for data collection (see Appendix 4).

The basic structures of the Finnish and Estonian economies are notably different: the
gross domestic products (GDPs) in 2002 in Finland and Estonia were about 140 and 7
billion euros, respectivelyb. In 2002, the annual GDP growth rate in Finland was just
above 2 %, whereas it was close to 6 % in Estonia. Both growth rates are clearly above
the current EU average GDP growth rate. The per capita GDP were about 27,000 and
5,000 euros in Finland and Estonia, respectively. Notably, the percentage of GDP
spent on R&D was 3.5 % in Finland, which was clearly above the EU and OECD
averages. In Estonia, about 0.8 % of GDP was invested into R&D.

Helsinki has a population of approximately 560,000 inhabitants. The Helsinki
Metropolitan Area (including the cities of Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa, and Kauniainen) has
a total of 960,000 inhabitants, whereas the Uusimaa region (additional surrounding
municipalities included; here referred also as the greater Helsinki region) has a
population of approximately 1.3 million. The city of Tallinn has a population of
approximately 400,000 inhabitants. The greater Tallinn region (i.e., Harju County and
the northern part of Rapla County) has 540,000 inhabitants. The population of Estonia
is about 1.35 million.

The term, “life science”, as used in this report, was defined as the scientific study of the
living world with an emphasis on high technology. According to this definition, life
science becomes a mix of several traditional disciplines including biology, pharmacy,
health care, and medicine as well as newer and more specialized disciplines such as
biochemistry, molecular biology, and bioinformatics. In defining “biotechnology”, we
relied on a shortened version of the one under preparation by an OECD working group:
biotechnology is the application of science and technology to living organisms, cells,
and/or parts thereof for the production of goods, knowledge, and/or services. Thus, in
many areas, life science and biotechnology overlap, e.g., the development and
production of new biopharmaceuticals. However, for the purposes of this study, we had
an open mind and avoided strictly limiting what was included in the study.



b
 Finnish facts: Statistics Finland (www.stat.fi). Estonian facts: BiotechEstonia -magazine, published by
Enterprise Estonia and Estonian Genome Foundation (2003) p. 2.



                                                    1
2 Life science and biotechnology in the greater
  Helsinki region
This chapter provides an overview of the life science and biotechnology scene in the
greater Helsinki region. More thorough description can be found in various other
reports (see list after the Acknowledgements section). This presentation focuses on
education and non-industrial research. However, the local industry and the
organizations supporting the life science and biotechnology field in the greater Helsinki
region are also shortly described.


2.1 Universities
The University of Helsinki (www.helsinki.fi/yliopisto/) is the largest University in Finland
with about 38,000 under- and postgraduate students and 480 professors. The
University is divided into 11 faculties and several institutions. It is currently spread out
over five campuses: Viikki, Meilahti, Kumpula, the City Centre, and Vallila. The Viikki
campus (including the Viikki Biocentre buildings) is home to the following departments
(examples of research subjects in parenthesis):

    -   Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry (functional foods, forest ecology, animal
        breeding and nutrition, plant biotechnology, and microbial resources)
    -   Faculty of Biosciences (biochemistry, ecology, microbiology, and animal
        physiology)
    -   Faculty of Pharmacy (pharmacology and drug development)
            o Viikki Drug Discovery Technology Centre (www.ddtc.helsinki.fi/)
    -   Institute of Biotechnology (see below)
    -   Neuroscience Centre (see below)
    -   Currently, also a part of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.

The Meilahti campus (including the Biomedicum Helsinki and Haartman Institute
buildings) contains the following:

    -   Faculty of Medicine,
    -   Finnish Genome Centre (see below)
    -   Helsinki University Central Hospital (see below).

The Faculty of Science (including, e.g., the Departments of Chemistry and Physical
Sciences) is located in Kumpula. Currently, the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine is still
partially located in Vallila, but is moving to Viikki in the imminent future. Note: Non- life
science and biotechnology faculties and institutions are not mentioned here. No life
science or biotechnology degree programs at the University of Helsinki are taught in
English. However, several courses, especially those for postgraduates, are taught in
English. The Unit for Research Matters supports the researchers at the University of
Helsinki in commercialization-related matters (i.e., agreements, transfer of intellectual
property rights, etc.). The unit’s 20 employees are spread out over the different
campuses.

Some University of Helsinki research institutes are also mentioned below in the
Research institutes and organizations -section.

Helsinki University of Technology (www.hut.fi) is located in Otaniemi, Espoo. It is the
largest technical university in Finland with about 15,000 under- and postgraduate



                                              2
students and 250 professors. The university is divided into 12 departments and several
institutions (including research institutes). The departments with significant life science
and biotechnology activities are the following (examples of research subjects in
parenthesis):

   -   Automation and Systems Technology (microsystems, robotics, and
       neurosciences)
   -   Chemical Technology (food biotechnology, bioengineering, drug development
       and dosage technology, and biomaterials)
   -   Computer Science and Engineering (bioinformatics, and neurosciences)
   -   Electrical and Communications Engineering (medical devices, bioinformatics,
       biophysics, bioadaptive technology, and biomaterials)
   -   Engineering Physics and Mathematics (biomedical technology, biophysics,
       biomaterials, and neurosciences).

In addition, the Helsinki University of Technology has many research institutes that
focus on life science and biotechnology, namely the Low Temperature Laboratory,
Centre for New Materials, the HUT Centrum for Neurosystems, the Institute of
Biomedical Engineering, and the Research Institute for Health Care Facilities
(SOTERA). Technomedicum, HIIT and the BioMag Laboratory are joint institutes (see
below). Notably, only one major (Modern Technology in the Pulp and Paper Industry)
and one complete Master’s program (Forest Products Technology) at Helsinki
University of Technology are taught in English. The 21 employees of the Otaniemi
International Innovation Centre (OIIC) support the researchers at Helsinki University of
Technology in, e.g., commercialization issues.

Helsinki School of Economics (www.hkkk.fi) is located in the centre of Helsinki. One of
the university’s MBA programs, “High-Tech Entrepreneurship”, focuses on
biotechnology. The program is taught in English.


2.2 Research institutes and organizations
The Institute of Biotechnology (www. biocenter.helsinki.fi/bi/) is a research and
educational institute at the University of Helsinki, located in the Viikki Biocentre
buildings. The Institute’s current research programs focus on cellular biotechnology,
developmental biology, plant biotechnology, systems biology, and structural biology
and biophysics.

The Neuroscience Centre (www.helsinki.fi/neurosci/) is, like the Institute of
Biotechnology, a research and educational institute at the University of Helsinki. It
consists of research groups located at both the Viikki and Meilahti campuses.

The Finnish Genome Centre is a national facility that provides services and conducts
research related to the genetics of multi-factorial diseases. It is administered by the
University of Helsinki.

Biocentrum Helsinki (www.helsinki.fi/biocentrum) is an umbrella organization at the
University of Helsinki with more than 20 research groups, focusing on bioscience, from
the Faculties of Medicine, Biosciences and Agriculture and Forestry as well as from the
Institute of Biotechnology and Neuroscience Centre.




                                             3
The Helsinki Institute for Information Technology (HIIT; www.hiit.fi) is a joint research
institute of the University of Helsinki and Helsinki University of Technology.
Neuroinformatics is one of the research areas of the Basic Research Unit of HIIT.

