1997 Census-Professional_ Scientific_ and Technical Services_ summary by LisaB1982

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									Summary
1997 Economic Census Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Subject Series

1997
Issued April 2001 EC97S54S-SM

U.S. Department of Commerce
Economics and Statistics Administration
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Many persons participated in the various activities of the 1997 Economic Census for the Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services sector. Service Sector Statistics Division prepared this report. Bobby E. Russell, Assistant Chief for Census Programs, was responsible for the overall planning, management, and coordination. Planning and implementation were under the direction of Jack B. Moody, Chief, Service Census Branch assisted by Jack R. Drago, Kirk K. Degler, Cynthia M. WrennYorker, and Susan G. Baker. Primary staff assistance was provided by Kim A. Casey, Eric E. Cotter, Brett J. Creech, Karen M. Dennison, Julie A. Ishman, Christine M. Joseph, Robin A. Justice, Joyce M. Kiessling, John J. Manning, Kamatha Marbury, Mary E. Myrick, Shawna J. Orzechowski, Joy P. Pierson, Dawn E. Rosser, Tara E. Swanson, Jennifer N. Thorne, and Brent M. Williams. Mathematical and statistical techniques as well as the coverage operations were provided by Carl A. Konschnik, Assistant Chief for Research and Methodology, assisted by Carol S. King, Chief, Statistical Methods Branch, and Jock R. Black, Chief, Program Research and Development Branch, with staff assistance from Maria C. Cruz and David L. Kinyon. The Economic Planning and Coordination Division provided overall planning and review of many operations and the computer processing procedures. Shirin A. Ahmed, Assistant Chief for Post-Collection Processing, was responsible for edit procedures and designing the interactive analytical software. Design and specifications were prepared under the supervision of Dennis L. Shoemaker, Chief, Census Processing Branch, assisted by John D. Ward. Primary staff assistance was provided by Sonya P. Curcio, Richard W. Graham, and Cheryl E. Merkle.

The Economic Product Team, with primary contributions from Andrew W. Hait and Jennifer E. Lins, was responsible for the development of the system to disseminate 1997 Economic Census reports. The staff of the National Processing Center, Judith N. Petty, Chief, performed mailout preparation and receipt operations, clerical and analytical review activities, and data entry. The Geography Division staff developed geographic coding procedures and associated computer programs. The Economic Statistical Methods and Programming Division, Charles P. Pautler Jr., Chief, developed and coordinated the computer processing systems. Martin S. Harahush, Assistant Chief for Quinquennial Programs, was responsible for design and implementation of the computer systems. Robert S. Jewett, Barbara L. Lambert, and Edward F. Johnson provided special computer programming. William C. Wester, Chief, Services Branch, assisted by Jay L. Norris who supervised the preparation of the computer programs. Additional programming assistance was provided by Leatrice D. Hines, Sarah J. Presley, Jacqueline V. Sellers, and Michael A. Sendelbach. Computer Services Division, Debra D. Williams, Chief, performed the computer processing. Kim D. Ottenstein and Margaret A. Smith of the Administrative and Customer Services Division, Walter C. Odom, Chief, provided publications and printing management, graphics design and composition, and editorial review for print and electronic media. General direction and production management were provided by Michael G. Garland, Assistant Division Chief, and Gary J. Lauffer, Chief, Publications Services Branch. Special acknowledgment is also due the many businesses whose cooperation has contributed to the publication of these data.

Summary

1997
Issued April 2001 EC97S54S-SM

1997 Economic Census Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
Subject Series

U.S. Department of Commerce Donald L. Evans, Secretary
Economics and Statistics Administration J. Lee Price, Acting Under Secretary for Economic Affairs
U.S. CENSUS BUREAU William G. Barron, Jr., Acting Director

ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS ADMINISTRATION

Economics and Statistics Administration J. Lee Price, Acting Under Secretary for Economic Affairs

U.S. CENSUS BUREAU William G. Barron, Jr., Acting Director William G. Barron, Jr., Deputy Director
Paula J. Schneider, Principal Associate Director for Programs Frederick T. Knickerbocker, Associate Director for Economic Programs Thomas L. Mesenbourg, Assistant Director for Economic Programs Bobby E. Russell, Acting Chief, Service Sector Statistics Division

CONTENTS

Introduction to the Economic Census Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services TABLES Geographic Area Series 1a. 1b. Summary Statistics for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Summary Statistics for Firms Exempt From Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997

1 5

7 9

Sources of Receipts or Revenue 2a. 2b. Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Major Sources of Revenue From Customers for Firms Exempt From Federal Income for the United States: 1997 10 41

Establishment and Firm Size 3a. 3b. Concentration by Largest Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax: 1997 Concentration by Largest Firms Exempt From Federal Income Tax: 1997 45 55

APPENDIXES A. B. C. D. E. Explanation of Terms NAICS Codes, Titles, and Descriptions Coverage and Methodology Geographic Notes Metropolitan Areas A–1 B–1 C–1

Availability of Data

Inside back cover

Not applicable for this report. Note: This summary report is a compilation of selected tables from the 1997 Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services Geographic Area Series, Sources of Receipts or Revenue, and Establishment and Firm Size reports.

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

iii

Introduction to the Economic Census
PURPOSES AND USES OF THE ECONOMIC CENSUS The economic census is the major source of facts about the structure and functioning of the Nation’s economy. It provides essential information for government, business, industry, and the general public. Title 13 of the United States Code (Sections 131, 191, and 224) directs the Census Bureau to take the economic census every 5 years, covering years ending in 2 and 7. The economic census furnishes an important part of the framework for such composite measures as the gross domestic product estimates, input/output measures, production and price indexes, and other statistical series that measure short-term changes in economic conditions. Specific uses of economic census data include the following: • Policymaking agencies of the Federal Government use the data to monitor economic activity and assess the effectiveness of policies. • State and local governments use the data to assess business activities and tax bases within their jurisdictions and to develop programs to attract business. • Trade associations study trends in their own and competing industries, which allows them to keep their members informed of market changes. • Individual businesses use the data to locate potential markets and to analyze their own production and sales performance relative to industry or area averages. ALL-NEW INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATIONS Data from the 1997 Economic Census are published primarily on the basis of the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), unlike earlier censuses, which were published according to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS is in the process of being adopted in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Most economic census reports cover one of the following NAICS sectors: 21 22 23 31-33 42 44-45 48-49 51 Mining Utilities Construction Manufacturing Wholesale Trade Retail Trade Transportation and Warehousing Information 52 53 54 55 56 61 62 71 72 81 Finance and Insurance Real Estate and Rental and Leasing Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services Management of Companies and Enterprises Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services Educational Services Health Care and Social Assistance Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation Accommodation and Foodservices Other Services (except Public Administration)

(Not listed above are the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting sector (NAICS 11), partially covered by the census of agriculture conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Public Administration sector (NAICS 92), covered by the census of governments conducted by the Census Bureau.) The 20 NAICS sectors are subdivided into 96 subsectors (three-digit codes), 313 industry groups (four-digit codes), and, as implemented in the United States, 1170 industries (five- and six-digit codes). RELATIONSHIP TO SIC While many of the individual NAICS industries correspond directly to industries as defined under the SIC system, most of the higher level groupings do not. Particular care should be taken in comparing data for retail trade, wholesale trade, and manufacturing, which are sector titles used in both NAICS and SIC, but cover somewhat different groups of industries. The industry definitions discuss the relationships between NAICS and SIC industries. Where changes are significant, it will not be possible to construct time series that include data for points both before and after 1997. For 1997, data for auxiliary establishments (those functioning primarily to manage, service, or support the activities of their company’s operating establishments, such as a central administrative office or warehouse) will not be included in the sector-specific reports. These data will be published separately. GEOGRAPHIC AREA CODING Accurate and complete information on the physical location of each establishment is required to tabulate the census data for the states, metropolitan areas (MAs), counties, parishes, and corporate municipalities including cities, towns, villages, and boroughs. Respondents were INTRODUCTION 1

