Nixon and the Cold War What do we remember about the Cold War in the 50s and 60s? • Truman? • Eisenhower? • Kennedy? • Johnson? HENRY KISSINGER • German-born (1923) • US citizen (1943) • N.S. Advisor (’69-’73) • Secy of State (’73-’77) • “REALPOLITIK” • Détente Détente and Realpolitik • Nixon’s foreign policy (developed by Kissinger) • Détente- Search for a more constructive relationship with communist countries by relaxing Cold War tensions • Realpolitik- Focus on powerful countries- China and Soviet Union, engage and recognize (containment didn’t recognize) What about Nixon and Vietnam? • Kissinger – Pushing idea of linkage • If USSR and China would just stop supplying N. Vietnam then communists would have to negotiate • Led to idea of recognizing and trying to negotiate with USSR and China in 1970s Nixon and the USSR Kitchen Debate 1959 Nixon and the USSR-Brezhnev (1972) Leonid Brezhnev Nixon and Brezhnev • Before trip- 1971 Berlin Accord –Free access to West Berlin by Western nations, improved communication between halves –Americans Recognize East Berlin (formal relationship 1974) Results of visit to USSR • SALT (Strategic Arms Limitations Talks) - May 1972 • SALT I Treaty- limited number of ICBMs (but not MIRVs)and limits on ABMs • Nixon accepted concept of Mutually assured Destruction Nixon and China ( Feb 1972) Nixon and China • US had practice policy of nonrecognition with mainland China (since 2949) • Nixon reverses that policy- “Ping Pong Diplomacy” • Talks with Mao and Zhou Enlai Nixon’s goals in China • Heal rift between US and China • Take advantage of China- Soviet Union rift (pressure on Vietnam?) • Show that negotiating with the Communists could work without appearing soft Effects of trip to China • Symbolic value- negotiating can work • Official agreements – Neither would try to dominate the Pacific – Cooperate in settling Pacific disputes – Taiwan politically part of mainland China • Carter officially started diplomatic relations with China in Dec 1978 Increased trade Was Nixon giving mixed messages? • WHAT ABOUT CHILE? • What happened there???