Technomedicum (www.technomedicum.fi) is a cross-disciplinary institute situated in the
Biomedicum Helsinki building, which links the resources of its founding organizations:
the University of Helsinki, Helsinki University of Technology, and the Hospital District of
Helsinki and Uusimaa. Technomedicum seeks to encourage the incorporation of
research results into medical and hospitals practices through the interaction of
researchers in academia and industry.

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (www.vtt.fi) is a research organization with
close to 3,000 employees. It is funded by the Finnish government and industrial
contract research. One of its research institutes VTT Biotechnology, with about 350
employees, is located in Otaniemi, Espoo (Note: one VTT Biotechnology research unit
is located in Viikki and the other is in Turku). The core technological competences of
VTT Biotechnology are bioprocesses, functional foods, systems biology, metabolic
engineering, and industrial biomolecules.

The National Public Health Institute, better known in Finland as KTL (www.ktl.fi), is
Finland’s major public health body with about 850 employees, about 300 of which are
researchers. KTL is located in Helsinki, with some departments situated in the
Biomedicum Helsinki building. The activities of KTL are divided into 10 departments.
Folkhälsan (www.folkhalsan.fi) is a Swedish-speaking non-governmental organization
acting in the social welfare and health care sector in Finland. Folkhälsan has about
1,200 employees, of which about 100 are researchers, situated mostly in the
Biomedicum Helsinki building in Meilahti.

The Finnish Institute of Occupational Medicine (www.ttl.fi) is a research and specialist
organization in the field of occupational health and safety. It is currently conducting
more than 200 research projects. The National Veterinary and Food Research Institute
or EELA (ww.eela.fi) promotes both animal health and welfare as well as safeguards
the safety and quality of livestock products. EELA conducts research, provides
advisory services, and undertakes risk assessment.

Wihuri Research Institute (www.wri.fi) is located in Helsinki. The research activities at
the Wihuri Research Institute are focused on cardiovascular diseases, with special
interest in atherosclerosis and thrombosis.

MTT Agrifood Research Finland (www.mtt.fi) and the Institute of Biotechnology have a
joint laboratory that focuses on plant genomics research and is located in Viikki.

Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, located in the Biomedicum Helsinki
building, is a non-profit organization that conducts basic and applied biomedical
research.

See Appendix 5 for National Centres of Excellence in the greater Helsinki region within
life science and biotechnology.


2.3 Research and teaching hospitals
The Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa or HUS (www.hus.fi) is responsible for
arranging special health care for the population in the Uusimaa district. For some




                                             4
difficult and rare diseases, HUS serves the entire country. The Faculty of Medicine at
the University of Helsinki actively uses HUS facilities in teaching and research. The
main buildings of Helsinki University Central Hospital or HUCH (the largest hospital
within HUS and in Finland) are located in Meilahti and connected by a tunnel to the
Biomedicum Helsinki building. The BioMag Laboratory (www.biomag.hus.fi) at HUCH
in Meilahti is a centre for magnetocardiography, magnetoencephalography and
transcranial magnetic stimulation. The founder organizations of the BioMag Laboratory
include, in addition to HUCH, the University of Helsinki and Helsinki University of
Technology.

The Clinical Research Institute HUCH Ltd (HYKS-instituutti Oy) is responsible for the
promotion of clinical pharmaceutical research and research administration of HUS and
develops the operations of the core facilities in the Biomedicum Helsinki building (see
Appendix 1).


2.4 Polytechnics
Arcada (www.arcada.fi) is located partly in Espoo and partly in Helsinki. The school will
relocate to Helsinki in August 2004. Most of the degree programs are taught in
Swedish (many different programs in Social and Health Care). The English degree
program includes Human Ageing and Elderly Service. The section, Evtek
(www.evtek.fi), focuses on life science and biotechnology and is located in Vantaa,
where the Bio and Food Technology degree program is taught in Finnish. Evtek
administers the Electronics Pilot and Education Plant located next to the Technopolis
Helsinki-Vantaa business park, which will be operational in the spring of 2004. At
Laurea (www.laurea.fi), one can study Sustainable Development and different
programs within Social and Health Care. These subjects are taught in Finnish and are
offered in Espoo, Vantaa, Hyvinkää, Järvenpää, Lohja, and Porvoo. Laurea also offers
two Health and Social Care degree programs in English: Nursing and Social Service.
Stadia (www.stadia.fi) is located in Helsinki. It offers several degree programs in Social
and Health Care, which are taught in Finnish. The degree programs in Social Services
and Nursing are taught in English.


2.5 Science parks/incubators
Science parks provide office and laboratory space as well as additional services that
range from real estate management to licensing support and, e.g., financial services.
Helsinki Business and Science Park Ltd (www.hbsp.net) operates on two University of
Helsinki campuses: Viikki and Meilahti. The main buildings of Helsinki Business and
Science Park in Viikki are Cultivator I and II. They contain over 15,000 m2 of office and
laboratory space. Additional laboratory space is provided, e.g., in the Biomedicum
Helsinki building in Meilahti. Technopolis Plc’s Otaniemi Science Park Ltd
(www.otech.fi) administers the facilities in the Teknologiakylä buildings in Otaniemi
(total 4,000 m2 offices) as well as those in the Olartek building in Olarinluoma (total
3,600 m2 offices and production facilities). Swing Life Science Center
(www.hartela.fi/lifesciencecenter/) is a recently constructed two-building complex next
to the Otaniemi campus. Currently, Swing Life Science Center offers office and
laboratory space (total floor space about 11,000 m2), but does not provide additional
science park services. Three additional buildings are under construction or planned.

Some other smaller incubators are located within Helsinki University of Technology,
University of Helsinki, and Helsinki School of Economics (Yrittäjätalon yrityshautomo
and New Business Centre) as well as the polytechnics Evtek, Helia, and Laurea. For



                                            5
complete lists of the Helsinki region incubators, see under www.culminatum.fi and/or
www.nyppi.net.

Several business parks (i.e., office space for hire) are located in the greater Helsinki
region. These include, e.g., Airport Plaza Business Park, Arabus, Avia Forum Business
Park, High Tech Centre, Innopoli I and II (see Innopoli Ltd; www.innopoli.fi),
Technopolis Helsinki-Vantaa, TwinBIC Ltd, and Quartetto.


2.6 Libraries
The main life science libraries in the Helsinki Area include the National Library of
Health Sciences TERKKO on the Meilahti campus (www.terkko.helsinki.fi), the Viikki
Science Library on the Viikki Campus (helix.helsinki.fi/infokeskus/kirjasto/), and the
Helsinki University of Technology Library on the Otaniemi Campus (lib.hut.fi). See also
the National Electronic Library FinELib (www.finelib.fi).


2.7 Financing
The Academy of Finland (www.aka.fi) is the main public financing and expert
organization for basic research in Finland and is administered by the Ministry of
Education. Tekes, the National Technology Agency (www.tekes.fi), is the main public
financing and expert organization for applied research and technological development
in Finland. Tekes is administered by the Ministry of Trade and Industry. Tekes finances
industrial R&D projects as well as university and other research institute projects that
have commercial potential. Sitra, the Finnish National Fund for Research and
Development (www.sitra.fi), is a foundation under the supervision of the Finnish
Parliament. Sitra is best known for its role as a venture capitalist. The Foundation for
Finnish Inventions (www.keksintosaatio.fi) supports and helps private individuals and
small companies in Finland develop and exploit invention proposals. The Employment
and Economic Development Centre for Uusimaa (www.te-keskus.fi/uusimaa) provides
advisory, financing, and development services for individuals and companies in the
Uusimaa region. Finnvera Plc (www.finnvera.fi) is a specialized financing company,
offering financing services to promote the domestic operations of Finnish companies,
exports, and internationalization. Finnvera is owned by the Finnish state. Finnish
Industry Investment Ltd (www.teollisuussijoitus.fi) is a government-owned investment
company engaged in equity capital investment. It invests in venture capital funds,
private equity funds, and directly in selected target companies. BioFund Management
Ltd (www.biofund.fi) is a venture capital management company that invests solely in
life science and biotechnology.


