Technology for Autonomy and Self Reliance International Technology

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            Technology for Autonomy and Self Reliance
                International Technology Transfer
                       for Social Movements

                     Andrea Micangeli, Irene Costantini, Simona Fernandez

                                   CIRPS – “Sapienza” University of Rome


Introduction to Technology for Autonomy and Self Reliance International Technology

Transfer for Social Movements

Case Study 1: Iraqi People, Un Ponte per... and Water Purification in Basra

Case Study 2: The Zapatistas, Ya Basta Italy and a Micro hydro Turbine in Chiapas

Case Study 3: Saharawi People, TpAA, for Recycling and PV energy for Water in Refugees Camps

Case Study 4: Solar Technology for villages in Venezuela

Case Study 5.1: Palestinian People and Chlorine Self Production in Gaza

Case Study 5.2: Technology for Disable People in Palestine

Case Study 5.3: Jerusalem, Information Technology for the Dialogue in the Conflict


       Researching on technology for the environment and society is an essential activity within the
research applied to International cooperation.
       Generally speaking, we refer to ”technology for self-reliance” for all the processes, the structures
and the products aimed at developing a social formation that still finds its basis on technological
principles, instruments and models.
        Self-reliance and access are two core issues in “technology for self-reliance:
           • The access (financial, social and technical) is to be guaranteed to the wiser public
           • Self-reliance is the result of the process through which effective capability and social
               functionality has been built.
People become active actors in their lives without developing a dependence strategy. Self-reliance means
building productive social relationship, but not dependent relationship. Self -reliance processes must
guarantee the ecological and social self-reliance of its component. The Cirps has been working
supporting these two pillars. In particular, the activities and the studies for International Cooperation
run by the Cirps focus on:

           • Small social environment
           • No environment-impact energies
           • Self chlorine production
           • Disadvantaged work groups
           • Permanent area of crisis or of social tension both urban and rural

Energy development projects or water maintenance projects have to refer to:
   • Access, economical and geopolitical access to the traditional energy resource
   • Ownership, being part of the community. Achieved by the target area’s study
   • Maintenance, achieved by training courses for the operators
   • Sustainability, project transfer in times and places to other subjects.

The bigger the problem is the wiser the relationship, both local and International, should be in order
to make success that means that the beneficiaries reach autonomy and consequently self-sufficiency.
At the end of a project, is better not to maintain too close relationship in the technological field that
could turn into a paternalistic relationship. But a good relationship with the community is
doubtlessly another achievement.
    Which project should we run is an important issue that deals with different factors, among which
one of the most important is the funding. Not merely money’s availability but above all, who or what
institution offer the money. Cirps considers the ethic funding a pillar of its policy. Even though Cirps
has worked in conflict area, it has refused militarization money. It’s also important that the community
in which the intervention takes place has already developed its own level of autonomy. Also this
criterion is not absolute and universal, but of course a certain kind of self-organization is necessary.
    In the following pages we will present some of the principal activities run by Cirps, in the refugee
camps, in the field of international cooperation, in the advanced training. We will focus mainly on
sustainable development, disabled people, and technologic a nd scientific services.

       1. Iraq: Water Purification in Permanent Crisis Areas, from the Emergency
            to the Sustainable Development. Water Purification Project in Basra

    This is one of the best experiences to examine purification technologies in a cooperation project.
Cirps and the Italian Ngo Un Ponte per… worked together to improve and reactivate plants working
through sand filter and gravitational filter in the rural area of Basra.
    There are two possibilities to offer drinking water:
    Water Tankering, distributing water through tanks
    Make a local water source drinkable
    Water tankering is the first support activities in the implementation of the project. In this case it
offers 23 m3 of water per day in the Jecor area’s villages.
    Iraqi water condition
    Iraqi’s water resources are strongly dependent form Turkey and Syria. Iraqi’s national soil
contributes to an extent of 48 % of Tigris River.
    Turkey, owning the sources of Tigris and Euphrates, is becoming the main hydro power in the
region and is using his power for political purposes. Owning such a quantity of water allows Turkey to
cooperate with Israel, Iraq and Syria in defining the division of this precious resources and obtaining
services from all this countries.
In early sixties, Turkish president Ataturk proposed the GAP project, which foresees the creation of 22
dams and 19 hydroelectric plants in the South-East Anatolia, to irrigate 1.7 hectares and to produce 18
billion kW per year. The project, which involves both Tigris and Euphrates rivers, is still far to be
completed and represents a big threaten to capabilities of Syria and Iraq to obtain the necessary amount
of water.
Tigris and Euphrates meet in Qurna City, 65 km north of Basra, creating Shat Al Arab River. The
governorate is rich in surface water resources even though the population is suffering for lack of non
salted treated water. The problems that affect water provision are the salinity of the water and the lack
of maintenance of the pre-existing Water Treatment Plants (WTP) and Compact Units (CU).
Purification of water in the governorate is assured by Water Treatment Plants (WTP) and Compact
Units (CU). The plants differ mainly on the capacity (up to 200 m3/h for CU and from 200 m3/h for
WTP) and on the construction materials (iron and steel for CU, concrete for WTP), the purification
principles being the same.
In the CUs water is pumped from the river with low lift pumps, in the collection chamber, where is
mixed with a solution of Al2SO4, which enhances suspension matter precipitation with the formation
of floccules (flocculation process). After this stage, water is pumped, by high lift pumps, through sand
filters, which remove remaining suspended impurities. Now, water is ready to be chlorinated and
pumped to the final users through the distribution system.
The conditions of the hundreds (the exact number is still unknown, although data collected in the
December 2003 meeting with Basra Water department show a number around 120) of WTP and CU
scattered all over the governorate are, in most cases, desperate. 23 years of war and embargo have
produced similar damages in all the installations, although the ones supplying water to rural areas are in
the worst conditions.
Most of CUs share some common feature:
   •   The system is modular;
   •   Sand filtration takes place under pressure;
   •   Flow capacity ranges between 50 and 200 m3/h (for each module);
   •   Aluminum sulphate is used for agglomeration and sedimentation;
   •   Aluminum sulphate is fed by independent mixers equipped with individual dosing pumps;
   •   All structures are made of steel, including filters and sedimentation tank;
   •   Chlorinators use gaseous chlorine and their dosing pumps injects directly to freshwater pipe;
   •   Backwash is enacted by the same pumps used for normal operation;
   •   Filters are all of down flow type;
   •   Air may be employed for the backwash (only in the largest unit);
Introduction to the water treatment in emergency conditions