1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

required to report their physical location (street address, municipality, county, and state) if it differed from their mailing address. For establishments not surveyed by mail (and those single-establishment companies that did not provide acceptable information on physical location), location information from Internal Revenue Service tax forms is used as a basis for coding. BASIS OF REPORTING The economic census is conducted on an establishment basis. A company operating at more than one location is required to file a separate report for each store, factory, shop, or other location. Each establishment is assigned a separate industry classification based on its primary activity and not that of its parent company. DOLLAR VALUES All dollar values presented are expressed in current dollars; i.e., 1997 data are expressed in 1997 dollars, and 1992 data, in 1992 dollars. Consequently, when making comparisons with prior years, users of the data should consider the changes in prices that have occurred. All dollar values are shown in thousands of dollars. AVAILABILITY OF ADDITIONAL DATA Reports in Print and Electronic Media All results of the 1997 Economic Census are available on the Census Bureau Internet site (www.census.gov) and on compact discs (CD-ROM) for sale by the Census Bureau. Unlike previous censuses, only selected highlights are published in printed reports. For more information, including a description of electronic and printed reports being issued, see the Internet site, or write to U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC 20233-8300, or call Customer Services at 301-457-4100. Special Tabulations Special tabulations of data collected in the 1997 Economic Census may be obtained, depending on availability of time and personnel, in electronic or tabular form. The data will be summaries subject to the same rules prohibiting disclosure of confidential information (including name, address, kind of business, or other data for individual business establishments or companies) that govern the regular publications. Special tabulations are prepared on a cost basis. A request for a cost estimate, as well as exact specifications on the type and format of the data to be provided, should be directed to the Chief of the division named below, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC 20233-8300. To discuss a special tabulation before submitting specifications, call the appropriate division: 2 INTRODUCTION

Manufacturing and Construction Division Service Sector Statistics Division HISTORICAL INFORMATION

301-457-4673 301-457-2668

The economic census has been taken as an integrated program at 5-year intervals since 1967 and before that for 1954, 1958, and 1963. Prior to that time, individual components of the economic census were taken separately at varying intervals. The economic census traces its beginnings to the 1810 Decennial Census, when questions on manufacturing were included with those for population. Coverage of economic activities was expanded for the 1840 Decennial Census and subsequent censuses to include mining and some commercial activities. The 1905 Manufactures Census was the first time a census was taken apart from the regular decennial population census. Censuses covering retail and wholesale trade and construction industries were added in 1930, as were some covering service trades in 1933. Censuses of construction, manufacturing, and the other business service censuses were suspended during World War II. The 1954 Economic Census was the first census to be fully integrated: providing comparable census data across economic sectors, using consistent time periods, concepts, definitions, classifications, and reporting units. It was the first census to be taken by mail, using lists of firms provided by the administrative records of other Federal agencies. Since 1963, administrative records also have been used to provide basic statistics for very small firms, reducing or eliminating the need to send them census questionnaires. The range of industries covered in the economic censuses expanded between 1967 and 1992. The census of construction industries began on a regular basis in 1967, and the scope of service industries, introduced in 1933, was broadened in 1967, 1977, and 1987. While a few transportation industries were covered as early as 1963, it was not until 1992 that the census broadened to include all of transportation, communications, and utilities. Also new for 1992 was coverage of financial, insurance, and real estate industries. With these additions, the economic census and the separate census of governments and census of agriculture collectively covered roughly 98 percent of all economic activity. Printed statistical reports from the 1992 and earlier censuses provide historical figures for the study of longterm time series and are available in some large libraries. All of the census reports printed since 1967 are still available for sale on microfiche from the Census Bureau. CD-ROMs issued from the 1987 and 1992 Economic Censuses contain databases including nearly all data published in print, plus additional statistics, such as ZIP Code statistics, published only on CD-ROM. 1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

SOURCES FOR MORE INFORMATION More information about the scope, coverage, classification system, data items, and publications for each of the economic censuses and related surveys is published in the Guide to the 1997 Economic Census and Related Statistics at www.census.gov/econguide. More information on the methodology, procedures, and history of the censuses will be published in the History of the 1997 Economic Census at www.census.gov/econ/www/history.html. ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS The following abbreviations and symbols are used with the 1997 Economic Census data: A D Standard error of 100 percent or more. Withheld to avoid disclosing data of individual companies; data are included in higher level totals. Exceeds 100 percent because data include establishments with payroll exceeding revenue. Not available or not comparable. Revenue not collected at this level of detail for multiestablishment firms. Withheld because estimates did not meet publication standards.

V X Y Z a b c e f g h i j k l m p q r s nec nsk – (CC) (IC)

F

N Q S

Represents less than 50 vehicles or .05 percent. Not applicable. Disclosure withheld because of insufficient coverage of merchandise lines. Less than half the unit shown. 0 to 19 employees. 20 to 99 employees. 100 to 249 employees. 250 to 499 employees. 500 to 999 employees. 1,000 to 2,499 employees. 2,500 to 4,999 employees. 5,000 to 9,999 employees. 10,000 to 24,999 employees. 25,000 to 49,999 employees. 50,000 to 99,999 employees. 100,000 employees or more. 10 to 19 percent estimated. 20 to 29 percent estimated. Revised. Sampling error exceeds 40 percent. Not elsewhere classified. Not specified by kind. Represents zero (page image/print only). Consolidated city. Independent city.

1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION

1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services
SCOPE The Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services sector (sector 54) of the 1997 Economic Census covers establishments with payroll that specialize in performing professional, scientific, and technical activities for others. These activities require a high degree of expertise and training. The establishments in this sector specialize according to expertise and provide services to clients in a variety of industries and, in some cases, to households. Activities performed include: legal advice and representation; accounting, bookkeeping, and payroll services; architectural, engineering, and specialized design services; computer services; consulting services; research services; advertising services; photographic services; translation and interpretation services; veterinary services; and other professional, scientific, and technical services. This sector excludes establishments primarily engaged in providing a range of day-to-day office administrative services, such as financial planning, billing and recordkeeping, personnel, and physical distribution and logistics. These establishments are classified in Sector 56, Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services. Data for this sector are shown for establishments of firms subject to Federal income tax and separately of firms which are exempt from Federal income tax under provisions of the Internal Revenue Code. Many of the ‘‘kinds of business or operation’’ included in this sector are not thought of as commercial businesses and the terms (such as ‘‘business,’’ ‘‘establishment,’’ and ‘‘firm’’) used to describe them may not be descriptive of such services. However, these terms are applied to all ‘‘kinds of business or operation’’ in order to maintain conformity in the measures of the production and delivery of goods and services and in the presentation of data. The basic tabulations for this sector do not include data for establishments which are auxiliary (primary function is providing a service, such as warehousing or bookkeeping) to service establishments within the same organization. Data for auxiliaries are presented separately. GENERAL A list of reports that provide statistics on sector 54 follows. Geographic area reports. There is a separate report for each state, the District of Columbia, and the United States. For establishments of firms subject to Federal income tax, 1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

each state report presents general statistics on number of establishments, receipts, payroll, and employment by kind of business for the state, metropolitan areas (MAs), counties, and places with 2,500 inhabitants or more. Greater kind-of-business detail is shown for larger areas. For establishments of firms exempt from Federal income tax, each state report presents statistics on number of establishments, revenue, expenses, payroll, and employment by kind of business, for the state and MAs. Greater kindof-business detail is shown for larger areas. The United States report presents data for the United States as a whole for establishments with payroll of firms subject to Federal income tax, as well as those exempt from Federal income tax, for detailed kind-of-business classifications. Sources of receipts or revenue report. This report presents sources of receipts or revenue data for establishments with payroll by kind of business. Data are presented for the United States and states. Establishment and firm size (including legal form of organization) report. This report presents receipts/revenue, payroll, and employment data for the United States by receipts/revenue size, by employment size, and by legal form of organization for establishments; and receipts/revenue size (including concentration by largest firms), by employment size, and by number of establishments operated (single units and multiunits) for firms. Miscellaneous subjects report. This report presents data for establishments with payroll for a variety of industry-specific questions. Presentation of data varies by kind of business. ZIP Code report. This report presents data for establishments with payroll by United States ZIP Code. GEOGRAPHIC AREAS COVERED The level of geographic detail varies by report. Data may be presented for: 1. The United States as a whole. 2. States and the District of Columbia. 3. Consolidated metropolitan statistical areas (CMSAs) and primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSAs) defined by the Office of Management and Budget PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. 5

