This is PR by Cappadona

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									Chapter 11
Tactics and Techniques:
Details That Make PR Strategy Work
Chapter Objectives

   Appreciate the distinctions among
    various tactics and techniques, and
    their requirements for preparing
   Recognize the best tactics and
    techniques for mass media
   Understand how journalists and
    media workers and PR practitioners
    work together.
Chapter Objectives cont.

   Develop sensitivity to how cultural
    differences among audiences can
    affect the way PR messages are
    interpreted and perceived.
PR’s Primary Tactics

   Advertising
   Publicity
   Hybrids that include a bit of both

   Paid-for time or space
   Except for PSAs, which are time and
    space donated to a nonprofit
    organization or cause
   May look like publicity: special
    section that includes what looks like
    editorial copy as well as ads
   Controlled

   Handled by editorial staffs of news
   Editorial copy
   Uncontrolled
Special Editorial Sections

   Combination of advertising and publicity
   Display advertising
   Editorial copy devoted to a particular topic
    or event, written by or for those who
    have paid for the display ads
   May look very much like “regular” print
   Broadcast version is an advertorial or

   Publicity-generating copy
   Placed through advertising staff
    (print) or public service director
    (radio and TV)
   Space or time donated by media to
    nonprofit organizations or nonprofit
    events sponsored by commercial
Preparing Successful Ads

   Be clear about the purpose.
   Be clear about which public you are
   Use an organization’s logo to create
    identity with the ad unless it might
    be misunderstood in cross-cultural
Publications as Publicity

   Brochures
   In-house magazines, newspapers,
   Annual reports
   All may be used to generate
Producing Brochures

   Determine purpose and audience.
   Determine distribution.
   Visualize, with mockup, what the
    brochure might look like.
   Determine what needs to be said,
    and whether it can best be said with
    text or visuals.
Producing Brochures cont.

   Decide about design features: color,
    paper, type.
   Create text and gather visuals.
   Enlist layout artist or handle design
    and layout directly using a
   Obtain printer estimates.
   Proofread, edit, proofread again.
   Distribute.
Producing House Publications

   They are distributed to employees
    or members: internal audiences.
   Determine purpose.
   Determine budget.
   Determine format – newsletter,
    tabloid, magazine – after studying
    media habits of audience.
   Determine distribution.
Producing House Publications cont.

   Develop content: both what the
    audience wants to know and what it
    needs to know.
        questionnaire or other research
        technique can be used to survey
        may use employee correspondents or
        PR staff only
   Prepare a mockup: text, visuals,
   Obtain printer estimates.
Producing House Publications cont.

   Design, edit, proof.
   Distribute.
Producing Annual Reports

   Shared task of PR and financial
   PR is communications expert, and is
    responsible for design and language
   Financial officer is fiscal expert, and
    is responsible for the content
   Key consideration is report’s impact
    on priority publics: investors,
    financial community, SEC
Producing Annual Reports cont.

   Planning begins almost a year in
    advance: report is a process almost
    as much as it is a publication
   May be distributed in printed form
    but also in digital or video formats
   A separate version may be done for
    internal audiences
Content of Annual Reports

   Letter from the CEO
   Auditor’s report
   Financial statements
   Narrative section commenting on the
    year’s operations and accomplishments
   Photos and charts
   The best also include an “executive
    summary” that boils everything down to a
    concise, clear summary
Speeches as Publicity

   Executive speech may receive one-
    time media coverage
   Speech may be videotaped and
    distributed to target audiences
   Text of speech may be reprinted in
    brochure format and distributed to
    target publics
   Copies of the speech may be
    distributed internally
Speech Checklist

   Set up a day ahead of time.
   Find out what events are going on next
    door, and get them (or your event)
    moved if needed to avoid noise
   Check out the sound system.
   Check out the lighting.
   Check access to electrical outlets.
   Check out the projection, computer
Speech Checklist cont.

   Make sure proper chairs, tables,
    etc. are on hand and placed
   Arrange for water, glasses.
   Locate nearest restrooms,
   Prepare name tags.
   Set up registration area, and have
    ready a list of guests invited.
Speech Checklist cont.