2.8 Entrepreneurship/commercialization
Spinno Business Development Centre (www.spinno.fi) is part of the Otaniemi
Technology Park Ltd activities. Spinno BDC promotes the commercialization of high
technology and knowledge intensive business ideas in close collaboration with local
universities and research groups. Established jointly by the University of Helsinki, the
Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, the Helsinki School of
Economics, the University of Turku, and Helsinki University of Technology, the IPR
University Centre (www.iprinfo.com) coordinates and promotes education on and
research into issues of intellectual and industrial property rights. Licentia Ltd
(www.licentia.fi) commercializes of technologies developed within universities and
research institutes especially in the life science sector. Other commercial players




                                            6
involved in this field include Finpro (www.finpro.fi), Hydrios Biotechnology Ltd
(www.hydrios.com), and Innomedica Ltd (www.innomedica.fi). Helsinki Region
Marketing Ltd (www.helsinkiregion.com) promotes international business in the Helsinki
Region.


2.9 Industry
The life science and biotechnology industry in the greater Helsinki region comprise
over 100 active companies. A significant portion of the companies has been founded
within the last ten years and are, thus, still relatively small. The strongest fields in the
greater Helsinki region are:

    -   health-related software (e.g., Tietoenator Plc, Novo Group Plc and Ementor Ltd)

    -   large-sized (heavy) hospital and diagnostic equipment (e.g., General Electric
        Healthcare (including Instrumentarium and Datex-Ohmeda), Siemens Medical
        Ltd, Planmeca Ltd and Planmed Ltd)

    -   laboratory equipment (e.g., Thermo Electron Ltd and Biohit Plc)

    -   industrial biotechnology (e.g., Roal Ltd, Sinebrychoff Ltd and Valio Ltd)

    -   in vitro diagnostics (e.g., Orion Diagnostica Ltd, Medix Biochemica Ltd and
        Finnzymes Ltd)

    -   distribution (e.g., Tamro Ltd and Oriola Ltd)


Significant life science and biotechnology companies in the greater Helsinki region
(outside the grouping above) include Orion Pharma Ltd (development and production
of pharmaceuticals), the Finnish Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service (production of
cellular components and plasma derivatives), Remedium Ltd and Medfiles Ltd (clinical
contract research), Danisco Finland Ltd (various), and Rintekno Ltd (engineering).
Furthermore, bioinformatics is also a growing sector in the greater Helsinki region with
many newly founded companies. However, the turnover of these companies is still low.

For more detailed information, see Finnish Bioindustries (www.finbio.net), Pharma
Industry Finland (www.pif.fi), and SAVA, the hospital and laboratory equipment and
device manufacturers (www.ytl.fi/sava/). For more information on Finnish science and
technology, please visit www.research.fi.




                                              7
3 Life science and biotechnology in the greater Tallinn
  region
In complement to the preceding chapter, which described the greater Helsinki region,
we now provide an overview of the life science and biotechnology scene in the greater
Tallinn region. Given Estonia’s small geographical size and the importance of Tartu as
a life science and biotechnology centre in the country, we also included that region in
the overview.

Incidentally, when the Wellcome Trust, an independent research-funding charity,
awarded its East European senior research fellowships in biomedical science for 2003-
2007, it gave four out of eleven grants to Estonian scientists: Pärt Peterson (University
of Tartu, research on autoimmune diseases), Andres Merits (University of Tartu,
research on Semliki forest virus biology), Tõnis Timmusk (National Institute of
Chemical Physics and Biophysics, research of neurotrophin gene regulation), and Priit
Kogerman (National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, research on cancer
biology). Of those four, Pärt Peterson had earlier worked at the University of Tampere,
the other three at the University of Helsinki.


3.1 Universities
As the only engineering and technology university in Estonia, Tallinn University of
Technology (www.ttu.ee) has close to 10,000 under- and postgraduate students and is
divided into eight faculties. The faculties and their departments and other institutions
with significant life science and biotechnology activities are (examples of research
subjects in parenthesis):

   -   Faculty of Science
          o Department of Chemistry (bio-organic chemistry, analytical chemistry of
              bioactive compounds, and bioprocess technology)
          o Department of Gene Technology (cancer biology, neurosciences, plant
              biotechnology, molecular biology, and enzymology)
          o Biomedical Engineering Centre (medical devices, optics and electronics;
              see www.cb.ttu.ee)
   -   Faculty of Chemical and Materials Technology
          o Department of Chemical Engineering
          o Department of Food Processing (fermentation technology)

The Tallinn University of Technology’s Centre for Biotechnology and Gene Technology
is described in more detail below (see “Science Parks/Incubators”). In addition, Tallinn
University of Technology has three colleges, offering application oriented bachelor-
level programs in different technical and economic fields. The researchers at Tallinn
University of Technology have support from the TTU Innovation Centre Foundation
(www.tuic.ee) and the newly founded Tallinn Technology Park Innovation Foundation
(see below). Most courses at the University are given in the Estonian language.
However, general studies in Russian are also possible (Note: Selected courses are
also taught in English).

The largest university in Estonia, the University of Tartu (www.ut.ee), has about 17,500
under- and postgraduate students. The university is divided into 11 faculties. The




                                            8
faculties and their departments and other institutions with significant life science and
biotechnology activities are (examples of research subjects in parenthesis):

   -   Faculty of Medicine
          o Department of Physiology (neurosciences)
                      Centre of Molecular and Clinical Medicine (neurobiology,
                      immunology and brain research; see cmcm.ut.ee)
          o Institute of Microbiology
   -   Faculty of Biology and Geography
          o Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (www.tymri.ut.ee/e/)
                      Estonian Centre of Excellence for Gene and Environmental
                      Technologies
   -   Faculty of Physics and Chemistry
          o Department of Chemistry (bio-organic chemistry)
          o Training Centre for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering; and
   -   Faculty of Social Sciences
                      Estonian Centre of Excellence: Centre of Behavioral and Health
                      Sciences.

In innovation- and commercialization-related matters, the researchers at the University
of Tartu gain support from the Institute of Technology (www.tuit.ut.ee) and the
Department of Research and Institutional Development (www.ut.ee/taeng). The Faculty
of Medicine offers many courses in English.

The Estonian Agricultural University (www.eau.ee) is also located in Tartu. The
University is divided into six faculties and several research institutes. The Faculty of
Veterinary Medicine has strong links to life science and biotechnology. Significant
research institutes at the Estonian Agricultural University are the Agrobiocentre
(www.eau.ee/~eabc/) and the Institute of Experimental Biology, which is located in
Harku near Tallinn.


3.2 Research institutes and organizations
The National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics (www.kbfi.ee), with a staff of
approximately 140 employees, is an independent national research institute located
next to Tallinn University of Technology. The Institute is divided into four laboratories.
The Laboratory of Chemical Physics specializes in NMR research, including biological
NMR. It has also been chosen to an Estonian Centre of Excellence (“Centre of
Excellence of Analytical Spectrometry”). The Laboratory of Molecular Genetics
specializes in cancer research, neurobiology, toxicology, recombinant protein
production, and DNA diagnostics. The Laboratory of Bio-Organic Chemistry specializes
in protein science and the Laboratory of Bioenergetics, in cell metabolism. The Institute
participates in postgraduate student teaching jointly with Tallinn University of
Technology. In addition, it emphasizes technology transfer programs.