(OMB) as of June 30, 1997. A CMSA is an area used to facilitate the presentation and analysis of data for large concentrations of metropolitan populations. It includes two or more contiguous PMSAs which have a population of at least 1,000,000 (according to the 1990 Census of Population or subsequent special census) and which meet specific criteria of urban character and of social and economic integration. 4. Metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) defined by the OMB as of June 30, 1997. An MSA is an integrated economic and social unit with a population nucleus of at least 50,000 inhabitants (according to the 1990 Census of Population or subsequent special census). Each MSA consists of one or more counties meeting standards of metropolitan character. In New England, cities and towns rather than counties are the component geographic units. 5. Areas within the state outside metropolitan areas (MAs). 6. Counties and county equivalents defined as of January 1, 1997. Counties are the primary divisions of states, except in Louisiana where they are called parishes and in Alaska where they are called boroughs and census areas. Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, and Virginia have one place or more that is independent of any county organization and constitutes primary divisions of their states. These places are treated as counties and as places. 7. Consolidated cities defined as of January 1, 1997. Consolidated cities are consolidated governments which consist of separately incorporated municipalities. 8. Municipalities of 2,500 inhabitants or more defined as of January 1, 1997. These are areas of significant population incorporated as cities, boroughs, villages, or towns according to the 1990 Census of Population

or subsequent special census. For the economic census, boroughs and census areas in Alaska and boroughs in New York are not included in this category. 9. Special economic urban areas (SEUAs), which include townships in Michigan, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, and towns in New York, Wisconsin, and the six New England states with 10,000 inhabitants or more (according to the 1990 Census of Population or subsequent special census). COMPARABILITY OF THE 1992 AND 1997 CENSUSES The 1997 Economic Census is the first census to present data based on the new North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Previous census data were presented according to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system developed some 60 years ago. Due to this change, comparability between census years may be limited. Comparative statistics will be included as part of the Core Business Statistics Reports. DISCLOSURE In accordance with Federal law governing census reports (Title 13 of the United States Code) no data are published that would disclose the operations of an individual establishment or business. However, the number of establishments in a kind-of-business classification is not considered a disclosure; therefore, this information may be released even though other information is withheld. AVAILABILITY OF MORE FREQUENT ECONOMIC DATA The Census Bureau conducts the Service Annual Survey (SAS) each year. This survey, while providing more frequent observations, yields less kind-of-business and geographic detail than the economic census. In addition, the County Business Patterns program offers annual statistics on the number of establishments, employment, and payroll classified by industry within each county.

6

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.

1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

Table 1a.

Summary Statistics for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997
Paid employees for pay period including March 12 (number) Percent of receipts From adminis trative records1

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A]

NAICS code

Geographic area and kind of business Establish ments (number) Receipts ($1,000) Annual payroll ($1,000) First quarter payroll ($1,000)

Estimated2

UNITED STATES
54 541 5411 54111 541110 5411101 54119 541191 541199 5412 54121 541211 541213 541214 541219 5413 54131 541310 54133 541330 54134 541340 54135 541350 54136 541360 54137 541370 54138 541380 5414 54141 541410 54142 541420 54143 541430 5414301 5414302 5414303 54149 541490 5415 54151 541511 541512 5415121 5415122 541513 541519 5416 54161 541611 541612 5416121 5416122 5416123 541613 541614 541618 54162 541620 54169 541690 5417 54171 541710 5417101 5417102 54172 541720 Professional, scientific, & technical services Professional, scientific, & technical services Legal services Offices of lawyers Offices of lawyers Offices of lawyers (except legal aid societies) Other legal services Title abstract & settlement offices All other legal services Accounting, tax return prep, bookkeeping, & payroll services Accounting, tax return prep, bookkeeping, & payroll services Offices of certified public accountants Tax return preparation services Payroll services Other accounting services Architectural, engineering, & related services Architectural services Architectural services Engineering services Engineering services Drafting services Drafting services Building inspection services Building inspection services Geophysical surveying & mapping services Geophysical surveying & mapping services Surveying & mapping (except geophysical) services Surveying & mapping (except geophysical) services Testing laboratories Testing laboratories Specialized design services Interior design services Interior design services Industrial design services Industrial design services Graphic design services Graphic design services Graphic design services (except commercial art & medical artists) Commercial art Medical artists Other specialized design services Other specialized design services Computer systems design & related services Computer systems design & related services Custom computer programming services Computer systems design services Computer systems integrators Computer systems consultants (except systems integrators) Computer facilities management services Other computer related services Management, scientific, & technical consulting services Management consulting services Administrative management & general management consulting service Human resources & executive search consulting services Actuarial consulting Executive placement services Human resources & personnel management consulting Marketing consulting services Process, physical distribution, & logistics consulting services Other management consulting services Environmental consulting services Environmental consulting services Other scientific & technical consulting services Other scientific & technical consulting services Scientific research & development services R&D in the physical, engineering, & life sciences R&D in the physical, engineering, & life sciences R&D in the physical & engineering sciences Research & development in the life sciences Research & development in the social sciences & humanities R&D in the social sciences & humanities See footnotes at end of table. 72 72 31 30 10 20 1 8 615 305 615 305 173 165 165 165 716 757 757 757 579 542 139 579 542 139 127 122 122 122 052 616 616 616 406 890 890 890 225 376 050 225 376 050 49 47 47 47 060 409 409 409 017 587 587 587 50 558 313 50 558 313 10 10 10 10 374 007 007 007 586 220 220 220 5 212 745 5 212 745 1 012 956 956 956 092 074 074 074 18.6 18.6 19.9 20.1 20.1 20.1 14.5 14.3 15.3 19.0 19.0 19.7 36.4 3.9 43.3 19.2 23.5 23.5 18.1 18.1 19.2 19.2 35.9 35.9 11.8 11.8 29.5 29.5 16.7 16.7 33.2 40.4 40.4 11.4 11.4 32.0 32.0 31.8 34.2 19.2 41.5 41.5 13.2 13.2 13.9 14.9 10.0 25.8 .9 28.9 24.1 22.2 16.0 28.2 10.0 32.1 28.5 38.5 15.2 26.5 36.0 36.0 31.0 31.0 7.4 7.1 7.1 6.1 9.1 12.1 12.1 7.6 7.6 5.5 5.3 5.3 5.3 9.6 9.8 8.6 7.7 7.7 5.7 6.7 11.3 12.8 5.5 2.8 2.8 5.7 5.7 3.3 3.3 7.7 7.7 22.5 22.5 4.5 4.5 6.8 6.8 6.5 7.3 7.3 5.1 5.1 6.2 6.2 6.3 5.6 8.9 7.8 7.8 10.2 10.2 13.1 9.5 9.4 9.5 5.5 10.0 9.4 9.1 8.7 10.0 3.7 8.8 13.2 11.0 5.0 9.3 10.4 10.4 11.6 11.6 9.4 9.0 9.0 6.6 14.2 14.6 14.6

7 959 6 391 1 568 97 97 53 12 2 28 512 512 651 830 709 322

4 435 516 3 489 167 946 349 61 61 38 2 14 6 117 117 601 184 113 218 315 315 265 210 017 823

1 650 430 1 386 275 264 155 26 104 086 26 104 086 15 167 282 760 170 7 598 085 2 578 549 46 942 816 6 468 524 6 468 524 35 337 890 35 337 890 310 342 310 342 240 080 240 080 445 595 445 595 1 431 603 1 431 603 2 708 782 2 708 782 4 088 006 1 021 531 1 021 531 582 591 582 591 2 354 674 2 354 674 2 109 127 240 746 4 801 129 210 129 210 42 42 18 18 11 7 3 1 150 150 417 459 341 117 389 884 658 658 084 669 975 694 511 394 9 9 4 4 2 1 1