   Provide place cards or seating
   Prepare an agenda/program of all
    activities to take place during the
    event, and distribute to all
   Prepare information kits for
Special Events as Publicity

   Speeches
   Open houses
   Celebrations
   Celebrity visits
   Conventions or trade shows
Planning Special Events

   Start planning early: for large
    events, a year in advance is not too
   Create a blueprint plan and a
       assign every detail
       walk through the event mentally to
        make sure you don’t overlook anything
   Form committees or groups to
    implement the plan.
Planning Special Events cont.

   Use company artists, designers,
    copywriters, exhibit specialists, etc
    when they exist and are available.
   Provide special attractions to ensure
    attendance: celebrities, concerts,
    exhibits, tours, awards, prizes, etc.
   Provide giveaways and souvenirs.
   Arrange to move people to and from
    the event.
Planning Special Events cont.

   Publicize the event well in advance,
    using advertising to supplement as
   Thank everyone when the event is
Publicizing Special Events

   Establish a timetable to ensure that all
    details are addressed.
   Prepare mailing lists for media and
   Plan the promotional plan in detail: which
    information will go to which media in
    what formats.
        consider all formats of information:
        advertising, publicity, letterhead, invitations,
        posters, etc.
Publicizing Special Events cont.

   Develop a media kit: mailed in
    advance, handed out at event,
    mailed after the fact to no-shows.
   Set up a newsroom if live coverage
    is anticipated.
   After the event, send clippings,
    stories to special, trade publications
    and special audiences such as
    shareholders to extend coverage.
Visual Presentations

   Using easel pads
        remember to provide markers
        plan ahead for how to display multiple
        pages if you want people to see all the
        ideas jotted down on pages of the easel
   Using overhead projectors
        transparencies must be readable from
        a distance
        few words, lots of charts, graphs,
Visual Presentations cont.

   Using PowerPoint slides
        type size should be large for legibility
        provide handout that is a copy of
        slides used
        may be transferred to CD or digital file
        for further distribution
Audio Presentations

   Thoroughly test the equipment.
   Rent high quality equipment if the
    equipment provided by the meeting
    space is poor.
   Keep it simple and direct for easy
Institutional Video, Film

   Be specific about needs: audience,
    purpose, etc.
   May be done by in-house staff or by
    outside specialists
   May be video version of a previously
    produced printed publication (like
    annual report)
Judging Video Quality

   Attention span: gripping?
   Subject: adequately covered?
   Audience suitability: properly
   Visuals: quality? clarity?
   Timeliness: visuals, text up to date?
   Talent: participants, actors
   Sound: appropriate? balanced?
       Judging Video Quality cont.

   Editing: flow? pace?
   Script content: right quantity of words vs
   Believability: honest? plausible?
Celebrity Appearances

   Celebrity presence guarantees
   May make arrangements through
    agent or through organization with
    which celebrity is involved
   Request bio info, photos for pre-
    appearance publicity
   Provide all background info to
    celebrity or agent
Celebrity Appearances cont.

   Provide special amenities: from
    limousine to special foods to special
    host or “handler” assigned for the
   Develop a schedule and stick to it
Criteria for Successful Publicity

       Is it important to the medium’s
        audience? Is it local (if a local
       Is it timely?
       Is it accurate, truthful and
Judging Value of Publicity Info

   Does it have news value?
   Does it have human interest?
   Does it have humor?
   Does it meet the needs of the
   Is it being delivered to the media at
    an appropriate time in their
PR Wire Services

   Carry PR news directly into
    newsrooms, often computer to
   Distribute both text and video
   Can result in national, even
    international coverage
   Can also result in greater credibility
    for PR sources because material is
    carefully checked, re-checked
PR Wire Services cont.

   Some also include clipping,
    videotaping, monitoring services
   Disadvantage: don’t always know
    who received
   May deliver digital photos as well as
PR and the Internet

   A “network of networks” that no one
   Distributes text but also sound and
    video content
   Many organizations maintain Web
    sites that are used for
    communication, sales, etc.
Web Sites

   Method of attractively presenting
    organization to millions around the
   Consulting, Web design firms
    available to develop sites if in-house
    capacity lacking
   Because of its 24/7 nature, it is
    available on demand
   It’s also cheaper than most
    advertising and publicity
Web Sites cont.