The Estonian Biocentre (www.ebc.ee) has been an EU Centre of Excellence since
2000 (within the EU’s 5th Framework Program). The Tartu-based Biocentre is
administered by the Ministry of Education and Research. Its primary collaborators in
Estonia are the National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics in Tallinn and the
Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of Tartu’s Faculty of Biology
and Geography. The research at the Biocentre is directed towards gene and cell
technologies, molecular evolution, and environmental biotechnology.




                                             9
The Estonian Genome Foundation (www.geenivaramu.ee) is the organization behind
the Estonian Genome Project. This Tartu-based foundation is currently collecting and
storing DNA samples of Estonians as well as collecting a health record database.

Health care and welfare related organizations administered by the Ministry of Social
Affairs include the National Institute for Health Development (www.tai.ee), the Estonian
Centre for Health Education and Promotion (www.tervis.ee), and the Estonian Drug
Monitoring Centre (eusk.tai.ee), which are all located in Tallinn.

Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute (www.jpbi.ee) is the leading plant breeding and seed
certification research institution in Estonia.

In addition, many scientific societies exist in Estonia, e.g., Estonian Societies of Human
Genetics (www.estshg.ebc.ee), Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics
(www.physic.ut.ee/ebmy/), and Toxicology (www.estsoctox.ee).


3.3 Hospitals
Tallinn does not have a university hospital. In Estonia, the University of Tartu offers
medical education and also has an affiliated hospital (see www.kliinikum.ee). However,
several major public hospitals in the greater Tallinn region provide care for all major
medical specialties, namely the North-Estonian Regional Hospital, the East-Tallinn
Central Hospital, the West-Tallinn Central Hospital, and Tallinn Children’s Hospital. All
these hospitals participate in teaching graduate medical students from the University of
Tartu.


3.4 Polytechnics
The Tallinn Medical School (www.medkool.ee) is located in Mustamäe and has two
departments: Nursing and Midwifery and Medical Technical. Also note the medical
schools in Tartu (www.med.edu.ee) and Kohtla-Järve (www.hot.ee/teachermed/).
Räpina Gardening College has had a study program for biotechnology technicians
since 2001. Õisu Food Industry School (www.hot.ee/oisuttk) specializes in various food
technologies.


3.5 Science parks/incubators
The Tallinn Technology Park Development Foundation (web page to be opened at
www.technopol.ee) was founded in March 2003, with activities beginning in the spring
of 2004. It combines the Tallinn Technology Park and the innovation support services
at Tallinn University of Technology. The Foundation offers business incubators (“Tallinn
Business Incubators”; see www.tinc.ee) at Mustamäe and Lasnamäe and services
related to commercialization. The Centre for Biotechnology and Gene Technology
(sise.ttu.ee/biogen/) was established in 2002 at Tallinn University of Technology to
promote the applied biotechnology and biomedicine R&D performed at the University. It
provides help on project management, building common infrastructure for projects and
companies affiliated with the centre, establishing core facilities as well as promoting
investments and networking locally and internationally.

The Tartu Science Park (park.tartu.ee/uus/), or the Tartu Science Park Foundation,
provides a variety of services needed in the commercialization of R&D innovations.
Tartu Biotechnology Park Ltd (www.biopark.ee) coordinates the services within Tartu




                                           10
Science Park related to life science and biotechnology. Tartu Science Park, the
Estonian Genome Foundation and some local companies established the Tartu
Biotechnology Park Ltd in 2002. The Tartu Science Park Incubator offers a variety of
services to start-up companies, ranging from fully developed infrastructure (3,000 m2 of
office and laboratory space) and office services to business and management
consultancy.


3.6 Libraries
The Tartu University Library (www.utlib.ee) is the largest scientific library (including life
sciences) in Estonia. The Academic Library of Tallinn Pedagogical University
(www.ear.ee) is the main library in the Tallinn region with life science related
collections. The Tallinn University of Technology Library (www.lib.ttu.ee) is mainly
dedicated to the technological literature, including biotechnology and food technology.
The Medical Library of Estonia (www.medlib.ee) is also situated in Tallinn.


3.7 Financing
The Ministry of Social Affairs is responsible for basic public health and social welfare in
Estonia, including the public hospitals. Some relevant organizations that the Ministry of
Social Affairs administers were already mentioned above. The Ministry of Education
and Research channels funds to the public universities and basic research efforts in
Estonia (mainly distributed through the Estonian Science Foundation; sometimes
written: Estonian Research Foundations; see www.etf.ee). The Ministry of Education
and Research’s Centre of Excellence in Research Program offers financial support to
the leading basic science entities in Estonia (see Appendix 6). The Ministry also
administers the Estonian Biocentre in Tartu. The Archimedes Foundation
(www.archimedes.ee) assists the Ministry of Education and Research in R&D
functions. Located in Tallinn, Enterprise Estonia (www.eas.ee) is administered by the
Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications. Enterprise Estonia is better known
in Estonia as EAS (hence, the home page) and incorporates the Estonian Technology
Agency or ESTAG. Most of the public applied research funding in Estonia is distributed
through Enterprise Estonia/ESTAG. Currently, the organization has three R&D-related
programs: the Competence Centre (starting 2004; see Appendix 6), Spinno, and
Innovation Awareness Programs. Moreover, it also has an office in Helsinki.

The Estonian Credit and Export Guarantee Fund, KredEx (www.kredex.ee), is a self-
sustaining fund within the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and
Communications, whose goal is to support the development of enterprises, exports,
and housing. The Tallinn City Enterprise Board and private investors, such as BaltCap
(www.baltcap.com), Intergate (www.intergate.ee), Lõhmus, Haavel and Viiseman,
Baltic Investment Group, Baltic Small Equity Fund (www.bsef.ee), and Baltic-American
Enterprise Fund also play a role in these activities.


3.8 Industry
 Life science and biotechnology industry in Estonia is fairly young. A significant portion
of the companies was founded within the last 5-6 years and are, thus, relatively small.
According to one surveyc, approximately 60 % of companies have less than three
employees. Notably, only three companies have more than 100 employees (Tallinn

c
    See: http://www.biopark.ee/en/biotehnoloogia/ylevaade.html



                                                   11
Pharmaceutical Company Ltd, Tondi Electronics Ltd, and Magnum Medical Ltd) and
three with between 50 and 100 employees (Tamro Eesti Ltd, Oriola Ltd, and Nycomed
Sefa Ltd). About 60 % (i.e., about 30 companies) of all life science and biotechnology
companies in Estonia are located in the Tallinn and the Harjumaa area. The strongest
fields in the greater Tallinn region are the following:

   -   distribution (e.g., Magnum Medical Ltd, Tamro Eesti Ltd, Oriola Ltd, Nycomed
       Sefa Ltd, Bioexpert Ltd, G.W. Berg Ltd, and HNK Analüüsitehnika Ltd)

   -   medical devices (e.g., Tondi Electronics Ltd)

   -   drug development and production (e.g., Tallinn Pharmaceutical Company Ltd,
       Kevelt Ltd, and ProSyntest Ltd)

   -   cancer research (e.g., CeleCure Ltd and ProtoBioS Ltd)

   -   diagnostic services and development (e.g., HTI Laboriteenuste Ltd, Tallinna
       Diagnostikakeskus Ltd, Bestenbalt LLC, and InBio Ltd).