367 366 307 378 59 988 6 007 695 6 007 695 3 427 274 279 420 1 695 658 605 343 10 593 413 1 357 068 1 357 068 8 049 622 8 049 622 72 168 72 168 49 561 49 561 110 008 110 008 312 831 312 831 642 155 642 155 906 641 218 189 218 189 141 006 141 006 520 520 465 54 1 777 777 035 652 090

56 018 46 711 9 307 966 966 389 147 316 113 533 533 340 698 425 070

92 710 20 602 20 602 52 526 52 526 1 872 1 872 2 771 2 771 587 587 8 864 8 864 5 488 5 488 26 436 9 612 9 612 1 322 1 322 14 14 12 2 631 631 565 017 49 871 871 278 278 624 804 571 233 445 405

116 986 061 16 988 338 16 988 338 88 180 688 88 180 688 605 362 605 362 639 041 639 041 1 087 786 1 087 786 3 041 882 3 041 882 6 442 964 6 442 964 14 254 024 4 945 340 4 945 340 1 363 017 1 363 017 7 554 903 7 554 903 6 741 083 801 037 12 783 390 764 390 764 108 108 38 51 35 15 15 4 967 967 300 212 270 942 114 339 614 614 515 916 055 861 194 989

1 038 317 146 702 146 702 730 048 730 048 9 150 9 150 8 674 8 674 9 905 9 905 51 814 51 814 82 024 82 024 113 035 33 915 33 915 13 607 13 607 61 61 54 6 622 622 791 688 143

26 669 26 669 805 805 107 249 652 597 051 396 343 343 483 529 101 428 577 754

3 891 3 891 764 764 318 337 207 129 71 37 659 659 198 526 741 785 821 114

80 426 60 794 27 399 14 788 714 7 619 6 455 12 498 3 078 3 031 6 725 6 725 12 907 12 907 7 6 6 4 2 830 855 855 269 586 975 975

63 428 740 52 224 697 28 10 1 5 4 7 3 1 556 713 152 154 405 874 259 821 409 115 766 804 545 497 152 524

26 581 677 22 296 821 12 738 842 5 160 322 571 565 2 640 672 1 948 085 2 547 408 1 195 682 654 567 1 777 594 1 777 594 2 507 262 2 507 262 9 8 8 5 2 322 820 820 890 930 150 582 582 352 230

5 766 476 4 830 950 2 776 200 1 118 438 136 717 524 452 457 269 536 176 257 721 142 415 404 953 404 953 530 573 530 573 2 2 2 1 287 176 176 449 726 996 420 420 935 485

511 252 411 044 208 99 10 47 42 61 25 15 674 719 299 179 241 418 366 867

4 780 771 4 780 771 6 423 272 6 423 272 23 21 21 14 6 078 821 821 861 960 307 756 756 730 026

46 145 46 145 54 063 54 063 176 161 161 108 52 974 304 304 832 472

1 256 551 1 256 551

501 568 501 568

111 576 111 576

15 670 15 670

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

7

Table 1a.

Summary Statistics for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Paid employees for pay period including March 12 (number) Percent of receipts From adminis trative records1

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A]

NAICS code

Geographic area and kind of business Establish ments (number) Receipts ($1,000) Annual payroll ($1,000) First quarter payroll ($1,000)

Estimated2

UNITED STATES Con.
54 541 5418 54181 541810 54182 541820 54183 541830 54184 541840 5418401 5418402 54185 541850 5418501 5418502 54186 541860 54187 541870 54189 541890 5418901 5418902 5418903 5418909 5419 54191 541910 54192 541921 541922 54193 541930 54199 541990 Professional, scientific, & technical services Professional, scientific, & technical services Con. Advertising & related services Advertising agencies Advertising agencies Public relations agencies Public relations agencies Media buying services Media buying services Media representatives Media representatives Radio & television advertising representatives Publishers’ advertising representatives Display advertising Display advertising Display advertising (except outdoor) Outdoor advertising services Direct mail advertising Direct mail advertising Advertising material distribution services Advertising material distribution services Other services related to advertising Other services related to advertising Welcoming services Advertising specialties goods distributor Sign painting & lettering shop All other advertising Other professional, scientific, & technical services Marketing research & public opinion polling Marketing research & public opinion polling Photographic services Photographic studios, portrait Commercial photography Translation & interpretation services Translation & interpretation services All other professional, scientific, & technical services All other professional, scientific, & technical services
1Includes 2Includes

Con.

38 832 13 390 13 390 6 513 6 513 882 882 2 2 1 1 686 686 142 544

49 290 082 16 871 520 16 871 520 4 771 957 4 771 957 1 056 713 1 056 713 3 3 1 2 4 4 2 2 308 308 278 030 638 638 249 389 665 665 211 454 974 974 617 357

16 012 117 7 556 880 7 556 880 1 951 633 1 951 633 422 027 422 027 1 060 529 1 060 529 541 527 519 002 823 823 303 519 063 063 398 665

3 688 245 1 762 109 1 762 109 426 576 426 576 98 591 98 591 253 253 129 123 196 196 71 125 691 691 724 967 335 335 097 238

417 214 139 486 139 486 38 735 38 735 8 534 8 534 26 26 12 13 41 41 26 14 437 437 946 491 357 357 434 923

18.7 14.0 14.0 28.4 28.4 11.4 11.4 14.0 14.0 11.0 15.9 12.3 12.3 10.7 13.8 21.8 21.8 17.7 17.7 25.3 25.3 35.6 24.2 46.9 18.9 22.0 15.3 15.3 31.9 31.3 33.1 19.3 19.3 21.0 21.0

8.6 9.7 9.7 6.8 6.8 16.3 16.3 18.6 18.6 19.9 17.8 4.7 4.7 2.7 6.6 7.3 7.3 25.4 25.4 4.6 4.6 10.6 3.5 9.9 7.0 10.4 12.3 12.3 7.0 7.0 7.1 10.0 10.0 12.8 12.8

2 261 2 261 633 1 628 3 454 3 454 560 560 9 086 9 086 128 4 477 3 390 1 091 25 565 4 030 4 030 17 573 13 245 4 328 904 904 3 058 3 058

8 672 214 8 672 214 829 683 829 683 9 140 356 9 140 356 30 970 6 847 023 786 247 1 476 116 15 367 590 7 879 886 7 879 886 5 571 219 3 705 100 1 866 119 414 570 414 570 1 501 915 1 501 915

2 426 572 2 426 572 174 956 174 956 1 596 457 1 596 457 7 230 943 235 214 789 431 203 5 114 523 2 963 417 2 963 417 1 539 891 990 666 549 225 142 155 142 155 469 060 469 060

560 921 560 921 37 769 37 769 352 352 1 209 44 96 253 253 389 077 938 849

85 669 85 669 9 642 9 642 67 354 67 354 606 29 665 10 959 26 124 212 669 107 552 107 552 83 905 65 395 18 510 4 863 4 863 16 349 16 349

1 127 918 655 053 655 053 339 456 218 504 120 952 30 422 30 422 102 987 102 987

receipts information obtained from administrative records of other Federal agencies. receipts information which was imputed based on historic company ratios or administrative records, or on industry averages.

8

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 1b.