The main objective of water treatment for drinking water is to remove anything which is harmful to
health such as pathogenic organisms, toxins and carcinogens. Assuming high levels of toxic chemicals
are not present in the water, pathogenic organisms are the most serious threat to health in the short
Disinfection (usually chlorination) is used to destroy the pathogenic organisms. In non-emergency
situations certain waters may not require disinfection (e.g. deep groundwater, mountain streams) as the
faecal contamination may be low at the point of supply. However, because of the large numbers of
possible traumatized people in confined spaces, disinfection should be used wherever possible in
emergencies as an added precaution.
The indicators are parameters based on the experience of many relief agencies and persons involved in
emergencies during the last ten years. Engineers and other persons approaching to work in a
developing country or in a specific emergency should follow the indicators as design parameters for the
on field work, in the choice of the correct water treatment process, of the capacity of the water treated
necessary for the beneficiaries and so on.

Objective: WTP rehabilitation in Basra
Stakeholders: Ngo, Universities, Local Communities, Water Department
External risks related to the project realization:
     • Socio-political instability
     • No coordination among local NGOs
     • No relationship with the local authority

Principal objective: water system rehabilitation focused on refugees coming back in their original
region after the regime’s end (according to the objective of UNHCR, donator)
Specific objective: water system rehabilitation and awareness training on a correct use of water among
the refugee.

Project paper:


     ≈                    mixer                              Mixer box [sand]
     [water extraction]

Engineering interventions for potable supply purposes involve the widespread use of groundwater and
surface water sources, desalination systems and rainwater collection systems have somewhat limited
application globally.

People have adequate facilities and supplies to collect, store and use sufficient quantities of water for
drinking, cooking and personal hygiene, and to ensure that drinking water remains safe until it is

    •   Each household has at least two clean water collecting containers of 10-20 litres, plus enough
        clean water storage containers to ensure there is always water in the household;
    •   The participation of all vulnerable groups is actively encouraged in the construction of bathing
        facilities and/or the production and distribution of soap, and/or the use and promotion of
        suitable alternatives;
Principal   To rehabilitate the water sector, quite - N° of rehabilitations on 123 - Unicef Reports 8
Objective   close to emergency, in the                Compact Units and 12 Water - Governatorate Reports
            governatorate of Basrah                   Treatment plants,
            before the situation get worse especially - Water borne diseases decrease
            for the new presence of returned          among refugees
Specific    Returnees and the other beneficiaries in - 2 new installation in the          - Department of Water
Objective   Al Medaina have access to water for       locations (50 mc/h in Khumesah reports
            domestic use and primary courses on and 100 mc/h in Umm Al                    - Surveys in the villages
            safe water use.                           Shuweitch)
            increased awarness on water issues        - 4500 children have the booklet
            among children
Expected    -Installation of 2 CU in Al Medaina       -Turbidity of the water below 5 -Test at the output of the
Results     -Distribution of booklet for children     NTU                                 plants on chlorine dosage
                                                      -Total residual chlorine value at and turbidity level with
                                                      the output of the plants         in digital instruments
                                                      according with the request of the -Sample test with portable
                                                      Department of Water of Basra        kit in the villages for E-
                                                      -Water quantity for each persons Choli presence in the
                                                      above the 20 liters/day             water
                                                      5000 booklet printed

      Activities                          I    II     III        IV          V       VII           VIII
  a   Local referent meeting
  b   Survey
  c   Projectation
  d   Local Market price research
  e   Agreement with local factories
  f   Water Tankering
  g   People training
  h   Construction site
  i   Job delivery
  j   Maintenance training
  k   Close the account
  l   Maintenance

The rehabilitation of the CUs and WTPs is only the first step to improve the quality and availability of
the water for the Basra area, and a possible schedule for long term actions could be the following:
   1. Improving the quality of the water available for the people, that means complete rehabilitation
        of the WTPs and CUs for having chlorate water ready for the distribution. At the moment this
        is the main focus for the activities of all the organization working in water and sanitation sector
        in Basra (NCA, DCA, Save the Children, and UPP). This first phase, together with the
        tankering, we can assume to be an emergency phase;
   2. Mapping the pipes connected with the rehabilitated plants. Now there is no kind of maps. All
        the information that the Water Department of Basra had before the last war have been looted
        or destroyed. It is important to also consider the great diffusion of illegal connections,
        sometimes in such a great quantity as to make the pipe unusable. This an important phase
        because it’s not possible to figure any action on the pipe net without a complete mapping. It is
        possible to define electronic software for the collection of the data, for having different
        information from different organization all implemented in the same tool.
   3. Rehabilitation of the existing pipe net. With the map tool it is possible to forecast actions like
        pumping stations and pipe replacements to solve the problems of the water distribution.
        Starting on the small pipe net connected to each compact unit rehabilitated, making actions on
        this scale of area, it is possible to rehabilitate the water distribution in specific zones, in a
        modular way. It is achieved that these pipe nets are connected together, but working in small
        areas temporally it is the best choice for small villages. Also the immediate contact organization-
        beneficiaries could be an important task to take in consideration;


            2. Self-Reliance Technology for the Community: Renewable
                            Energy and Water Purification in Chiapas

In the renewable energy fields, we can analyze a project that starts with hydroelectric energy
production and continue with chlorine self-production in Chiapas, Mexico. It is an example of long-
term sustainable development activity in conflict areas and it was made up of two projects: “Una
Turbina per La Realidad (1997-2001)” (A turbine for Realidad) and “Cloro Rebelde Zapatista(2007-
2008)”. (Rebelled Zapatistas Chlorine)
The area is Chiapas, in the South-East part of Mexico near to Guatemala. The beneficiaries are still
nowadays people belonging to the Realidad Community. The Zapatistas organization proposed a
local study on the energetic needs and the installation of two plants (Micro Hydro e On Site Electro

