Chapter 1 Practical nursing skills a caring approach by rlb42650

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									           CONTENTS
           Contributors                                                                       x
           Preface to the third edition                                                      xi
           Acknowledgements                                                                 xiii
           The colour plates referred to in Chapter 7 appear between pages 270 and 271

           Chapter 1: Practical nursing skills: a caring approach                             1
           What are practical nursing skills?                                                1
           Practical skills included in this book and the use of practice scenarios          4
           Practical skills: affective, cognitive and motor dimensions                       5
           A caring approach to practical nursing skills                                     8
           Cultural competence and practical nursing skills                                 12
           Patient/client dignity and practical nursing skills                              14
           How can you develop your practical nursing skills?                               17
           Recommended reading                                                              25
           Chapter summary                                                                  25
           References                                                                       26
           Useful websites                                                                  29

           Chapter 2: The nurse’s approach and communication: foundations for
             compassionate care                                                             30
           Practice scenarios                                                               30
           Understanding what influences the nurse’s approach to care                       32
           The communication process                                                        41
           Developing and maintaining therapeutic relationships                             49
           Communication in challenging situations                                          54
           Chapter summary                                                                  61
           References                                                                       62

           Chapter 3: Preventing cross-infection                                            65
           Practice scenarios                                                               66
           Principles for preventing healthcare-associated infection: an introduction       67
           Hospital environmental hygiene and multi-use equipment                           74
           Hand hygiene                                                                     76
           Use of personal protective equipment, including gloves, aprons and gowns         84
           Aseptic technique                                                                88
           Specimen collection                                                              92
           Isolation procedures                                                             97
           Sharps disposal                                                                 103
           Healthcare waste disposal and linen management                                  106
           Chapter summary                                                                 112
           Acknowledgement                                                                 112
           References                                                                      112

           Chapter 4: Measuring vital signs                                               116
           Practice scenarios                                                              117
           Equipment required for this chapter                                             118



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            vi    Contents

           Measuring and recording temperature                                   118
           Measuring and recording the pulse                                     126
           Measuring and recording respirations                                  130
           Measuring and recording blood pressure                                134
           Measuring oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry                         141
           Neurological assessment                                               145
           Chapter summary                                                       154
           Acknowledgement                                                       155
           References                                                            155

           Chapter 5: Administering medicines                                   158
           Practice scenarios                                                    159
           Legal and professional issues in medicine administration              160
           Safety, storage and general principles of medicine administration     168
           Administering oral medication                                         173
           Applying topical medication                                           176
           Administering medication by injection routes                          180
           Administering inhaled and nebulised medication                        190
           Intravenous fluid and blood administration                            197
           Calculating medicine and intravenous fluid administration doses       201
           Preventing and managing anaphylaxis                                   206
           Chapter summary                                                       207
           Answers to exercises                                                  208
           References                                                            209
           Chapter 6: Caring for people with impaired mobility                  213
           Practice scenarios                                                    214
           Pressure ulcer risk assessment                                        215
           Pressure ulcer prevention                                             223
           Prevention of other complications of immobility                       229
           Key principles of moving and handling patients                        235
           Assisting with mobilisation and preventing falls                      237
           Chapter summary                                                       242
           References                                                            242
           Chapter 7: Principles of wound care                                  247
           Practice scenarios                                                    248
           The phases of wound healing                                           249
           Classification of wounds and wound closure                            254
           Factors affecting wound healing                                       258
           Wound assessment                                                      263
           Wound management                                                      269
           Chapter summary                                                       281
           Acknowledgement                                                       282
           References                                                            282
           Useful websites                                                       286
           Chapter 8: Meeting hygiene needs                                     287
           Practice scenarios                                                    288
           Rationale for meeting hygiene needs and potential hazards             289



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                                                                                                  Contents      vii
            Bathing a person in bed                                                                            292
            Washing a person’s hair in bed                                                                     298
            Bathing and showering in the bathroom                                                              300
            Facial shaving                                                                                     305
            Oral hygiene                                                                                       307
            Last offices                                                                                       314
            Chapter summary                                                                                    318
            Acknowledgement                                                                                    318
            References                                                                                         318
            Chapter 9: Meeting elimination needs                                                              321
            Practice scenarios                                                                                 322
            Assisting with elimination: helping people to use the toilet, bedpans, urinals and commodes        323
            Urinalysis                                                                                         330
            Collecting urine and stool specimens                                                               335
            Caring for people with urinary catheters                                                           342
            Preventing and managing constipation                                                               356
            Stoma care                                                                                         364
            Promoting continence and managing incontinence                                                     371
            Chapter summary                                                                                    386
            Acknowledgement                                                                                    387
            References                                                                                         387
            Chapter 10: Assessing and meeting nutritional needs                                               394
            Practice scenarios                                                                                 395
            Nutrition in healthcare: addressing the concerns                                                   396
            Recognising the contribution of nutrition to health                                                398
            Promoting healthy eating in care settings                                                          403
            Nutritional screening                                                                              406
            Assisting people with eating and drinking                                                          413
            Additional nutritional support strategies                                                          419
            Enteral and parenteral feeding                                                                     422
            Chapter summary                                                                                    433
            Acknowledgement                                                                                    433
            References                                                                                         433
            Chapter 11: Assessing physical health and responding to sudden deterioration                      436
            Practice scenarios                                                                                 437
            Equipment required for this chapter                                                                439
            Recognising and responding to deteriorating patients/clients: an overview                          439
            Airway management problems and related skills                                                      444
            Breathing problems and related skills                                                              454
            Circulatory problems and related skills                                                            462
            Unconsciousness and related skills                                                                 471
            Chapter summary                                                                                    477
            References                                                                                         477
            Useful websites                                                                                    480
            Chapter 12: Managing pain and promoting comfort                                                   481
            Practice scenarios                                                                                 482
            Managing pain in a variety of settings                                                             483



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            viii    Contents

            Promoting comfort     503
            Chapter summary       513
            References            513
            Useful websites       517
            Appendix              518

            Index                520




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