Other areas of interest include e.g. bioprocess software (Proekspert Ltd) and health
care and medical services (Ferthal Ltd). See also the Estonian Biotechnology
Association (www.biotech.city.ee).




                                          12
4 Existing agreements, collaboration, and networks
The overview of the existing collaboration activities in life science and biotechnology
between the greater Helsinki and Tallinn regions, presented below, is divided into the
following subcategories: Agreements, Education, Research, Industry, and Other.
Generally speaking, few activities between the two regions were identified. More
importantly, most of the existing collaborative efforts seem to short-termed. Projects
with solid long-term strategies are clearly lacking (with perhaps the exception of
genome research). Given the large volume of research conducted at the University of
Helsinki, Helsinki University of Technology, and the Estonian universities, we were
surprised to find so few examples of research collaboration between research groups
across the Gulf. Most of the joint research projects or cooperation seems to have been
initiated by an Estonian researcher moving to the universities in the greater Helsinki
region or less commonly vice versa.

On a city level, however, several joint events have taken place. In the imminent future,
Finland and Estonia might initiate new forms of collaboration by founding organizations
like ScanBalt (www.scanbalt.org) and the BioBaltic Industry Group (collaboration
between the bioindustry organizations in the Nordic countries and the Baltic States).


4.1 Agreements
No official science and technology agreements related to Life Science and
Biotechnology between Finland and Estonia exist.


4.2 Education
Student exchange between the greater Helsinki region and Estonia, especially for the
thesis work period, is common in both universities and polytechnics. Notably, many
Finns study Medicine or Veterinary Medicine at the Estonian universities. Along with
the students, also teachers practice exchange between the universities in the greater
Helsinki region and Estonia.

Stadia Polytechnic’s active partners (e.g., student exchange) include the medical
schools in Tallinn and Tartu. Stadia Polytechnic also collaborates with the University of
Tartu on a project involving collaborators from Oulu, Finland and Ghent, Belgium. A
primary goal for many polytechnics in Europe is to establish pan-European education
programs. The discussions between Stadia and Tartu Medical School are examples of
such efforts.

A collaboration agreement exists between Helsinki University of Technology and
Tallinn University of Technology. In the near future, the HeTa –project will further
explore opportunities for collaboration between these two technical universities.
Moreover, hospitals in the Tallinn region and the University of Helsinki are currently
considering starting joint advanced training programs and graduate schools in the field
of medicine and health care.




                                           13
4.3 Research
At the University of Helsinki’s Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, several groups in the
Department of Applied Biology are actively collaborating with research groups from
Tallinn University of Technology. The topics are mainly related to plant pathology. For
example, Professor Jari Valkonen and Dr. Kristiina Mäkinen, Department of Applied
Biology, are collaborating with Professor Erkki Truve and Dr. Lilian Järvekylg in the
field of plant virology and plant biotechnology. The Institute of Biotechnology in Viikki,
the Department of Gene Technology, and the Centre for Biotechnology and Gene
Technology both at Tallinn University of Technology and National Institute of Chemical
Physics and Biophysics in Tallinn are collaborating in the fields of cancer treatment
drug discovery and neurobiology. Professor Mart Saarma, head of the Institute of
Biotechnology, is currently collaborating with Dr. Tõnis Timmusk at the National
Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics. He will also be involved with the newly
founded Competence Centre for Cancer Research at Tallinn University of Technology.
Moreover, Professor Leevi Kääriäinen and Dr. Tero Ahola at the Institute of
Biotechnology collaborate with Dr. Andres Merits at the University of Tartu in animal
virology. The Department of Chemistry at Tallinn University of Technology is involved
in several collaborations with the University of Helsinki. For example, Professor
Toomas Tamm and Professor Margus Lopp are collaborating with Professor Pekka
Pyykkö and Professor Tapio Hase at the Department of Chemistry.

Helsinki University of Technology (Professor Raimo Sepponen’s group) and Tallinn
University of Technology (Biomedical Engineering Centre) are collaborating in the
fields of medical technology, medical devices, and telemedicine. The HeTa -project
(see above) will likely result in with more examples of collaboration between the two
technical universities.

KTL is the project leader for Finbalt Health Monitor, a collaborative system for
monitoring health-related behavior, practices, and lifestyles in Finland, Estonia,
Lithuania, and Latvia. In genome research, the Estonian Genome Project and
Professor Leena Peltonen-Palotie’s group at KTL are collaborating. The Estonian
Genome Project also collaborates with the Finnish Genome Centre at the University of
Helsinki.

VTT Biotechnology is the coordinator of the 5th Framework project “Food, GI-tract
Functionality Human Health Cluster” or PROEUHEALTH. The project is a scientific,
medical, and commercial collaboration between 64 research groups from 16 European
countries. The University of Tartu (Professor Marika Mikelsaar) is a partner in one of
the cluster research projects.

Technomedicum, Helsinki is collaborating (joint R&D and other projects) with hospitals
in Tallinn, Tartu, and Kohtla-Järve as well as Tallinn University of Technology and the
University of Tartu. For example, Technomedicum coordinates the Network for Future
Regional Health Care, an EU-project in which the Biomedical Engineering Centre at
Tallinn University of Technology is a partner.


4.4 Industry
The industry umbrella organizations, Finnish Bioindustries and the Estonian
Biotechnology Association are currently discussing closer collaboration. Both parties
are also taking part in the BioBaltic Industry Group discussions (collaboration between
the Nordic countries and the Baltic States).




                                            14
MoBiDiag Ltd, a Finnish diagnostics company, is collaborating with the Centre for
Biotechnology and Gene Technology, Tallinn University of Technology (Professor Erkki
Truve). Quattromed Ltd, Tartu is also collaborating with MediCel Ltd, Helsinki in
bioinformatics. MediCel Ltd has also collaborated with Asper Biotech Ltd, Tartu in the
field of molecular biology.

The largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd is an industry partner in the newly
founded Competence Centre for Food and Fermentation Technologies at Tallinn
University of Technology (Professor Raivo Vilu).

Some Finnish life science and biotechnology distributors and software companies have
subsidiaries or distributors in Estonia. Some examples include Tamro Ltd,
Instrumentarium Ltd, Oriola Ltd, Labema Ltd, G.W. Berg Ltd, and Mediconsult Ltd. Also
a few clinical trials coordinated by Finnish CRO’s have been conducted in Estonia.
Medifiles Ltd, for example, has a subsidiary in Tartu. On the contrary, the Tartu-based
Quintiles Estonia Ltd has contacts in the Helsinki region.

ProSyntest Ltd, Estonia and Kemira Fine Chemicals Ltd, Finland, are conducting R&D
collaboration in the field of organic synthesis.


4.5 Other
The Estonian Technology Agency, ESTAG (now a part of Enterprise Estonia) was
developed in close cooperation with Tekes, the National Technology Agency in
Finland. Licentia Ltd, Finland also actively participated in the development of the
Innovation Centre at Tallinn University of Technology. This collaborative effort is
ongoing, whilst the active Finnish part has been Otaniemi International Innovation
Centre at Helsinki University of Technology.

Helsinki-Tallinn Euregio is a non-profit organization established in 2003 with the
objective of promoting cooperation and enhancing regional integration. The partners in
Helsinki-Tallinn Euregio are the cities of Helsinki and Tallinn, the Harju County
Government, Uusimaa Regional Council, and Union of Harju County Municipalities.