The project is carried on by CIRPS (Interuniversity Research Centre on Sustainable Development), an
engineering department of the University “La Sapienza” of Rome, LITA (Itinerant Appropriate
Technologies Laboratory) and Ya Basta on the Italian side, while in Mexico worked Enlace Civil, a local
NGO, and above all the La Realidad community itself, which is an active partner in the developing,
realization and future management of the system. Public bodies like Italian Majors and Regions gave
the financing of the entire project.
La Realidad is a village where more or less 200 families live, with an agricultural subsistence economy
based on mais and coffee crops. The electricity and its use were quite unknown, and the Diesel engine
supplied only the powerful lights of Aguascaliente (meeting point of EZLN with local community and
world civil society) during the feasts or in special occasions.
In the first phase of the project through a survey by questions to men and women, in appropriate
meetings, it has been individuate the energy needs of the community and to propose future applications
of the electricity power.
The current energetic needs of this communities are above all pointed to electric illumination (resistive
loads), but it was important to consider the future possible uses, proposed by the community, when
there will be the local electric grid, such as freezer for the small ambulatory, the machines of the
carpentry and the workshop to repair cars and other vehicles.

The plant
The encargados are the men chosen by the community assembly to follow the project. In 1998 they
cooperated with Italian volunteers and Mexican engineers to make surveys of the land to draw a map of
the site. The presence of a zone where the small river goes down with some small waterfalls was chosen
for the place to intercept the water flow to the future powerhouse. It was measured a drop of about 18
meters as shown in the figures.



      Silt Basin

                                              The plant and its
        Intake                                  components
Figure VII- 1: Plant design.

Figure VII-2: Plant Area.

                                            Duration curve


flow (m3/s)

                                                                           maximum flow
                                                                           available flow


                    0   50      100   150       200      250   300   350

Figure VII-3: Duration Curve.

After this first phase the encargados began to measure the flow of the river during the months, using
simple and appropriate techniques collected in literature. The result of this work has been the duration
curve and the flow profile to evaluate the available water drawn off with the intake.
Considering the impact on the local environment of a complete deviation of the water flow, it was
chosen according with the community a solution with an embankment of grounds lots in the river and
a nominal flow of about 400 litres/sec to the power house.
So the future possible floods could carried away the lots, but it’s quite easy and cost free for the
community to repair an embankment of lots on the contrary a

                                   Block 1

                                                             Block 2

                                                                              Block 3

Figure VII-4: Penstock Diagram

small dam in reinforced concrete could become an environmental problem and an expensive repairing
should be out of local skills and culture.
The main characteristics of the micro-hydro plant are:

Gross head: 18.38 m
Net head: 17 m
Nominal flow: 400 litres/sec
Maximum power: 66.7 kW

Penstock internal diameter: 480 mm
Thickness: 3.14 mm
Material: steel
Length: 167 m
Water speed: 2.21 m/s


Turbine type: Banki-Michell
Rotor diameter: 460 mm
Speed: 360 rpm

Figure VII-5: Turbine sections

Starting from the intake, in concrete, the water is guided in a channel to a sedimentation tank. From
this tank the water through another channel is received by a charge tank where the penstock begins.
The drop is about 18 m. In the power house the turbine is coupled with a synchronous brushless
The load control has been made with an electronic system working with five resistances of 10 kW, each
resistance is also subdivided in 15 steps of 660 W. The power produced but not engaged by the loads
connected to the grid is wasted on the resistances that are dipped in the water of the river exiting the
turbine. With this system, the voltage is kept constant to the grid. The “ballast” resistances are
connected on the first and second phases, and one on the third phase. The electronic load control
(ELC) keeps the balance between the three phases using the resistances. Traditionally,
complex hydraulic or mechanical speed governors altered flow as the load varied, but more recently
ELC has been developed which has increased the simplicity and reliability of modern micro-hydro sets.
A further benefit is that the ELC has no moving parts, is very reliable and virtually maintenance free.

The electric grid
The electric grid in all of its parts (posts and lines) was built by the community itself in cooperation
with Mexican and Italian volunteers. There are two transformers, a step-up transformer near the
powerhouse to raise the tension from 260 Volt to 23000 Volt and a step-down transformer in the
community 1 km far. Every house has its own electric line, except the houses of the families that for
political reasons did not take part in the works. The only safety devices are fuses to avoid short circuits.
The encargados have the role to maintain and manage the electric grid and the production of electricity
itself. Some of them attended an electric course in San Cristòbal de Las Casas, but due to cultural
background they met several difficulties to finish. Thus LITA decided to satisfy the knowledge gap
making in the community of La Realidad courses on electricity and on the maintenance of the turbine
plant for encargados, for women and for babies.


                                Scaricatori         1
                                Fusibili                               G

                                                    Seconda vasca




                                                                      Linea trifase

                                                                      Linea trifase con neutro

                                         6                            Linea trifase con fune di guardia
                                                                      Collegamento di messa a terra

                                     7        parafulmine



                   Aguasca Liente

                                13                           12


                                         Figure VII- 6: La Realidad grid.

Problems solved
The main problems came up were above all technical, and some of them could not be forecasted. The
river, after one month of plant running, have gone around the small dam built, digging an hole in the
ground on the right side of the river, just opposite the intake. This part was not protected by gabions
because the roots of the plants on this side could do the same work. But they didn’t. The side has been
rebuilt, filling the hole with stones and soil. Then gabions will be put to protect the side of the river.
The community coordinated by experts and volunteers sent by LITA have done all the operations
described above working in strong collaboration with the local people to make them understand of the
decisions taken.

The realization of the electric grid has met some problems with the step-down transformer. This
technical problem has been due to the lightning that fused the transformer itself and to the wrong
corrections of the windings made the first time.
The last problem solved by LITA in collaboration with the local community is the wrong running of an
ELC, which has been replaced.


In the 2002 summer has been hold by two Italian engineers in the community two courses, one for the
man and women living there on the opportunities and the dangers of the electricity, and another more
technical for the engargados for the future management of the plant. Now the loads connected to the
grid are exclusively resistive (illumination), for a peak of power engaged of 10 kW. In the future it was
predicted the connection with the engines of the local carpentry and the realization of the vulcanizadora,
to repair the tyres of the lorries and for others mechanical repairing.
After the courses, the project could be considered finished. The plant is working fine, not to full power
(30 kW), because the load is not high yet. The community will have the responsibility to manage the
plant and to solve the future technical problems. The partners that have worked in the project will
continue to be in contact with the encargados in case of extreme failure.
The aim of the project was to realize a plant for producing energy in a zone where nobody in the
private sector would work, working with and for the community on something not extraneous to their
skills and culture, giving the instruments to understand and manage it. The training part of the project
has been the most important one to make the introduction of the electricity in the village as much as
possible sustainable. Now La Realidad has an own power supply, the community itself will decide how
to use it and they have been trained to maintain it in the proper way.