   Webmaster must constantly update,
   Develop a happy medium between
    breadth and depth
Media Relations Work

       Requires some basic training in
        journalistic techniques for
        gathering, reporting information
       Requires being able to identify news
       Requires keeping background,
        historical, “factoid” material ready
        at all times
       Requires familiarity with intended
        media target: style, timing, content
Materials for Media

   News releases
        must identify with target media definition of
        must be prepared in appropriate style, form
        must be prepared with media schedules in
   Photos, illustrations
        some media will accept photos, others prefer
        to take their own
        be careful of arrangements re who owns the
        photos or illustrations
        know media specifications
Materials for Media cont.

   Video news releases
        often outsourced, especially to
        enhance international distribution
   Information based on promotions
       often referred to as “marketing PR”
   Publicity spin-offs
   Celebrity spin-offs
Relationships With Media People

   A good PR person knows a journalist’s job
    almost as well as the journalist.
   A good PR person knows which specific
    journalist covers his/her organization,
    industry, etc. and maintains contact even
    when there is no news.
   A good PR person develops a media list of
    relevant reporters, editors and keeps it
Relationships With Media People cont.

   A good PR person is available to a
    journalist whenever the journalist
    needs information or assistance.
   A good PR person immediately
    responds to media requests or
Relationships With Production Pros

   Good PR people know and
    understand the production process:
    for print, for broadcast, for digital
   Good PR people are able to
    articulate clearly what they want.
   Good PR people understand that the
    higher the quality of work desired,
    the higher the cost.
Relationships With Other PR Pros

   An in-house PR practitioner may
    have to work with an agency
    brought in for a special project or
   Who is responsible for what must be
    spelled out immediately to avoid
    confusion and misunderstanding
    between client and PR services
Relationships With Freelancers

   PR people may be asked by a
    freelancer to provide information
    and/or access.
        check out their legitimacy first
        make sure both you and the writer
        agree on scope, focus of article
   PR people may hire freelancers to
    write for the organization.

   PR people arrange contracts with
    suppliers of services: freelancers,
    printers, AV services, etc.
   Everything should be spelled out,
    including deadlines.
Media Interviews

   Role of PR practitioner
        preparer: briefs executive to be
        interviewed, provides information to
        facilitators: arranges interview,
        provides follow-up information,
        clarifier: interprets facts, technical
        PR person should not inject
        himself/herself into the interview
Interview Guidelines for PR People

   Select an appropriate place for the
    interview: comfortable for interviewee.
   Allow sufficient time for interviewer to
    complete the assignment.
   Know the topic of discussion and have
    supporting material, info on hand.
   Coach the person being interviewed
    beforehand as to what questions to
Interview Guidelines for PR People cont.

   Know the reporter’s habits and quirks,
    and brief the interview subject. And vice
    versa: brief the reporter on the subject of
    the interview.
   Set ground rules for the interview and
    make sure both parties understand them.
       is anything off the record?
   Make sure the reporter gets what he/she
    came for: the story he/she wanted.
Interview Guidelines for PR People cont.

   Stay in the background. Don’t
    answer questions or intrude unless
    the subject begins to divulge
    information that is against company
    policy to reveal.
   Offer to provide answers to future
    questions that might arise.
   Do NOT ask the reporter when the
    story will run or ask him/her to
    send a copy.
Tips for Executive Interviewees

   Know the topic you’re to discuss.
   Anticipate touchy questions.
   Be honest.
   Answer questions directly, and if
    you cannot, say you cannot.
   If you don’t know an answer, say
    you don’t but offer to get the
    information and then follow up by
    providing the info later.
Tips for Executive Interviewees cont.

   Keep the interview as relaxed and
    cordial as possible.
   Avoid off-the-record remarks.
   Don’t try to avoid answering
    questions that are public record.
   Offer help, additional information
    later if the journalist needs it.
News Conferences
   Schedule them only when legitimate
    news is involved.
   Choose a site and time convenient
    to news media.
   Cover the news conference for your
    own organization: videotape, audio
    recording, etc.
   Assemble and have available all
    background information.
News Conferences cont.

   Offer a story and visuals or sound
    bites to those media unable to
   Rehearse your spokesperson(s).
   Share the results of the news
    conference with management
    immediately after the conference.
Talking Back to the Media

   What to do when news media make
    a mistake?
        suffer in silence
        respond with information campaign of
        your own to correct
        if serious enough, a lawsuit may be

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