Nixon and the Cold War - The Nixon Presidency

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					Nixon and the Cold War
    What do we remember about the
     Cold War in the 50s and 60s?
•   Truman?
•   Eisenhower?
•   Kennedy?
•   Johnson?
•   German-born (1923)
•   US citizen (1943)
•   N.S. Advisor (’69-’73)
•   Secy of State (’73-’77)

• Détente
      Détente and Realpolitik
• Nixon’s foreign policy (developed by
• Détente- Search for a more constructive
  relationship with communist countries by
  relaxing Cold War tensions
• Realpolitik- Focus on powerful countries-
  China and Soviet Union, engage and
  recognize (containment didn’t recognize)
  What about Nixon and Vietnam?
• Kissinger – Pushing idea of linkage
• If USSR and China would just stop
  supplying N. Vietnam then communists
  would have to negotiate
• Led to idea of recognizing and trying to
  negotiate with USSR and China in 1970s
Nixon and the USSR

Nixon and the USSR-Brezhnev
Leonid Brezhnev
      Nixon and Brezhnev
• Before trip- 1971 Berlin Accord
  –Free access to West Berlin by
   Western nations, improved
   communication between halves
  –Americans Recognize East Berlin
   (formal relationship 1974)
    Results of visit to USSR
• SALT (Strategic Arms Limitations
  Talks) - May 1972
• SALT I Treaty- limited number of
  ICBMs (but not MIRVs)and limits on
• Nixon accepted concept of Mutually
  assured Destruction
Nixon and China ( Feb 1972)
            Nixon and China
• US had practice
  policy of
  nonrecognition with
  mainland China
  (since 2949)
• Nixon reverses that
  policy- “Ping Pong
• Talks with Mao and
  Zhou Enlai
      Nixon’s goals in China
• Heal rift between US and China
• Take advantage of China- Soviet
  Union rift (pressure on Vietnam?)
• Show that negotiating with the
  Communists could work without
  appearing soft
       Effects of trip to China
• Symbolic value- negotiating can work
• Official agreements
  – Neither would try to dominate the Pacific
  – Cooperate in settling Pacific disputes
  – Taiwan politically part of mainland China
• Carter officially started diplomatic relations
  with China in Dec 1978  Increased trade
    Was Nixon giving mixed
• What happened there???