   P= power :
   P [out] = P [in] - η [with η = LOSS]; where:
   P [out] = P [in] × ρ [tot] con ρ [tot] = system efficiency; furthermore :
   ρ [tot] = ρ [in] × ρ [turbine] × ρ [pipe] × ρ [generator] × ρ [transmission].
   With estimated efficiency 50%, we have: ρ [tot]= 0.5 and so, knowing the capacity Q, defined as:

   Q = V [mc] / t [s] = v [m/s] × S [mq], si ha:

   P = ρ Q h g , being P = ∆E / ∆t where E represent the energy [Edisp = m g h = ρ V g h]
   {g represents the acceleration of gravity and h the jump}


The preliminary stage was realized thanks to an assessment form: interview check list were carried out
and they represent a survey on the beneficiaries in order to highlight key-information for the project
implementation to implement the project activities, in particular:

   1 Check-list Interview Model :

            IN CLOSE FUTURE);

One of the results, obtained thanks to stakeholder collaboration, useful technology made up of cheap
and local material, is to free the community from energetic dependence and create a kind of local self-

Chlorine is the first choice to disinfect water in emergencies and is available in the following forms:
    • Chlorine gas is normally used in conventional water supply schemes of substantial size.
        Chlorine gas dosing equipment is expensive to install, complicated to operate and maintain, and
        it can be dangerous if not handled properly. Chlorine gas is unlikely to be used in an emergency
        water supply.
    • High Test Hypochlorite (HTH) – calcium hypochlorite granules supplied in drums (70%
        available chlorine).
    • Sodium hypochlorite – supplied in liquid form as:
    1. Household disinfectant (Chloros, Parazone, Domestos, etc...) 5-15 % available chlorine.
    2. Laundry bleaches 3-5 % available chlorine.
    3. Antiseptic solutions (Milton, Javel) 1 or 2 % solution.
    4. Electrolytic generators are available which generate sodium hypochlorite from common salt.
        They are powered by electricity from mains AC or solar photovoltaic cells.
    5. Bleaching powder or chlorinated lime – about 30 per cent available chlorine when fresh.
    6. Chlorine tablets – various relatively expensive types:
    7. Small calcium hypochlorite tablets (60-70 per cent available chlorine) used in tablet chlorinators.
    8. ‘Swimming pool’ tablets containing trichloroisocyanuric acid: these tablets can be suspended in
        a tank with a purpose-made float to give a slow release of chlorine.

Enough chlorine must be provided to meet the chlorine demand and to leave a free residual of 0.2-0.5
mg/l after a contact time of 30 minutes.
The following Table VI-1 is an approximate guide to making 1 litre of 1 per cent solution from various


                                                                  Autonomy for hygenic-
                                                                  sanitarian disinfection

                                                                        Chlorine Self-

                       Plant Realisation (Imp 0.0)                                          Management (Ges 0.0)

Previous area            material                    Plant realization (Imp 3.0)              Plant functioning
analisys                 and staff                                                           Monitoring (Ges 1.0)
   (Imp 1.0)             transport
                                                       Availability of in loco
                          (Imp 2.0)                     material (Imp 3.1)
                                                                                              Fill-in check list (Ges
     List of the                Journey                                                                 1.1)
    material to be         Roma – La Realidad
                                                       Material purchase and
       found                   (Imp 2.1)
                                                      transportation (Imp 3.2)
     (Imp 1.1)                                                                               Data tabulation (Ges
                           Official meeting
                           with JBG (Imp              Building water
   Documentation                                           pipe
                                 2.2)                                                          Data attainment in
      finding                                           (imp 3.3)
     (Imp 1.2)                                                                                  Italy (Ges 1.3)
                            planning and             Aquachlor installation (Imp 3.4)
  Territory study to                                                                          Analysis on the data
                            start up (Imp
   install the plant                                                                               (Ges 1.4)
      (Imp 1.3)                                       Water tanks installation (Imp 3.5)
                                                                                              Final drawing up of the
                                                                                                 project (Ges 1.5)
                                                         Plant test (Imp 3.6)


                    Community involvement (For 0.0)                             Energy u

Informative material                     Training courses (For 2.0)      Measuring (Ener
     (For 1.0)

  Creation GL (For 1.1)                    Didactic material delivery       Purchase of
                                           (For 2.1)                         meter (Ener 1
 Collect material
    (For 1.2)
                                           “Aquachlor functioning”                 Electric
                                              course (For 2.2)                      installa
   First elaboration of
  informative material                     Basic maintenance Course          Meter function
        (For 1.3)                                 (For 2.3)                   test (Ener 1.

  Final elaboration of                           Out of ordinary
  informative material                     interventions courses (For
       (For 1.4)                                      2.4)

                                           Check list use formation
    Printing of                                   (For 2.5)
 material (For 1.5)
                                             Practical experience (For

                                             Final evaluation test
                                                   (For 2.7)

                                           Assembly with JBG
                                               (For 2.8)

OSEC - Electrochemical production of chlorine
Electrochemical disinfection is one possible method for water treatment. In this process, oxiding and
bactericidal substances are not added to the water; they are produced from naturally occurring
substances in the water by electrolysis without the requirement for additional chemicals. The oxidizing
substances which are be produced are short-lived, free radical species such as O-, OH- and more stable
substances such as HClO, ClO -, H2O 2, O3, MnO 42-, S2O 82- amongst othersi. On electrochemical
disinfection, the main reaction is the electrolysis of water; hydrogen is produced at the cathode and
oxygen at the anode; the anodic production of hypochlorite is a side reaction.
In electrolytic hypochlorite production from a solution of water and NaCl there are two steps. First, the
primary oxidation of chloride to chlorine at the anode surface:
2Cl- à Cl2 + 2 e-
this is followed by the secondary solution phase reaction:
Cl2(aq) + H2O à HClO + Cl- + H+
Hypochlorous acid can dissociate to form hypochlorite and H+, the relative proportions of which
depend on the pH of the water:
HOCl à ClO- + H+
The process of electrochemical disinfection has several advantages over other more common processes
of water disinfection. Compared with processes such as chlorination by the use of gaseous chlorine or
concentrated hypochlorite solution, no addition of chemicals is necessary. Additionally, the hazards in
handling these chemicals are also avoided. Ozoization and especially ultraviolet irradiation can be very
effective at the point of use but provide little or no residual disinfection capacity.
For an exact adaptation of electrochemical disinfection to the properties of the processed water, it is
necessary to know the dependence of the electrolytic active chlorine production rate on the chloride
concentration, temperature, current density and anode material.