Finpro has an office in Estonia (Finpro Estonia), while Enterprise Estonia has an office
in Helsinki. TwinBIC, Helsinki and Helsinki School of Economics and the Tallinn
Technology Park cooperate within their incubator programs. However, the Helsinki
Region Marketing Ltd business centre in Tallinn (Helsinki Maja) will close in June 2004.

The Research Institute for Health Care Facilities (SOTERA) at Helsinki University of
Technology has had several pilot projects involving the Baltic States. Laurea
Polytechnic is also planning to expand their welfare service information package (see
www.hyve.fi) to include Estonia.

SIDOS Partners Ltd, Finland is raising funds to be invested in life science and
biotechnology in Finland, Estonia, and Sweden.

At the Helsinki School of Economics, Professor Hannu Seristö’s group is studying the
effect of the Estonian EU membership on the companies in the greater Helsinki region.
Also at Helsinki School of Economics, Dr. Riitta Kosonen’s group at the Centre for
Markets in Transition conducts similar research. See also the recent report by the
Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (Kari Alho et al.: EU:n laajentumisen
vaikutukset suomalaisten yritysten strategioihin, 2004) on the same subject.




                                           15
5 Vision and recommendations
Historical and cultural heritage between Estonia and the Nordic countries has paved
the way for the collaboration we see today between these countries. Evolving new
projects and organizations, such as the ScanBalt, BioBaltic Industry Group, and the
Nordic Research and Innovation Area (Noria), will further strengthen the collaboration
between the Nordic and Baltic countries. Notably, with the latest enlargement of the
EU, the number of EU countries around the Baltic Sea has increased from four to eight.
The Baltic Sea region could become a major player in the world of life science and
biotechnology with some effort.

Thus far, formal scientific cooperation based on agreements has been relatively
modest, although Estonia and the other new member states have already been
considered equal partners with the “old” member states in EU research projects
(beginning with the 5th Framework Program, i.e., since 1999)d. Long before formally
entering the EU, Estonia has also been a full member of other EU frameworks, such as
the European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST)
and the development of GEANT, a pan-European research infrastructure network.
Moreover, some Estonian organizations have also participated in different EUREKA
projects (a network for industrial research and development) for many years. In this
respect, we do not see that Estonia’s new membership in the EU will significantly alter
the prospects for scientific collaboration between Finland and Estonia. It is now time for
researchers and other parties involved to take a bigger role in collaboration build-up!

Vision (in 5-10 years)
The identification of focus areas, teamwork and long-term strategies are crucial in order
to become and remain competitive in the global world of life science and biotechnology.
A natural step towards increased competitiveness would be to intensify the
collaboration between the greater Helsinki and Tallinn regions, with the aim to build a
strong local research area within the European Research Area (ERA). An example of
such strategic alliance in the field of biotechnology is the Medicon Valley connecting
the greater Copenhagen region in Denmark to the Skåne region (southern part of
Sweden), including the cities of Malmö and Lund in Sweden (www.mediconvalley.com).
Another dimension for the Helsinki-Tallinn regional cooperation in life science and
biotechnology would be to also include the Turku and Stockholm regions in the
cooperation and, thus, form an even stronger local research area. It is important to
keep in mind that an essential factor in success here is also the ability to attract
investments. Therefore, a local research area, such as the Helsinki-Tallinn-Turku-
Stockholm area, would surely attract more venture capital and other investments to the
region than the regions could attract alone.

In 5-10 years, a local life science and biotechnology research area between the greater
Helsinki and Tallinn regions might have the following characteristics:

      -    Several joint research programs and groups funded by national agencies
           working together

      -    Joint participation in 10-20 projects funded by different EU programs


d
    Sansom, C., European biotechnology turns east. Nature Biotechnology 17 (1999) 437-439.



                                                   16
   -   Some joint education programs (both degree programs and graduate schools)
       and intense student exchange. This aspect will be enforced by the Bologna
       process (resulting in separate bachelor’s and master’s degrees as well as in a
       system of comparable degrees in all European universities), which will be
       adopted in Finland starting in fall 2005. The Estonian universities have already
       implemented this system in their universities

   -   Close collaboration in the development of innovation systems (“from university
       research to intellectual property (IP) protection and further to licensing
       agreements and start-up companies”)

   -   Joint use of expensive research equipment and facilities

   -   Joint efforts to explore the neighboring markets and research communities of
       Russia and the other Baltic states

In comparison to the situation in Finland, labor and services will remain cheaper in
Estonia for many years. Although this gap might slowly decrease, it will surely have an
impact on collaboration and may even offer new opportunities.


Recommendations
In order to move towards the vision presented above, the following general measures
should be taken:

   -   Continued efforts should be directed towards building research partnerships
       across the Gulf. A natural staring point would be to promote collaboration
       between academic research groups from both regions. Funding for such
       cooperation could be applied for jointly from the Academy of Finland and
       Estonian Research Council (perhaps also Tekes and Enterprise Estonia).

   -   Finnish and Estonian research organizations should be encouraged to
       participate jointly in different EU projects. Also, in relation to the first
       recommendation, EU funding tools for researcher exchange, such as Marie
       Curie, should be utilized more frequently.

   -   The greater Helsinki and Tallinn regions and the universities in these regions
       should intensify their ongoing joint efforts to develop the innovation systems
       (e.g., quality, IP protection, and commercialization). In many cases, the SME
       (Small and Medium-sized Enterprise) support systems could also be further
       developed collaboratively. In general, awareness and knowledge about quality
       and IPR should be enhanced among students, researchers, and SMEs.

   -   When purchasing expensive research equipment and planning the construction
       of expensive facilities, representatives from the other region should always be
       consulted in order to avoid replicating high-cost infrastructure already in place.

   -   The intensified student (and teacher) exchange on a university-level requires a
       significant increase in individual courses and even entire master’s programs
       offered in English. Such development could especially be considered within the
       Study Program in Bioinformation Technology at Helsinki University of
       Technology (www.lce.hut.fi/bioit/index_eng.html) and the new HEBIOT –
       program (i.e., “The Study Program for Biotechnology in the Helsinki region”; see




                                           17
        www.helsinki.fi/biotekniikka/). The latter is a unique collaboration between the
        University of Helsinki, Helsinki University of Technology, and Helsinki School of
        Economics. The first HEBIOT students will start in fall of 2004. These two study
        programs and the fields they represent: (1) the interface of biology, computer
        science, and mathematics; and (2) applied biotechnology, have the potential of
        being building blocks in educational cooperation in the fields of life science and
        biotechnology between the universities in the greater Helsinki region and
        Tallinn. See also the Centre for International Mobility (www.cimo.fi) and the
        NorFA grants (www.norfa.no).

Those who plan collaboration between Finland and Estonia must consider the legal
differences between the two countries. Several legal factors can complicate or even
hinder the signing of research agreements, joint patenting, or even student exchange.
For example, the obstacle to implementation of the PACS (Picture Archiving and
Communications) system in Estonia was found to be legislation, rather than technical
or prejudicial matters. The patent law in Estonia also differs from that used in Finland.
In fact, according to a recent report, the reason that so few companies have relocated
their R&D to the accession countries is the perceived lack of patent protection and the
possibility of theft of intellectual property (IP) theree. On the other hand, the low level of
patent protection also means that there are opportunities to find valuable IP in new EU
member states. (Note that the Estonian EU membership and the implementation of the
EU laws will naturally take care of many of these problems. However, this process may
take some time).