Summary Statistics for Firms Exempt From Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997
Paid employees for pay period including March 12 (number) Percent of revenue From adminis trative records1

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A]

NAICS code

Geographic area and kind of business Establish ments (number) Revenue ($1,000) Expenses ($1,000) Annual payroll ($1,000) First quarter payroll ($1,000)

Estimated2

UNITED STATES
54 541 5411 54111 541110 5411102 5417 54171 541710 5417101 5417102 54172 541720 Professional, scientific, & technical services Professional, scientific, & technical services Legal services Offices of lawyers Offices of lawyers Legal aid societies & similar legal services Scientific research & development services R&D in the physical, engineering, & life sciences R&D in the physical, engineering, & life sciences R&D in the physical & engineering sciences Research & development in the life sciences Research & development in the social sciences & humanities R&D in the social sciences & humanities
1Includes 2Includes

5 824 5 824 2 2 2 2 532 532 532 532

15 708 510 15 708 510 1 1 1 1 14 12 12 7 4 496 496 496 496 211 324 324 561 762 807 807 807 807 703 171 171 476 695

14 758 872 14 758 872 1 1 1 1 13 11 11 7 4 386 386 386 386 372 636 636 245 390 068 068 068 068 804 937 937 991 946

6 022 741 6 022 741 796 796 796 796 5 4 4 2 1 226 593 593 842 750 671 671 671 671 070 475 475 628 847

1 430 744 1 430 744 185 185 185 185 233 233 233 233

148 465 148 465 23 23 23 23 125 107 107 62 45 316 316 316 316 149 812 812 005 807

6.1 6.1 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 5.6 4.2 4.2 2.1 7.5

5.6 5.6 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.7 5.0 5.0 5.0 2.6 8.8

3 292 2 318 2 318 860 1 458

1 245 511 1 093 752 1 093 752 684 288 409 464

974 974

1 887 532 1 887 532

1 735 867 1 735 867

632 595 632 595

151 759 151 759

17 337 17 337

14.9 14.9

5.4 5.4

revenue information obtained from administrative records of other Federal agencies. revenue information which was imputed based on historic company ratios or administrative records, or on industry averages.

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

9

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 100.0 100.0 2.5 .9 .8 1.5 .2 .6 .2 1.2 .3 .9 .2 Z 1.3 .1 2.5 13.1 Z Z 6.6 7.3 1.6 1.2 Z Z .1 Z .7 Z .1 2.4 1.1 .2 1.4 1.0 .1 .1 .1 Z 10.4 8.9 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts X 70.0 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 54 541 0050 0100 0150 0200 0250

Establishments (number) 615 305 615 305 14 10 3 5 400 166 971 681

Receipts1 ($1,000) 579 542 139 579 542 139 14 4 4 8 598 951 633 500 888 399 449 789

Professional, scientific, & technical services Professional, scientific, & technical services Advertising agency receipts Public relations services Display advertising services Direct mail advertising services Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Interior design services Industrial design services Fashion design services Commercial art and graphic design Urban or city planning services Architectural services, except landscape Engineering services Landscape architectural services Specialized design services Custom computer programming and support services Computer systems specification and design services Computer facilities management services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Consumer applications software publishing for personal computer applications General business and operating systems applications software publishing for personal computer applications Vertical industry applications software publishing for personal computer applications Mainframe computer applications software publishing Data processing services Computer rental and leasing services Computer training (including repair) separate from that provided as part of systems design services Physical and engineering sciences research and development Life sciences research and development Social sciences and humanities research and development Market research and public opinion polling Photography services Translation or interpretation services Appraisal services Arbitration and conciliation services Auctioneering service fees Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Individuals (including estates) Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Trade, farming, industrial, transportation, financial, and other business firms Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Government (Federal, state, and local, including public authorities) Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Other (e.g., nonprofit organizations, foreign governments, etc.) Distributions from law partnerships to professional corporations and associations Other legal services Drafting services Architectural, engineering, surveying, drafting, and related services not performed by this establishment and other reimbursables Building or home inspection services Geophysical surveying and mapping services Surveying and mapping services, except geophysical Testing services (physical or product) Construction management services Accounting and auditing services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services Tax consulting Management consulting Management and administrative services Facilities management services, except computer Scientific or technical consulting Sign painting Environmental consulting Electronic and precision equipment repair (including computer hardware maintenance and repair services) Merchandise sales All other receipts See footnotes at end of table.

1 425 3 895 1 5 4 17 974 803 046 376

934 314 3 670 453 1 6 1 5 105 757 847 241 439 601 307 707 987 518 539 196 249 931 041 990 965 341

0300 0350 0400 0450 0500 0550 0570 0600 0700 0750 0800 0850 0900 0950 1000 1050 1100 1120 1140 1160

1 998 641 20 514 1 946 27 083 59 2 1 43 40 495 222 280 240 555

1 371 251 7 697 306 14 589 75 649 224 248 38 529 42 326

3 807 14 799 408 1 339 2 002 317 4 319 658 5 243 5 059 3 1 5 20 228 020 362 286 904

9 017 337 6 670 963 70 864 244 377 327 678 147 197 3 875 898 115 489 710 954 13 916 700 6 1 7 5 581 211 865 506 395 009 944 670 622 814

1180 1200 1250 1300 1330 1350 1370 1400 1450 1500 1550 1570 1580 1610 1620

1 443 756 157 148 184 48 602

680 446 335 868 70 686 60 352 191 51 785 190

1630 1640 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2400 2500 3350 4650 6900 8600 8940

33 308 12 643 8 955 16 771 11 476

3 760 780 1 639 121 1 944 858 6 715 179 1 827 522

.6 .3 .3 1.2 .3

X X X X X

14 6 1 14 9 8 55 93 23 83

969 120 139 962 231 913 784 429 517 093

4 064 736 1 205 4 360 6 945 3 18 30 3 54 628 281 252 311 046

142 854 199 855 539 673 593 271 865 649 208 016 624 807 546

.7 .1 .2 .8 1.2 .6 3.2 5.2 .6 9.3 .1 Z 1.2 .1 .8 .6 1.4 1.5

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

6 651 312 14 257 3 389 6 983 2 915 28 197 42 284

544 45 7 014 748 4 507

3 339 400 8 389 784 8 910 244

10

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 100.0 47.5 12.5 35.0 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts 72.9 69.2 X X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 5411 1610 1611 1612 1620 1630 1640 1650 1700 8940 8955 54111 1610 1611 1612 1620 1630 1640 1650 1700 8940 8955 541110 1610 1611 1612 1620 1630 1640 1650 1700 8940 8955 5411101 1610 1611 1612 1620 1630 1640 1650 1700 8940 8955 54119 1610 1611 1612 1620 1630 1650 1700 8940 8955

Establishments (number) 173 716 148 184 84 120 112 459

Receipts1 ($1,000) 127 052 406 60 352 191 15 943 736 44 408 455

Legal services Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Individuals (including estates) Fees received from real estate settlement services All other fees received Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Trade, farming, industrial, transportation, financial, and other business firms Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Government (Federal, state, and local, including public authorities) Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Other (e.g., nonprofit organizations, foreign governments, etc.) Distributions from law partnerships to professional corporations and associations Other legal services All other receipts All other receipts or revenue Offices of lawyers Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Individuals (including estates) Fees received from real estate settlement services All other fees received Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Trade, farming, industrial, transportation, financial, and other business firms Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Government (Federal, state, and local, including public authorities) Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Other (e.g., nonprofit organizations, foreign governments, etc.) Distributions from law partnerships to professional corporations and associations Other legal services All other receipts All other receipts or revenue Offices of lawyers Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Individuals (including estates) Fees received from real estate settlement services All other fees received Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Trade, farming, industrial, transportation, financial, and other business firms Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Government (Federal, state, and local, including public authorities) Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Other (e.g., nonprofit organizations, foreign governments, etc.) Distributions from law partnerships to professional corporations and associations Other legal services All other receipts All other receipts or revenue Offices of lawyers (except legal aid societies) Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Individuals (including estates) Fees received from real estate settlement services All other fees received Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Trade, farming, industrial, transportation, financial, and other business firms Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Government (Federal, state, and local, including public authorities) Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Other (e.g., nonprofit organizations, foreign governments, etc.) Distributions from law partnerships to professional corporations and associations Other legal services All other receipts All other receipts or revenue Other legal services Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Individuals (including estates) Fees received from real estate settlement services All other fees received Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Trade, farming, industrial, transportation, financial, and other business firms Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Government (Federal, state, and local, including public authorities) Distributions from law partnerships to professional corporations and associations Other legal services All other receipts All other receipts or revenue See footnotes at end of table.