Factors that ensure a project’s sustainability

An important element in a project planning is a study on its impact in the context in which it will take
place. Consequently, it is necessary to undergone an analysis on the different aspect that can influence
the intervention.
Every project must be sustainable that means that the improvement must carries on even after the
project’s conclusion and it must adapt to the environmental, social, economic and technological

Financial Analysis

The financial analysis is aimed at studying the balance between inputs and outputs in order to prevent
that the project stops or fails due to lack of money.
In the ongoing project the risk of a financial failure is extremely low thanks to low production prices
(the only need is to buy salt to make the machine working). Electric energy is produced by micro
hydroelectric turbine in loco. It corresponds to 12 pesos (more or less 0.75 Euros for each production
cycles in which is used 1,5 Kg of salt, out of which is possible to produce 50 liters of chlorine). The
project self finance itself.
The sale price is to be decided by the commission in completely autonomy but it must be lower than
the market sale price (7 pesos liter) and must kept in consideration that there is a different percentage
of chlorine in each of them. The income is shared among the all community, being the Giunta who is
running the activity.

Economic Analysis

It deals with the entire population of the Beneficiary Country. The analysis values income and
outcomes also in social term. The project enables the distribution of disinfectant in the local
communities with a more affordable price for the families. In general, the chlorine-s sale is itself an
income for the collectivity. The Giunta deals with the financial gesture for each village. The non
material improvement is the possibility to control chlorine-s disponibility and the importance of the
conventional market-s autonomy according with the local population process of improvement.

The project within the autonomy building process for the local population
To understand the problem, we will consider 3 different analysis in the next paragraph. The
institutional analysis that deals with the necessity of developing the project with the political and
administrative support of the local institutional bodies. In the Governance Council there must be the
human resources necessaries to guarantee the initiative-s support. The people in charge of the
intervention should be trained appropriately in order to get the necessaries skills. The local participation
is another condition ( he mentioned technicians are, as said before local and they are trained with
awareness training).
The socio-cultural analyses is to be done because the project itself is a response to the beneficiaries
needs and expectation. All the community-s members, especially women, should be involved in the
project and receive profit out of it.

A social political analyses undergone by the Zapatistas to respect the local population-s process of
autonomy. Una di analisi delle questioni politiche-sociali portate avanti dagli zapatisti: rispetto del
percorso di autonomia delle popolazioni indigene.
The project Cloro Rebelde Zapatista (Rebelled Zapatistas Chlorine) was able to act respectfully in
accordance with the previous analysis. A successful relationship was established with the Governance
Council that offered us the necessary human resources both to build the machine-s site and to organize
the training course. The project successfully improved hygienic and sanitarian conditions according to
the community-s needs and there was a good participation, especially a feminine participation. Last but
not least, it worked within the local autonomy and out from the conventional market, developing a self-
production shape.

Technical impact on the community
Technological choice is to be appropriate with the local situation, in terms of services (maintenance
included ), local culture and infrastructure.
In this project, the choice suits the mentioned condition: the machine part could be found in loco for
any replacement, the easy comprehension of the machine use allowed a deep technician preparation,
and the machine was installed with the local infrastructures.

Environmental sustainability
It is important to point out if the project produces negative effects on the environment. This project
has no impact on it, the energy is taken from the local micro hydroelectric system in the village, the
product is realized through electrolysis, without any chemical polluting products . the 0.7 0.8 %
solution maintain the same disinfecting properties of any other commercial products that usually have a
concentration of 3 out of 5 . After the chlorine’s decadence, it can be thrown in the environment with
no consequence.

             3. Saharawi: Environmental Technologies for Desertic Areas

During these years, the CIRPS TpAA has manifested its willing to work with the Saharawi population
that is involved in the Western Sahara question: the Moroccan military occupation and the mined wall
are against the Un decision.
In the refugee camps the Cirps proposed income generation activities such as the production of medals
made up of recycled materials. The Handiworks are promoted in sports activities and events for prize
giving but mainly to build awareness about the Sahrawi population.

Recycling: “No-impact workshop”

Young Sahrawi medals for cultural and sport events project takes place in “27th February” refugee
camp. It deals with projecting and organizing medals’ demand coming from Italy and others countries.
The aim is to promote sport and to offer a job to young Sahrawi people with the support of Italian
colleagues who advertise the product in Italy and abroad.
The intervention strategy is focused on creating new activities linked to a wider consciousness in
Sahrawi question, sport activities and environmental issues.
The workshop produces recycled materials manufactures. Young Sahrawi people reuse the material
they find in houses thank to a consciousness campaign for a correct garbage’s management.
The beneficiaries are all Sahrawi people due to the wider political visibility they gain in the events where
medals are promoted.

“Solar and inclusive garden sto improve Sahrawi subsistence agricolture”
The project’s aim is to help Sahrawi people develop food self-sufficiency in Dakhla camp. Family run
agriculture using drop by drop irrigation and solar energy pump are implemented.
The selected families belong to “Center for Mental disabilities”.

Objective: the project is aimed at helping Sahrawi people develop food self-sufficiency. It is an
example of how photovoltaic technology can be used in remote areas. Every garden is provided with
photovoltaic system to produce electric energy and to extract water. The families involved in the
project are those that already are joining programs for disable people rehabilitation.

Intervention Area: The project takes place in the refugee camp in Tindouf, Algeria, in particular in the
campo of Dahkla. Because of its distance, it is a isolated camp and with less opportunities given by the
international cooperation that is the only resource of development in the area.