Regarding research collaborations, we have identified the following as potential fields:

    -   Health care and welfare technologies
    -   Genome research
    -   Bioinformatics and systems biology
    -   Neurosciences
    -   Organic synthesis and drug design
    -   Cancer research
    -   Bioengineering (including bioprocess engineering)
    -   Agrobiotechnology
    -   Environmental biotechnology

Some more specific academic collaboration opportunities were also identified:

    -   In genome research, the collaboration between Finland and Estonia already
        exists, and the area is clearly worthy of further support and collaboration. The
        Estonian Genome Project is a world-class effort to identify genetic variations
        that predispose individuals to common multifactorial diseases (e.g., diseases
        such as asthma and heart disease). To fully exploit the potential of the Estonian
        Genome Project, it should actively seek collaboration with researchers,
        including those in Finland. Finnish researchers possess a long tradition of
        mapping genes for not only monogenic, but also for multifactorial diseases as
        well as performing the required statistical analysis.

    -   In the field of new drugs for cancer treatment, networking between the Institute
        of Biotechnology at the University of Helsinki, some of the Biomedicum Helsinki
        research groups, VTT Biotechnology (Professor Olli Kallioniemi’s group), the

e
 Brodie et al., EU enlargement – Driving Changes in the European Life Science Industry, Cap Gemini
Ernst & Young Report of March 2004, 68 p.



                                                 18
    Centre for Biotechnology and Gene Technology at Tallinn University of
    Technology, and the Laboratory of Molecular Biology (Dr. Priit Kogerman) at the
    National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics in Tallinn should be
    started/intensified. (Note: Tallinn University of Technology was recently
    awarded a Competence Centre for Cancer Research)

-   Within biological NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) research, the National
    Biological NMR Centre in Viikki and the Laboratory of Chemical Physics at the
    National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics in Tallinn (Professor
    Endel Lippmaa and Dr. Ago Samoson) could benefit from each other’s know-
    how. Professor Kimmo Kaski’s group at the Laboratory of Computational
    Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology is intensifying its biological NMR
    research and could, thus, be a valuable addition to this network. Similar
    collaboration could also be developed around electron microscopy (especially
    cryo-electron microscopy and electron tomography) and brain imaging.

-   Further collaboration could be built between the newly founded Competence
    Centre for Food and Fermentation Technologies at Tallinn University of
    Technology and the Laboratory of Bioprocess Engineering, Helsinki University
    of Technology, VTT Biotechnology, and Evtek Polytechnic.

-   The agriculture in Finland and Estonia (and Sweden) share similar climates,
    dealing with many of the same problems, such as cold and similar crop and
    plant diseases. Therefore, agrobiotechnology is a natural field of collaboration
    between Finland, Estonia, and Sweden (For information on existing educational
    collaboration between Finland and Sweden in the field of plant pathology, see
    honeybee.helsinki.fi/mmsbl/kpat/cppe/). Although agrobiotechnology is not
    currently a popular topic of research in Europe and especially avoided by
    European companies, this situation will not last. One example of new direction
    and inspiration is the recently launched GM (genetically modified) beer in
    Sweden. Also, note the recent EU parliament decisions in favor of
    agrobiotechnology.




                                       19
6 Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Professor Matti Leisola, Helsinki University of Technology,
Department of Chemical Technology; Professor Erkki Truve, Tallinn University of
Technology, Department of Gene Technology; Professor Mart Saarma, University of
Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology; and Dr. Timo Törmälä, Sakari Paloheimo and Dr.
Pauli Seppänen, all from Licentia Ltd for all their help during the study and especially
for revising the report manuscript. The constructive discussions related to the subject
with Professor Juha Ahvenainen, VTT Biotechnology, Dr. Harry Holthöfer,
Technomedicum Ltd, Paula Nybergh, Ministry of Trade and Industry, and Pentti
Pitkänen and Annukka Kortekangas, both from Helsinki Region Marketing Ltd, were
also truly appreciated. Moreover, we would like to acknowledge the valuable input of
Kimmo Heinonen and Tuula Palmén, both from Culminatum Ltd; Riikka Paasikivi,
Helsinki Business and Science Park Ltd; Dr. Raivo Tamkivi and Dr. Rein Ruubel, both
from Tallinn Technology Park Development Foundation; and Tanja Rautiainen,
Innomedica Ltd.

Some recent studies on related topics are available. The ones used as the basis for
this report were:

   -   TKK ja Life Science, Helsinki University of Technology (prepared by Matti
       Leisola and Niklas von Weymarn), 2002.

   -   Knowledge-based Estonia: Estonian Research and Development Strategy
       2002-2006, Estonian Research and Development Council, 2002.

   -   Selvitys Helsingin seudun life tech –alan yritysten toiminnan
       kehittämisedellytyksistä, Culminatum Ltd (prepared by Kai Falck and Päivi
       Ryöppy), 2003.

   -   Biotechnology in Estonia, Enterprise Estonia (Estonian Genome Foundation),
       2003.

   -   Suomi ja Viro Euroopan Unionissa, Esko Ollila and Jaak Jõerüüt, 2003.

   -   Pre-eminent Drug Discovery and Development Resources in Academic
       Medicine, Helsinki, Helsinki Region Marketing Ltd (prepared by Philip W.
       Anderson and Juha Laurén), Finland, 2003.




                                           20
                                                                       APPENDIX 1

Life science and biotechnology core facilities in the greater
Helsinki region
  -   Biomedicum Helsinki (see www.biomedicum.fi)
         o Protein chemistry core facility
         o Protein interaction facility
         o Facility for mass production of proteins and cells
         o Biomedicum bioinformatics unit
         o Biomedicum biochip centre
         o Transgenic animal facility
         o Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI ) unit
         o P3 safety laboratory
         o Clinical research unit
         o Media production unit

  -   Institute of Biotechnology (see www.biocenter.helsinki.fi/bi)
          o National Biological NMR Laboratory of Finland (joint with VTT)
          o DNA microarray laboratory
          o Protein chemistry research group and core facilities
          o DNA synthesis and sequencing laboratory
          o Electron microscopy unit
          o Transgenic unit
          o Media production unit
          o Cryo electron microscopy and electron tomography
          o Cellular imaging unit
          o Cell microinjection unit

  -   Haartman Institute (see www.hi.helsinki.fi/hi)
         o DNA sequencing and oligonucletide synthesis
         o Flow cytometry facility
         o Advanced microscopy unit
         o Animal facility
         o Biosafety level 3 laboratory
         o Gamma-irradiator

  -   Helsinki University of Technology
         o Microelectronics centre (www.hut.fi/Units/MEC/)
         o Chemical analysis centre (www.hut.fi/Yksikot/Analyysikeskus/)
         o Advanced magnetic imaging centre (www.ami.hut.fi)
         o Small-scale fermentors and downstream processing equipment
             (www.hut.fi/Units/Biotechnology/)
         o Computational equipment (e.g., www.lce.hut.fi/ )

  -   The Finnish IT Centre for Science, CSC (www.csc.fi) is owned by the Ministry of
      Education. With the most powerful computers in the Nordic countries, CSC is
      able to provide modeling, computing, and information services to universities,
      polytechnics, research institutions and industrial companies.