48 602 33 308 12 643 8 955 16 771 9 139 9 139 165 757 147 907 83 905 112 380

51 785 190 3 760 780 1 639 121 1 944 858 6 715 179 855 087 855 087 122 616 890 60 296 899 15 902 179 44 394 720

40.8 3.0 1.3 1.5 5.3 .7 .7 100.0 49.2 13.0 36.2

X X X X X 72.4 X 73.2 69.5 X X

48 579 33 280 12 639 8 931 8 812 8 268 8 268 165 757 147 907 83 905 112 380

51 781 136 3 757 892 1 638 910 1 943 816 2 459 147 739 090 739 090 122 616 890 60 296 899 15 902 179 44 394 720

42.2 3.1 1.3 1.6 2.0 .6 .6 100.0 49.2 13.0 36.2

X X X X X 72.8 X 73.2 69.5 X X

48 579 33 280 12 639 8 931 8 812 8 268 8 268 165 757 147 907 83 905 112 380

51 781 136 3 757 892 1 638 910 1 943 816 2 459 147 739 090 739 090 122 616 890 60 296 899 15 902 179 44 394 720

42.2 3.1 1.3 1.6 2.0 .6 .6 100.0 49.2 13.0 36.2

X X X X X 72.8 X 73.2 69.5 X X

48 579 33 280 12 639 8 931 8 812 8 268 8 268 7 959 277 215 79

51 781 136 3 757 892 1 638 910 1 943 816 2 459 147 739 090 739 090 4 435 516 55 292 41 557 13 735

42.2 3.1 1.3 1.6 2.0 .6 .6 100.0 1.2 .9 .3

X X X X X 72.8 X 64.2 62.8 X X

23 28 24 7 959 871 871

4 054 2 888 1 042 4 256 032 115 997 115 997

.1 .1 Z 96.0 2.6 2.6

X X X X 61.1 X

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

11

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 100.0 1.6 1.2 .4 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts 60.0 58.7 X X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 541191 1610 1611 1612 1620 1630 1650 1700 8940 8955 541199 1630 1700 8940 8955 5412 0100 0950 1000 1100 1200 1370 2100 2150 2151 2152 2153 2154 2200 2250 2300 8600 8608 8940 8957 54121 0100 0950 1000 1100 1200 1370 2100 2150 2151 2152 2153 2154 2200 2250 2300 8600 8608 8940 8957 541211 0100 0950 1000 1100 1200 1370 2100 2150 2151 2152 2153 2154 2200 2250 2300 8600 8608 8940 8957

Establishments (number) 6 391 277 215 79

Receipts1 ($1,000) 3 489 167 55 292 41 557 13 735

Title abstract & settlement offices Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Individuals (including estates) Fees received from real estate settlement services All other fees received Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Trade, farming, industrial, transportation, financial, and other business firms Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Government (Federal, state, and local, including public authorities) Distributions from law partnerships to professional corporations and associations Other legal services All other receipts All other receipts or revenue All other legal services Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Government (Federal, state, and local, including public authorities) Other legal services All other receipts All other receipts or revenue Accounting, tax return prep, bookkeeping, & payroll services Public relations services Custom computer programming and support services Computer systems specification and design services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Data processing services Social sciences and humanities research and development Accounting and auditing services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services Tax return preparation services Bookkeeping services Billing services Payroll accounting services Tax consulting Management consulting Management and administrative services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Accounting, tax return prep, bookkeeping, & payroll services Public relations services Custom computer programming and support services Computer systems specification and design services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Data processing services Social sciences and humanities research and development Accounting and auditing services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services Tax return preparation services Bookkeeping services Billing services Payroll accounting services Tax consulting Management consulting Management and administrative services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Offices of certified public accountants Public relations services Custom computer programming and support services Computer systems specification and design services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Data processing services Social sciences and humanities research and development Accounting and auditing services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services Tax return preparation services Bookkeeping services Billing services Payroll accounting services Tax consulting Management consulting Management and administrative services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts See footnotes at end of table.

23 19 20 6 391 770 770 1 568 9 1 568 101 101 97 512 158 630 1 347 2 378 2 427 23 55 386 92 78 51 10 28 889 274 546 429 815

4 054 1 775 678 3 344 214 83 154 83 154 946 349 1 113 911 818 32 843 32 843 61 117 315 5 165 42 068 218 416 86 422 3 046 273 322 18 095 967 30 12 3 2 11 068 039 329 976 723 873 323 773 152 625

.1 .1 Z 95.8 2.4 2.4 100.0 .1 96.4 3.5 3.5 100.0 Z .1 .4 .1 5.0 Z 29.6 49.2 19.7 5.4 4.9 19.2 5.4 7.6 .5 .2 .2 1.8 1.8 100.0 Z .1 .4 .1 5.0 Z 29.6 49.2 19.7 5.4 4.9 19.2 5.4 7.6 .5 .2 .2 1.8 1.8 100.0 Z .1 .6 .2 .2 Z 44.4 31.0 24.4 5.1 .3 1.2 8.5 11.9 .7 Z Z 2.5 2.5

X X X X 60.0 X 79.6 X X 63.4 X 79.3 X X X X X X X 63.4 X X X X X X X 78.8 X 72.1 X 79.3 X X X X X X X 63.4 X X X X X X X 78.8 X 72.1 X 85.1 X X X X X X X 82.5 X X X X X X X 83.7 X 77.4 X

23 517 21 769 6 004 2 041 2 041 11 310 11 310 97 512 158 630 1 347 2 378 2 427 23 55 386 92 78 51 10 28 889 274 546 429 815

3 311 865 4 673 543 333 817 127 770 127 770 1 106 814 1 106 814 61 117 315 5 165 42 068 218 416 86 422 3 046 273 322 18 095 967 30 12 3 2 11 068 039 329 976 723 873 323 773 152 625

23 517 21 769 6 004 2 041 2 041 11 310 11 310 53 651 55 339 1 288 1 722 1 532 11 46 640 51 346 51 184 32 009 929 16 314 20 773 19 974 5 099 316 316 7 220 7 220

3 311 865 4 673 543 333 817 127 770 127 770 1 106 814 1 106 814 38 601 265 2 453 35 009 215 119 68 658 67 704 206 17 144 144 11 967 721 9 430 414 1 970 071 99 948 467 288 3 264 488 4 587 117 266 771 17 870 17 870 964 005 964 005

12

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 100.0 Z Z .1 .2 .7 93.1 90.0 2.3 .1 .8 1.0 .1 .1 2.8 2.8 2.0 2.0 100.0 Z Z 20.9 Z 78.3 .1 Z Z 78.2 Z .1 .1 .3 .3 .2 .2 100.0 Z .1 Z .2 .3 Z 15.0 80.6 10.2 21.0 46.2 3.2 .4 1.0 .9 .2 .2 1.1 1.1 100.0 .5 .1 .3 12.4 1.3 1.3 4.0 .7 4.3 .8 63.7 12.6 5.5 5.9 7.3 7.1 2.2 .9 7.6 9.0 5.8 .2 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts 75.7 X X X X X 74.6 X X X X X X X 75.7 X 75.4 X 75.6 X X X X 25.2 X X X X X X X 75.3 X 39.1 X 53.3 X X X X X X X 46.2 X X X X X X X 50.0 X 45.5 X 71.7 X X X 70.2 X X X X X X 63.6 X X X X X X X X X X X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 541213 0100 1000 1100 1200 2100 2150 2151 2152 2153 2154 2200 2250 2300 8600 8608 8940 8957 541214 0950 1100 1200 2100 2150 2151 2152 2153 2154 2200 2250 2300 8600 8608 8940 8957 541219 0100 0950 1000 1100 1200 1370 2100 2150 2151 2152 2153 2154 2200 2250 2300 8600 8608 8940 8957 5413 0500 0550 0700 0750 0751 0752 0753 0754 0755 0756 0800 0801 0802 0803 0804 0805 0806 0807 0808 0809 0811 0850

Establishments (number) 12 830 84 8 261 21 1 033 12 830 12 830 3 698 54 1 956 1 193 256 51 1 380 1 380 2 092 2 092 2 709 7 15 628 36 2 709 89 89 34 2 709 8 75 52 94 94 104 104 28 322 16 284 47 380 246 12 7 677 26 14 15 9 7 004 171 750 412 836

Receipts1 ($1,000) 2 184 210 198 182 2 150 3 392 14 818 2 033 697 1 965 001 49 636 1 998 17 062 20 769 2 706 2 586 60 559 60 559 43 153 43 153 14 113 017 903 1 030 2 955 206 1 433 11 055 982 8 555 3 912 776 11 042 739 440 19 501 8 587 36 368 36 368 31 293 31 293 6 218 823 1 002 6 156 2 353 14 584 19 971 116 935 572 5 011 635 1 306 2 873 196 473 353 154 430 536