General Objective: to improve water access in the desertic area of the Sahrawi refugee camps.
Specific Objective: Water autonomy empowerment in the refugee campo f Dakhla, both for drinking
and irrigation aims.

Expected Results:
       • agricultural production increase in the family and community run gardens in Dahkla.
       • Available water-s increase for agricultural aims in the gardens
       • Better water quality for human use
       • Water Ownership and maintenance skills improved

A1) Hidrogeologic study of the intervention’s area
A2) Socio economical analysis
    A3) Building wells with manual technique and irrigation system
A4) Pomping system installation (photovolthic panels as sources of energy )
    A5) Local human resources training

Sustainability: The project aimed at re-distributing gardens’ production to all the families living in the
camp of Dahkla.
An important element is the economical and technological sustainability. Photovoltaic panels guarantee
water availability without energy costs that due to the electric lack must would be high. From a
technological point of view, camp’s population have got used to their use and this makes the initiative
easier to carry on even after the project-s conclusion.

       4. Solar Energy and Sustainability in Venezuelan Andes Communities

Following the path of the sustainable development, the Bolivarian Government decided to promote
and fund the project of the Venezuelan NGO Caribana to teach to rural Andean communities to self
construct solar panels to heat the water.
Target of this project are the rural communities in the Venezuelan Andes, where poverty and
environmental contamination are problems alive and getting worse.
Often local people don’t use hot water, because the only available water in the area is at freezing
temperature in the water pipes and rivers.
This use of the farmers generates sanitary problems as lack of hygiene and osteoarthritis, scarce
cleanliness of clothes, kitchenware and living environment.
When they decide to heat the water, they use wood or gas, producing environmental phenomena like
deforestation and air pollution. Moreover, the deforestation contributes to the erosion of the soil,
creating further poverty.
Venezuelan Government, aiming to solve this situation and according to the new worldwide
environmental and social sensitivity, decided to support an innovative project.
The purpose is to improve the quality of life of rural people, using clean energy, with no environmental
collateral effects.
The local NGO Caribana, active in the field of social and sustainable tourism, try to promote the local
culture, a social improvement, an ecological innovation and an economic development in the
Venezuelan Andean zone.
Caribana organizes trainings and self construction workshops to instruct the farmers in order to create
their own solar panels. The workshops will be overseen by CIRPS (Interuniversity Centre of
Investigation on Sustainable Development) of the Sapienza, University of Rome.
The project is addressed to four rural communities of the State Mérida, in the Province Rangel:
Gavidia, Mocao, Mixteque and Mitivivò. To make this project really sustainable, all the necessary
materials and components will be available in the nearby area.
After the realization of the panels, the NGO will support the installation in each community and will
realize a monitoring during the time to evaluate impact and benefits of the target families.
Bolivarian Government try in this way to develop a new culture about renewable energy in its
population, enforcing the use of low-impact technologies and using courses and technical training to
empower the skills and education of the farmers.

5. Social impact technologies in the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict
    1. Chlorine Self production and Electrolysis in Gaza.
    2. Information Technology to promote a dialogue within Jerusalem.
    3. Technologies for Disabled people Autonomy in Gaza Strip.

    5.1 Chlorine Self-production plant for effluent water to irrigate in Gaza Strips

The project-s objective was to give the necessaries instruments to guarantee water security to Om El
Nasser inhabitants in terms of irrigation use. In order to obtain the result we realized a study on the
effective water availability within the Gaza Strip and we assembled a plant to self produce chlorine by
electrolysis. Lo scopo di questo progetto è stato quello di fornire gli strumenti necessari per garantire
una sicurezza idrica agli abitanti di Om El- Nasser sul piano dell’irrigazione delle colture. Al fine di
ottenere questo risultato abbiamo realizzato uno studio sulle effettive disponibilità idriche nel territorio
della Striscia di Gaza, ed abbiamo assemblato insieme ai tecnici Palestinesi una macchina per
l’autoproduzione di cloro da elettrolisi.

AIM of the project
Establishment of one grazing area in Umm an-Nasser village
    • Establishment of the farm;
    • Construction of TWWFS;
    • Purchase and distribution of alfalfa seeds;
    • Supply and installation of o-sEC system;
    • Water analysis;
    • Rehabilitation works for land;
    • equipments construction of TWWFS;
    • Provision and installation of o-sEC;
    • Materials and equipments for grazing area;

    • Escalation of the conflict due to rise of Israeli military attacks and internal clashes.
    • Increase of the intensity of the conflict with Israel
    • Eretz crossing closure for internationals, delaying in the implementation of the activities;

    • Project time extension - Increasing supporting costs
    • Impossibility to access areas adjacent to the “Buffer Zone” due to Israeli Military Army
        jeopardizing acts
    • Lack of cooperation by Bedouin Associations, or communities
    • Destruction of works and equipments by the Army after the intervention.

The Research Unit CIRPS TpAA (Self-Reliance and Environment Technologies of the Inter-University Research
Centre on Sustainable Development – Sapienza University of Rome) provided a technical and scientific
collaboration to the NGO CRIC             within the project "Improving living conditions of Bedouin
communities living in Gaza Strip by enhancing the most vulnerable households economy and food
security" (cod: ECHO/-ME/BUD/2007/02033).
During the week between the 7th and 14th October 2008, in Umm an-Nasser village, CIRPS and
Palestinian Hydrology Group collaborated in order to carry out the following activities within point
A.1.b. Establishment of one grazing area in Umm an-Nasser village:
    • Assistance to the installation of an On Site Electro Chlorination System.
    • Training on OSEC system use and maintenance and water disinfection
    • Awareness Course on “Use of Water and Household Hygiene”

The technical mission had been carried out by Andrea Micangeli, PhD, lecturer on “Sustainable
Development and International Cooperation” at Sapienza University of Rome. The awareness Course
had been carried out by Dr. Irene Costantini (Linguistic and Cultural Mediation Degree) and Dr.
Simona Fernandez (Political Science Degree).