  -   VTT Biotechnology (www.vtt.fi/bel/services/)
         o Pilot plant (food processing and fermentation)
         o Expression service




                                        21
       o   High throughput screening
       o   Hygiene services
       o   Probiotic products
       o   Culture collection
       o   Carbohydrate analysis
       o   Custom monoclonal antibodies

-   HUCH Diagnostics (www2.hus.fi/lab/ohjekirja/)

-   Evtek Polytechnic (see www.evtek.fi)
       o small-scale fermentors, food processing equipment and downstream
           processing equipment




                                      22
                                                                       APPENDIX 2

Life science and biotechnology core facilities in Estonia
  -   Tallinn University of Technology (www.ttu.ee)
          o Centre for Biotechnology and Gene Technology (sise.ttu.ee/biogen/)
          o Department of Gene Technology
                     Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS)
                     Laboratory-scale fermentors
                     Plant molecular biology facilities
          o Department of Chemistry
                     Chiral synthesis of organic compounds
                     Capillary electrophoresis facility
                     Unit of computational chemistry
                     Synthesis of prostaglandins

  -   National Institute for Chemical Physics and Biophysics (www.kbfi.ee)
         o Biological NMR
         o Molecular (genetic) identification services
         o Environmental monitoring services
         o Animal facility

  -   Tallinn Diagnostic Centre Ltd (www.dk.ee)
          o Functional diagnostics
          o Laboratory diagnostics
          o Medical imaging

  -   Agrobiocentre (www.eau.ee/~eabc/)
         o Culture collection

  -   Estonian Biocentre (www.ebc.ee)
         o DNA sequencing
         o Antibody services and peptide synthesis
         o Several biosensors (including fluorescence)
         o Genotyping-related bioinformatics services
         o Microinjection
         o Pilot-scale fermentors (70 liter and 15 liters)
         o Note also the collaboration with the local companies

  -   For a more specific list see:
      www.genomics.ee/index.php?lang=est&show=1&sub=92




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                                                                         APPENDIX 3

Interviewees
In Estonia
    - Evelyn Aaviksoo, Terviseportaal Ltd
    - Kalju Meigas, Tallinn University of Technology, Biomedical Engineering Centre
    - Ilmar Pralla, Enterprise Estonia
    - Kaarel Siirde, ProSyntest Ltd
    - Erkki Truve, Tallinn University of technology, Department of Gene Tecgnology
    - Mart Ustav, Tartu University Institute of Technology
    - Kalju Vanatalu, CDN Ltd

In the greater Helsinki region
    - Juha Ahvenainen, VTT Biotechnology
    - Riitta Hari, Helsinki University of Technology, Low Temperature Laboratory
    - Saara Hassinen, Finnish Bioindustries
    - Päivi Hellén, Stadia Polytechnic
    - Harry Holthöfer, Technomedicum Ltd
    - Veijo Ilmavirta, Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi International
        Innovation Centre
    - Olavi Junttila, University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Biology
    - Kimmo Kaski, Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Computational
        Engineering
    - Auli Kumpulainen, SIDOS Partners Ltd
    - Matti Leisola, Helsinki University of Technology, Laboratory of Bioprocess
        Engineering
    - Saila Miettinen-Lähde, SIDOS Partners Ltd
    - Paula Nybergh, Ministry of Trade and Industry
    - Heikki Ojamo, Evtek Polytechnic
    - Raimo Pakkanen, Tekes
    - Sakari Paloheimo, Licentia Ltd
    - Pentti Pitkänen, Helsinki Region Marketing Ltd
    - Heikki Rautajoki, TwinBIC Ltd
    - Mart Saarma, University of Helsinki, Institute of Biotechnology
    - Pauli Seppänen, Licentia Ltd
    - Hannu Seristö, Helsinki School of Economics
    - Liisa Simola, University of Helsinki, Department of Biological and Environmental
        Sciences
    - Hans Söderlund, VTT Biotechnology
    - Jaakko Tarkkanen, Laurea Polytechnic
    - Hely Tuorila, University of Helsinki, Viikki Food Science
    - Timo Törmälä, Licentia Ltd
    - Jari Valkonen, University of Helsinki, Department of Applied Biology
    - Juha Vapaavuori, Sitra
    - Kristiina Wähälä, University of Helsinki, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry




                                         24
                                                                             APPENDIX 4

Questionnaire (for the Finnish interviewees)
1. Do you collaborate with any Estonian partners (sales or purchase of services, R&D
collaboration, projects, finance, education/training, other)?

2. Please specify the contents of your collaboration the Estonian partners (which
organization, which subject, contact person, partner location)?

3. Do you know of any collaboration between the greater Helsinki and Tallinn areas?

4. Are you interested in collaborating with an Estonian partner or perhaps willing to
intensify an existing collaboration (please specify the areas of interest).

5. What is your picture of the life science and biotechnology scene in Estonia
(universities, research institutes, industry)? What is your view on the state of the
support infrastructure in Estonia for commercializing innovations?

6. Which areas within life science and biotechnology do you see as potential
collaboration areas (e.g., project or research program entities)?

7. How does the life science and biotechnology collaboration scene between the
greater Helsinki and Tallinn areas look like in 5 and 10 years (your vision)?

8. How does the Estonian EU-membership (1.5.2004-) influence the possibilities for
collaboration?

9. Do you know of any core facilities (e.g., equipment) and services in Finland that
could be shared with Estonian partners (i.e., hired by Estonian partners)?




                                            25
                                                                            APPENDIX 5

Academy of Finland’s Centres of Excellence in research in life
science and biotechnology in the greater Helsinki region
Coordinated by the University of Helsinki (five first by the Institute of Biotechnology)
   - Helsinki Bioenergetics Group
   - Program of Molecular Neurobiology
   - Program on Structural Virology
   - Developmental Biology Research Program
   - Plant Molecular Biology and Forest Biotechnology
   - Program on Cancer Biology
   - Program for Microbial Resources
   - Metapopulation Research Group
   - Research Unit on Physics, Chemistry and Biology of Atmospheric Composition
       and Climate Change

Coordinated by Helsinki University of Technology
   - Bio- and Nanopolymers Research Group
   - Low Temperature Laboratory
   - Neural Networks Research Centre
   - Research Centre for Computational Science and Engineering

Jointly with University of Helsinki and Helsinki University of Technology
    - From Data to Knowledge
    - Helsinki Brain Research Center (HUS is also a partner)

Coordinated by KTL
   - Program in Disease Genetics

Coordinated by VTT Biotechnology
   - VTT Industrial Biotechnology


Currently the Ministry of Education in Finland is supporting altogether 42 Centres of
Excellence in research (all fields included; 26 for the years 2000-2005 and 16 for 2002-
2007). Of these 29 are related to life science and biotechnology research. Notably, 17
of these (i.e. approximately 60 %) are coordinated by organizations in the greater
Helsinki region.




                                           26
                                                                          APPENDIX 6

Estonian Centres of Excellence in research and Enterprise
Estonia Competence Centres in life science and biotechnology
Centres of Excellence in Life science and Biotechnology

At the University of Tartu:
    - CE for Basic and Applied Ecology
    - CE for Gene and Environmental Technologies
    - Centre of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
    - Estonian Centre of Behavioral and Health Sciences
    - Institute of Physics

At the National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics:
    - CE of Analytical Spectrometry

Totally ten Centres in Excellence are currently supported by the Ministry of Education
and Research (Estonian Science Council) incl. all research fields.


Competence Centres in Life Science and Biotechnology

At the Tallinn University of Technology
    - Competence Centre for Cancer Research
    - Competence Centre for Food and Fermentation Technologies

At the Estonian Agricultural University
    - Competence Centre of Healthy Dairy Products

Totally six Competence Centres was nominated in 2004 by Enterprise Estonia incl. all
research fields.




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