Advances in Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Appliances, Lighting and

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					Advances in Energy Efficiency in Buildings,
  Appliances, Lighting and Equipment:
    Technology, Policy and Networks

                       Stephen Wiel
               Head, Energy Analysis Department
                  http://eetd.lbl.gov/EA



       United Nations Workshop on Energy Efficiency, Global
                 Competitiveness & Deregulation
                       February 1, 2000
 Most Products That Will Use Energy in
Buildings in 2020 Have Not Yet Been Built

                                                  End Use Energy Consumption in 2020
                                     100%
   Energy Consumption (% of total)




                                     90%
                                                              New stock
                                     80%
                                                              Stock pre-2000
                                     70%

                                     60%

                                     50%

                                     40%

                                     30%

                                     20%

                                     10%

                                      0%
                                            United States                       China
There are Over 100 Different Uses of Energy
   in Residential Buildings -- the Top 25
                                                      End-use     Cumulative
       Ranking         Product             TWh/yr
                                                     % of total    % of total
           1        Color Tel evisi on       26.33      11.2%         11.2%
           2          Furnace Fan            21.44       9.1%         20.3%
           3        Water bed Heater         13.16       5.6%         25.9%
           4        Torchiere Lamp           11.91       5.1%         31.0%
           5        Mi cr owave oven         11.28       4.8%         35.8%
           6         Auto-Dr ip Coffee        9.40       4.0%         39.8%
           7       Clotheswasher M otor       7.85       3.3%         43.1%
           8        Dishwasher Motor          7.41       3.2%         46.3%
           9             Ceil ing Fan         7.00       3.0%         49.3%
          10     Video Cassette Recorder      6.94       3.0%         52.3%
          11            Pool Pump             6.43       2.7%         55.0%
          12       Cr ankcase Heater          5.85       2.5%         57.5%
          13     Compact Audi o System        5.03       2.1%         59.6%
          14            Cable Box             4.96       2.1%         61.7%
          15           Well Pump              4.76       2.0%         63.7%
          16               Ir on              4.53       1.9%         65.6%
          17      Spa Heater and Pump         4.48       1.9%         67.5%
          18       Rack Audio System          4.40       1.9%         69.4%
          19          Dehumi di fi er         4.37       1.9%         71.3%
          20           Aq uar ium             4.17       1.8%         73.1%
          21     Home Secur ity System        3.80       1.6%         74.7%
          22        Electr ic Blanket         3.49       1.5%         76.2%
          23        Home Computer             3.31       1.4%         77.6%
          24            Toaster               3.26       1.4%         79.0%
          25       Evaporati ve Cooler        3.23       1.4%         80.4%
…And Their Use is Increasing
There’s a Wide Range of Energy Efficiency
     in a Typical Unregulated Market




   source: Adnot and Orphelin, Energy efficiency of room air-conditioners
         Regulatory Energy Policy
       Can Increase Energy Efficiency:
     Three Lessons Learned from 25 Years
           of LBNL Policy Analyses
   Appliance standards and labels are the most cost-
    effective energy policy
   Appliance standards and labels set market rules --
    then let market ingenuity find the best technology
   Appliance standards and labels are effective in
    conjunction with most other energy policies and
    should be the backbone of every country’s energy
    policy portfolio
Labels and Appliance Standards Work
   Together to Transform Markets

 Number of
 Models
                          Market Push
                          with Standards

                                           Market Pull
                                           with Labels




                                                 Energy
       Minimum Standard                          Efficiency
Regulation Effectively Narrows the
   Range of Energy Efficiency




                      )
Appliance Standards and Labels Improve
     Energy Efficiency Dramatically
  Average Energy Consumption of New Refrigerators in the U.S.
      Appliance Standards and Labels
      Can Benefit National Economies:
       Impact in the US from 1990 to 2010

Cumulative   net dollar savings = $33 to $49 billion
Primary   energy savings = 10.6 to 12.7 exajoules
 (5.1 to 6.1% of 2010 residential energy use)
Average   benefit/cost ratio = 3.5 to 4.6
 Each federal dollar contributes $160 to $220 of net
 savings to the US economy
 Annual carbon reductions = 9 to 16 million metric tons
 of carbon/year (from 2000 through 2010)
There is Huge Potential for Reducing
 Energy Use in Buildings Worldwide
        Use of Appliance Standards and Labels
                     is Spreading
   U.S. - mandatory standards since 1975, starting in California
   Russia - standards since 1978; recently initiated collaboration with U.S. to update
   Japan - one target-based standard in 1979; lots more in 1994
   Taipei China - many voluntary, some mandatory standards since 1980
   Australia - mandatory labels since 1986
   China - many mandatory standards since 1989
   India - voluntary labels since 1991; voluntary standards since 1997
   Korea - many mandatory labels and standards since 1992
   Philippines - mandatory labels and standards for RAC since 1993
   Thailand - voluntary labels since 1994
   Switzerland - target-based standards since 1994
   Mexico - mandatory labels and standards since 1995
   Hong Kong - voluntary labels since 1995
   Canada - mandatory labels and standards since 1995
   Singapore, Indonesia, New Zealand, South Korea - recently proposed or enacted
   EU countries - some standards 1962 to 1980; EU labels since 1995;                  standards
    proposed for 2000
    Emphasis on Efficiency Standards and
           Labels is Increasing
   "Within the broad area of the changes required in the energy systems of both
    developing and developed countries, UNF has chosen two specific
    programmatic areas which would have a highly leveraged impact on the future
    development patterns of the developing world: energy efficiency labeling and
    standards, and community-based rural electrification using sustainable energy
    technologies"
                   United Nations Foundation Strategic Discussion on
                   Environment- Climate Change, Executive Summary, 1999

   "Reduce energy use of new buildings in developing and transition economies by
    2020 by assisting them to develop efficiency standards, ratings and labeling for
    building equipment as well as design tools, energy codes, and standards for
    building shells. Encourage multilateral banks and the Global Environment
    Facility in support of these measures"
                    PCAST Initiative on Buildings (in its entirety), 1999
Several Organizations are Sponsoring
International Labeling and Standards
              Programs

         USAID
         UN Foundation
         Energy Foundation/Packard
          Foundation
         US EPA
         US DOE
      LBNL and Others Have Formed a New
       Collaborative Labeling and Appliance
           Standards Program (CLASP)
Mission: Increase the design, implementation and enforcement of
     energy efficiency standards and labels for residential &
     commercial appliances, equipment & lighting in developing and
     transitional countries
Partners:   Alliance to Save Energy
            International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC)
            Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)
Affiliates: Testing Laboratories
            Industry
            Research Organizations
            Universities
            NGOs
CLASP and UN/DESA are Undertaking a
 Global Program to Promote Labels and
          Appliance Standards
       Program Development
          Scoping Study and Program Plan
          Regional Conferences
       Global Tools and Information Preparation
          Guidebook
          Operational Toolkit
          Clearinghouse/Web Site
       Assistance to Individual Country Governments
          Definitional Missions
          Technical Assistance
          Measurement and Verification of Impacts