     1. Diplomas Delivery      2.OSEC installation Course            3.Beneficiary Course

Assistance to the installation of the OSEC Plant

   The OSEC Plant (send by Gaia Research Company) has been assembled together with the local
partners (PHG and the Municipality of Umm an-Nasser). This unit operates in continuous flow mode
generating an equivalent chlorine amount of 125 g per hour.
During the course training it was shown as the hypochlorite solution storage tank has always a chlorine
concentration that is constant irrespective of the operating hours or number of interruptions. OSEC
Plant is working and analyses on water and solutions has been done: the installation achieved
successfully 20g/l of production.

4. Electrolytic Cell        5. Assembling    6. Hipocloride Production   7. Explanation

“On site electro-Chlorination course on Use, Maintenance and Water disinfection”

In the introduction lesson, technicians took the entry survey in order to test their knowledge about
chlorination and OSEC.
Each piece has been explained theoretically and with practical examples (pict.7) composing the unit to
make them aware of its complexity. The unit has been assembled and they took a first analysis: the
plant immediately worked.
They could see the plant working and we carried out various investigations on treated water and free
residual chlorine.
We discussed together with the beneficiaries some technical specification as:
     • Electrolytic Cell equipped with DSA electrodes (titanium coated with noble metals oxides)
     • Equivalent chlorine production: not less than 125 g/hour
     • Other Chlorine concentrations: 6 – 7 g/L
     • Brine composition: clean and clear water added with 3 % sodium chloride salt.
     • Recommended type of salt: common salt (table salt) or salt from sea (solar salt). Avoid rock salt:
          too rich in calcium sulphate which causes scale deposits.
     • Brine flow rate: 24 L/hour
     • Salt consumption: 720 g/hour

    • Brine preparation capacity: 440 L
    • Sodium hypochlorite storage: 120 L
    • Power supply(of constant current type, input 220 V, 50 Hz, single phase; output 25 V, 25 Amp)
    • power input
    • Scale protection
We discussed together with the technicians and water managers OSEC’s usage. We carried out other
investigation on treated water.
We discuss OSEC Plant maintenance’ s problems and organization.
The necessary maintenance regards the formation of scale deposits (calcium carbonate) in the
electrolytic cell and on its outlet piping. During electrolysis at the cathode the calcium salts (bicarbonate
and sulphate) become insoluble (due to high pH) and precipitate forming a solid deposit on the
cathode. The polarity reversal produces a dissolution of this deposit (at the anode the pH is acidic). In
this way the electrode is maintained clean, but part of this precipitates flows into the outlet piping of
the electrolytic cell and, if in large quantity, could cause a possible obstruction to the liquid flow.
Therefore the maintenance consist in checking the scale formation in the outlet pipes of the electrolytic
cell, which are transparent. and we left time to answer specific questions. The technician took the
impact text and SOTU test (Survey on technology users) at the end of the lesson.

Awareness Course “Lecture on Use of Water in Agricultural and in Household Hygiene”

Introduction lesson: We showed to the 35 beneficiaries of grazing area in Umm an-Nasser village the
global access to water, underlying its importance. We developed a discussion between us and the
beneficiaries trying to understand the situation of water access in the Umm an-Nasser village. We
proposed some pictures to introduce the following questions to the public:
    • Where do you bring water? From which kind of sources? Who brings water?
    • How much water do you use for domestic use?
    • How much water do you use for drinking? Eating?
    • Where do you store water at home?

    • Do you clean water tank? How many times in a week?
    • How do you preserve water well or pipes?
    • Do you think that certain diseases are caused by lack of water?
    • Do you think that certain diseases are transmitted by dirty water?
    • Are food cases utilized only for this purpose?
    • Are water tanks utilized only for this purpose?
    • Are water tanks utilized only for this purpose?
    • Which kind of latrines are available?
    • Where do you wash your clothes?
    • We introduced to them the main features in order to recognize drinking water:
    • Chemical characteristic: rubbish contamination
    • Physical characteristics: temperature and being without solid material
    • Microbiological characteristics: faecal contamination
    • Organoleptic characteristics: odourless and colourless
We introduced certain kind of rudimental filters people can easily build without any technical tools or
knowledge: sand filters, candle filters, cloth filters, porous stone filters.

5.2 Information Technology to promote a dialogue in Jerusalem

                                            A divided city

                Relevance of                                            Unsolved issue in
                 ethnic and                                             the peace process
             religious identities

              Separation of the                                        Endemic situation
                communities                                             of insecurity and
               within the same                                               tension

                       WITHIN THE CIVIL SOCIETY


       The principal objective of the research is to investigate how people react to the difficult private
and public life-s management in the city of Jerusalem.
        It means an attempt to find and search on the solutions given by the society in a bottom-up
dynamic to a still unsolved issue in the area conflict, both in accordance or not with the governative
policies. Focusing on citizens is a chance to better understand the real needs of the city and the
priorities to promote coexistence. In particular, the research has a special stress on young adults
participation(target age 18 30) in the decision processes and in their future’s determination. Among
those that will run the city of tomorrow, the search for a better life should be more affective.
       As a consequence, the specific aim is to offer an comprehensive overview of the different
associations working in Jerusalem, their different ways to play role, as their petition and impact.
Through this study, I will verify the existence of meeting and gathering’s spaces, as well as a dialogue

that involves different identities in the same civil society. Furthermore, the effort to work together or in
the same organization or in the project to create a share activity that could help in normalization of the
city management.
        Focusing the study on young adults association means researching on the new media through
which they can have a dialogue. As all previous changes in technology, also the Internet has undergone
a change in our state of being. My intention is to investigate its role in civil society. Beside the search on
real meeting spaces, the research will deals also with virtual spaces> communities, blogs, forums,
discussion. The material found on the Internet will be integrated by qualitative interviews but also a
survey (on-paper and on-line) to collect interesting data.

                                        STUDYING THE
                                        EXISTANCE OF
                                         A DIALOGUE
                                        ISRAELIS AND

         Dialogue promoted                                           Dialogue
           by governative                                         promoted by civil
               actors                                                 actors

                                                   Israeli                             Palestinian
                                              associations that                     associations that
                                             promoted dialogue                     promoted dialogue

                                                                  associations that
                                                                 promoted dialogue

                                                              Spaces and structures

                                                              Projects and activities

                                                            Young adults partecipation

                                                            Tecnhology of aggregation

Project paper:

1) introduction (theoretical studies)
1.1 studying civil society and its role in determining government’s policies (in the Middle East area)

1.2 studying the different ways in which the civil society can organize itself (Ngos, centers, informal

2) Development (in loco study)
2.1 finding out the associations working in Jerusalem
2.2 studying their programs, spaces, and structures.
2.3 pointing out young adults participation in the process.
2.4 finding out young adults meeting places (and consequently mutual perspective)
2.5 pointing out the Internet utilize in civil society: new challenges, opportunities, and risks.