Tax return preparation services Public relations services Computer systems specification and design services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Data processing services Accounting and auditing services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services Tax return preparation services Bookkeeping services Billing services Payroll accounting services Tax consulting Management consulting Management and administrative services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Payroll services Custom computer programming and support services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Data processing services Accounting and auditing services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services Tax return preparation services Bookkeeping services Billing services Payroll accounting services Tax consulting Management consulting Management and administrative services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Other accounting services Public relations services Custom computer programming and support services Computer systems specification and design services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Data processing services Social sciences and humanities research and development Accounting and auditing services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services Tax return preparation services Bookkeeping services Billing services Payroll accounting services Tax consulting Management consulting Management and administrative services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Architectural, engineering, & related services Interior design services Industrial design services Urban or city planning services Architectural services, except landscape Architectural advisory and predesign services Architectural design services for residential projects Architectural design services for commercial projects Architectural design services for industrial projects Architectural design services for public and institutional projects Architectural design services for other architectural design projects Engineering services Engineering advisory and predesign services Engineering design services for construction of foundation and building structures Engineering design services for mechanical and electrical installations for buildings Engineering design services for construction of civil engineering works Engineering design services for industrial processes and production equipment Engineering design services for manufactured products Engineering design services for marine projects Engineering design services for environmental projects Engineering design services for other engineering design projects Other engineering services during the construction and installation phase Landscape architectural services See footnotes at end of table.

1 543 1 464 802 251 251 1 894 1 894 92 710 7 460 463 1 944 26 9 13 17 9 11 5 797 087 935 355 835 129 705 14 1 1 4

26 168 64 219 55 873 12 973 12 973 68 363 68 363 116 986 061 628 270 100 753 306 065 528 500 551 703 863 5 003 906 876 756 852 691 072 100 404

57 752 31 790 14 493 12 109 18 926 8 958 4 2 10 11 407 419 132 848

74 565 673 14 697 404 6 380 093 6 857 172 8 483 692 8 303 958 2 1 8 10 519 100 850 557 334 267 299 589

15 506 2 206

6 815 866 223 726

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

13

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 5413 1000 1330 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2050 8600 8607 8940 8956 54131 0500 0550 0700 0750 0751 0752 0753 0754 0755 0756 0800 0801 0802 0803 0804 0805 0806 0807 0808 0809 0811 0850 1000 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2008 2009 2050 8600 8607 8940 8956 541310 0500 0550 0700 0750 0751 0752 0753 0754 0755 0756

Establishments (number) Con. 1 032 524 11 476 14 6 1 14 969 120 139 962

Receipts1 ($1,000)

Architectural, engineering, & related services

Computer systems specification and design services Physical and engineering sciences research and development Drafting services Architectural, engineering, surveying, drafting, and related services not performed by this establishment and other reimbursables Building or home inspection services Geophysical surveying and mapping services Surveying and mapping services, except geophysical Testing services (physical or product) Chemical analysis and testing Nondestructive testing Mechanical testing Geotechnical or geosciences testing Electrical testing Biological testing Metrology Acoustic, optical, and thermal testing Other testing services Construction management services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise and equipment All other receipts All other receipts Architectural services Interior design services Industrial design services Urban or city planning services Architectural services, except landscape Architectural advisory and predesign services Architectural design services for residential projects Architectural design services for commercial projects Architectural design services for industrial projects Architectural design services for public and institutional projects Architectural design services for other architectural design projects Engineering services Engineering advisory and predesign services Engineering design services for construction of foundation and building structures Engineering design services for mechanical and electrical installations for buildings Engineering design services for construction of civil engineering works Engineering design services for industrial processes and production equipment Engineering design services for manufactured products Engineering design services for marine projects Engineering design services for environmental projects Engineering design services for other engineering design projects Other engineering services during the construction and installation phase Landscape architectural services Computer systems specification and design services Drafting services Architectural, engineering, surveying, drafting, and related services not performed by this establishment and other reimbursables Building or home inspection services Geophysical surveying and mapping services Surveying and mapping services, except geophysical Testing services (physical or product) Chemical analysis and testing Nondestructive testing Mechanical testing Geotechnical or geosciences testing Electrical testing Biological testing Acoustic, optical, and thermal testing Other testing services Construction management services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise and equipment All other receipts All other receipts Architectural services Interior design services Industrial design services Urban or city planning services Architectural services, except landscape Architectural advisory and predesign services Architectural design services for residential projects Architectural design services for commercial projects Architectural design services for industrial projects Architectural design services for public and institutional projects Architectural design services for other architectural design projects See footnotes at end of table.

371 780 172 013 1 827 522 4 064 736 1 205 4 360 142 854 199 855

.3 .1 1.6 3.5 .6 1.0 3.7 5.9 1.5 1.1 .5 .6 .7 .2 .1 Z 1.2 3.1 .7 .7 2.2 2.2 100.0 2.8 Z .5 79.0 8.2 9.0 26.2 3.6 27.3 4.6 4.9 .9 1.1 1.6 .5 .1 Z Z .1 .2 .3 .6 Z .7 9.3 .1 Z .1 .1 Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z 1.1 .1 .1 .8 .8 100.0 2.8 Z .5 79.0 8.2 9.0 26.2 3.6 27.3 4.6

X X X X X X X 63.0 X X X X X X X X X X 62.7 X 65.9 X 74.3 X X X 72.3 X X X X X X 72.8 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 71.6 X X X X X X X X X 71.7 X 70.4 X 74.3 X X X 72.3 X X X X X X

9 086 2 554 1 806 978 2 335 1 326 510 124 171 1 880 8 606 1 778 1 778 5 431 5 431 20 602 4 265 133 419 20 8 13 15 5 10 5 602 446 015 820 698 250 027

6 908 886 1 740 032 1 240 577 635 296 716 477 843 847 237 65 38 1 390 647 748 794 468

3 571 807 789 719 789 719 2 623 919 2 623 919 16 988 338 474 285 5 394 78 408 13 1 1 4 412 389 524 456 619 4 644 777 691 387 759 756 679 225 885

3 483 1 989 1 453 1 272 606 157 7 30 81 295 373 1 394 48 1 242 5 571 1 003 43 184 149 17 11 6 98 7 7 16 17 1 166 170 170 1 033 1 033 20 602 4 265 133 419 20 8 13 15 5 10 5 602 446 015 820 698 250 027 13 1 1 4

826 844 161 118 185 982 274 129 82 701 11 870 209 3 907 19 189 40 107 47 632 103 073 5 084 113 088 1 588 149 10 785 679 10 566 14 915 2 031 1 563 467 3 439 640 1 274 262 5 239 189 121 18 777 18 777 136 479 136 479 16 988 338 474 285 5 394 78 408 412 389 524 456 619 4 644 777 691 387 759 756 679 225 885

14

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 541310 0800 0801 0802 0803 0804 0805 0806 0807 0808 0809 0811 0850 1000 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2008 2009 2050 8600 8607 8940 8956 54133 0500 0550 0700 0750 0751 0752 0753 0754 0755 0756 0800 0801 0802 0803 0804 0805 0806 0807 0808 0809 0811 0850 1000 1330 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2050 8600 8607

Establishments (number)

Receipts1 ($1,000)