3) Conclusion (theoretical and in loco study)
3.1 presenting the situation in is overall, offering the perspective that has proved to be the most
3.2 make a comparison of the different experiences
3.3 the impact that this experience could have on governative policies.

5.3 Social Research on Disabled people’s Technologies in Palestina
The analysis of the old city in Jerusalem leads to the consciousness that inside it there are lots of
barriers that divide the city in its quarters. We can find the Muslim, the Armenian, the Christian and the
Jewish one. The aim of my project is to study the reality inside each one of the quarters and then
building up a comprehensive vision to point out that an integration is possible.
Inside this analysis it will be interesting to see how each community consider the disability from a
religious point of view and how much it influence the integration of disabled people in their society.
The autonomy technology is the system of process and products for an improvement of the self-
sufficient access condition to the fundamental services in an emergency context. It deals mainly with
two issues: the community autonomy and the individual autonomy, with reference to the bio-psycho
social approach as it has been defined by the World Health Organization (2002).
       The WHO is an important space because thanks to an accord that was signed in 2001 within the
association, the medical (disability as an object to be cured) and the social model (disability as an
exclusion tool) are no more considered two divided issues. This integrated model put together the
personal medical component and the environmental and social one. It is due to this innovation that we
still not say handicap, too body-centre concept, but limited access or social exclusion.
       Gaza Strip is everyday worse and generally when someone speaks about Gaza it is considered
the economic isolation and the conflict related problem.

       In Gaza there are first of all people and their struggles are not only for food, health and
minimum quality of life is hard to reach for anyone and for disable people impossible.
       Generally the Israeli barrier must be open for critically ill, but when are critically disable people?
       the answer of this question is impossible, because it is a wrong question, disable people, with
mental or physical problem, must have a lot of attention not only for their illness, they must have the
same possibility of the other in the life, in communication, in mobility in one word: participation.
       In Gaza Strip this means to improve people, organizations and independence.
       For this CIRPS department studied this project to help by technologies and education the
already existing movement for disabled people rights in Gaza.
       New degree students disabled and not, have to work together with disable people to improve
technology for communication, and civil rights.
       It’s important to give the chance to the disable student not only to receive assistance, but also to
study in a Master level course and give them the possibility to find a work for the future.
       The degree student has to attend the course from different faculties because they can be able to
work with, economic, medical, political, and assistance capacity, but at the end they must be able to join
all these subject to improve Disabled participation spreading from in Gaza Universities.
       To join the struggle for human rights in Palestine with the most appropriate technologies and
tool case the following steps have been selected:

       Part A: International study
• Study the International Convention on the human right of person with disability (2007)
• Study of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health of WHO (2003).
• Understanding concept of “discrimination” of the person with disability.
• Understanding concept of “reasonable accommodation”
• Study the architecture of the place in which they live and project an accessibility solution for the place.
• Give to student the possibility to understand the specific English word in this contest.

Part B: Studies on Gaza cases of people with disability.
• Analyse with the student the case around the world in which this type of study is operative.
• Give them the capacity of analyse Gaza’s situation and project in this contest and with that possibility.
• Study and analyse the society: start with the study of the real situation and try to find solution to
improve it.
• Helping families by psychology support and educational course to suggest how to help their son.
• Helping civil society in the prevention.

Bioghraphical Notes
Andrea Micangeli, Ph.D is the coordinator of the unit Self-Reliance and Environment Technologies at
"Sapienza" University of Rome, within CIRPS (Research Centre on Sustainable Development). Since 1994 he has
been working to promote sustainable development both in Italy and in social instability context.
At the moment, he is running and coordinating several projects in different areas, among which:
    • Sahrawi Refugee Camps (Algeria), sustainable agriculture with drop to drop irrigation system,
        recycling dump material and promote sports thanks to the production of medals sold in sport
    • Gaza Strip, technical assistance and training course for the installation of (self-producing
        chlorine plant) to implement the use of effluent water to cultivate.
    • Mucuchies Venezuela, promoting solar panel system to develop sustainable development.
    • Chad, reforestation project and collecting data for Gis.
    • In Italy, he is running a project aimed at providing solar energy through solar panels to 15
He experienced other different activities in the previous years, providing drinking water in Basra, Iraq,
mycrohidroeletric production in Chiapas, implementing autonomy for disabled people in Afghanistan
and East Europe.
His activities within the University, lectures, research and research-applications strengthen his
experience in cooperation. He teaches in the Faculty of Engineering and Psychology. He is in the
professor board of six master courses in renewable energetic technologies and in project management
for cooperation and international crisis.

Dr. Irene Costantini (Linguistic and Cultural Mediation Degree)
Ongoing postgraduate master degree in Oriental Studies. She deals with Arabic world, culture and
development. She took part in the cooperation project “Chlorine Self-production plant for effluent
water to irrigate in Gaza Strips”. Currently she is carrying out the research “Information Technology to
promote a dialogue within Jerusalem”. She works on technology from a social and cultural point of
view as an applied toll to develop social awareness.

Dr. Simona Fernandez (Political Science Degree)

Ongoing postgraduate master degree in Political Science. She deals with International cooperation in
the Arab World. She took part in the cooperation project “Chlorine Self-production plant for effluent

water to irrigate in Gaza Strips”. Currently she is carrying out the research “Social Research on
Disabled people’s autonomy in Jerusalem”. She works on technology from a psycho-social point of
view with a particular focus on disable people’s issue.

CIRPS - TpAA (Tecnologie per l'Autonomia e l'Ambiente)
Self-Reliance and Environment Technologies - "Sapienza" University of Rome
Via Tommaso Grossi 6, 00184 Roma - Italy
tel. +39.06 8745201, cell.+39.338.8153787, fax +39 06 87452050
skype: andrea.micangeli


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