Architectural services

Con. 3 483 1 989 1 453 1 272 606 157 7 30 81 295 373 1 394 48 1 242 5 571 1 003 43 184 149 17 11 6 98 7 7 16 17 1 166 170 170 1 033 1 033 52 526 3 190 320 1 248 5 631 497 527 1 333 4 113 857 665 52 526 28 993 12 791 10 788 17 702 8 758 4 2 9 11 373 370 842 312 826 844 161 118 185 982 274 129 82 701 11 870 209 3 907 19 189 40 107 47 632 103 073 5 084 113 088 1 588 149 10 785 679 10 566 14 915 2 031 1 563 467 3 439 640 1 274 262 5 239 189 121 18 777 18 777 136 479 136 479 88 180 688 153 726 94 597 220 915 1 097 108 21 242 242 355 127 627 240 383 924 096 817 167 4.9 .9 1.1 1.6 .5 .1 Z Z .1 .2 .3 .6 Z .7 9.3 .1 Z .1 .1 Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z 1.1 .1 .1 .8 .8 100.0 .2 .1 .3 1.2 .1 Z .3 .3 .4 .1 83.2 16.4 7.0 7.5 9.4 9.4 2.9 1.2 10.0 11.9 7.6 .1 .4 .2 1.3 2.7 .1 .1 1.9 .9 .2 .1 .1 .4 .1 Z Z Z .1 3.8 .8 .8 72.8 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 71.6 X X X X X X X X X 71.7 X 70.4 X 68.6 X X X 67.8 X X X X X X 60.3 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 60.4 X X X X X X X X X X 60.2 X

Engineering services Engineering advisory and predesign services Engineering design services for construction of foundation and building structures Engineering design services for mechanical and electrical installations for buildings Engineering design services for construction of civil engineering works Engineering design services for industrial processes and production equipment Engineering design services for manufactured products Engineering design services for marine projects Engineering design services for environmental projects Engineering design services for other engineering design projects Other engineering services during the construction and installation phase Landscape architectural services Computer systems specification and design services Drafting services Architectural, engineering, surveying, drafting, and related services not performed by this establishment and other reimbursables Building or home inspection services Geophysical surveying and mapping services Surveying and mapping services, except geophysical Testing services (physical or product) Chemical analysis and testing Nondestructive testing Mechanical testing Geotechnical or geosciences testing Electrical testing Biological testing Acoustic, optical, and thermal testing Other testing services Construction management services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise and equipment All other receipts All other receipts Engineering services Interior design services Industrial design services Urban or city planning services Architectural services, except landscape Architectural advisory and predesign services Architectural design services for residential projects Architectural design services for commercial projects Architectural design services for industrial projects Architectural design services for public and institutional projects Architectural design services for other architectural design projects Engineering services Engineering advisory and predesign services Engineering design services for construction of foundation and building structures Engineering design services for mechanical and electrical installations for buildings Engineering design services for construction of civil engineering works Engineering design services for industrial processes and production equipment Engineering design services for manufactured products Engineering design services for marine projects Engineering design services for environmental projects Engineering design services for other engineering design projects Other engineering services during the construction and installation phase Landscape architectural services Computer systems specification and design services Physical and engineering sciences research and development Drafting services Architectural, engineering, surveying, drafting, and related services not performed by this establishment and other reimbursables Building or home inspection services Geophysical surveying and mapping services Surveying and mapping services, except geophysical Testing services (physical or product) Chemical analysis and testing Nondestructive testing Mechanical testing Geotechnical or geosciences testing Electrical testing Biological testing Metrology Acoustic, optical, and thermal testing Other testing services Construction management services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise and equipment See footnotes at end of table.

73 401 122 14 429 830 6 160 682 6 578 622 8 307 641 8 287 446 2 1 8 10 512 091 787 501 746 087 232 119

14 855 763 895 485 7 900 8 787 1 891 452 5 839 3 260 486 285 198 1 421 771 116 12 60 463 7 191 1 327 1 327

6 744 717 117 357 136 1 111 2 423 100 72 1 663 822 145 46 64 319 127 13 5 4 96 745 426 319 128 696 757 738 566 690 755 609 268 723 516 331 062 055 371

3 373 106 712 354 712 354

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

15

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 54133 8940 8956 541330 0500 0550 0700 0750 0751 0752 0753 0754 0755 0756 0800 0801 0802 0803 0804 0805 0806 0807 0808 0809 0811 0850 1000 1330 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2050 8600 8607 8940 8956 54134 0550 0750 0751 0752 0753 0754 0800 0801 0802 0803 0805 0808 0809 0811 1000 1750 1800 1950 2050 8600 8607 8940 8956

Establishments (number)

Receipts1 ($1,000)

Engineering services Con. All other receipts All other receipts Engineering services Interior design services Industrial design services Urban or city planning services Architectural services, except landscape Architectural advisory and predesign services Architectural design services for residential projects Architectural design services for commercial projects Architectural design services for industrial projects Architectural design services for public and institutional projects Architectural design services for other architectural design projects Engineering services Engineering advisory and predesign services Engineering design services for construction of foundation and building structures Engineering design services for mechanical and electrical installations for buildings Engineering design services for construction of civil engineering works Engineering design services for industrial processes and production equipment Engineering design services for manufactured products Engineering design services for marine projects Engineering design services for environmental projects Engineering design services for other engineering design projects Other engineering services during the construction and installation phase Landscape architectural services Computer systems specification and design services Physical and engineering sciences research and development Drafting services Architectural, engineering, surveying, drafting, and related services not performed by this establishment and other reimbursables Building or home inspection services Geophysical surveying and mapping services Surveying and mapping services, except geophysical Testing services (physical or product) Chemical analysis and testing Nondestructive testing Mechanical testing Geotechnical or geosciences testing Electrical testing Biological testing Metrology Acoustic, optical, and thermal testing Other testing services Construction management services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise and equipment All other receipts All other receipts Drafting services Industrial design services Architectural services, except landscape Architectural advisory and predesign services Architectural design services for residential projects Architectural design services for commercial projects Architectural design services for industrial projects Engineering services Engineering advisory and predesign services Engineering design services for construction of foundation and building structures Engineering design services for mechanical and electrical installations for buildings Engineering design services for industrial processes and production equipment Engineering design services for environmental projects Engineering design services for other engineering design projects Other engineering services during the construction and installation phase Computer systems specification and design services Drafting services Architectural, engineering, surveying, drafting, and related services not performed by this establishment and other reimbursables Surveying and mapping services, except geophysical Construction management services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise and equipment All other receipts All other receipts See footnotes at end of table. 3 232 3 232 52 526 3 190 320 1 248 5 631 497 527 1 333 4 113 857 665 52 526 28 993 12 791 10 788 17 702 8 758 4 2 9 11 373 370 842 312 2 321 176 2 321 176 88 180 688 153 726 94 597 220 915 1 097 108 21 242 242 355 127 627 240 383 924 096 817 167 2.6 2.6 100.0 .2 .1 .3 1.2 .1 Z .3 .3 .4 .1 83.2 16.4 7.0 7.5 9.4 9.4 2.9 1.2 10.0 11.9 7.6 .1 .4 .2 1.3 2.7 .1 .1 1.9 .9 .2 .1 .1 .4 .1 Z Z Z .1 3.8 .8 .8 2.6 2.6 100.0 .1 .9 .2 .3 .3 .1 2.0 .7 .2 .1 .2 Z .4 .2 .2 92.3 1.0 .9 .3 .8 .8 1.1 1.1 62.1 X 68.6 X X X 67.8 X X X X X X 60.3 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 60.4 X X X X X X X X X X 60.2 X 62.1 X 100.0 X 100.0 X X X X 100.0 X X X X X X X X X X X X 98.9 X 100.0 X

73 401 122 14 429 830 6 160 682 6 578 622 8 307 641 8 287 446 2 1 8 10 512 091 787 501 746 087 232 119

14 855 763 895 485 7 900 8 787 1 891 452 5 839 3 260 486 285 198 1 421 771 116 12 60 463 7 191 1 327 1 327 3 232 3 232 1 872 7 138 16 110 13 11 93 43 22 9 15 13 21 20 20 1 872 89 26 18 53 53 160 160

6 744 717 117 357 136 1 111 2 423 100 72 1 663 822 145 46 64 319 127 13 5 4 96 745 426 319 128 696 757 738 566 690 755 609 268 723 516 331 062 055 371

3 373 106 712 354 712 354 2 321 176 2 321 176 605 362 433 5 441 909 2 041 1 511 757 12 357 4 004 1 461 601 1 427 280 2 329 1 020 1 300 558 874 6 107 5 347 1 629 5 000 5 000 6 919 6 919

16

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 100.0 .1 .9 .2 .3 .3 .1 2.0 .7 .2 .1 .2 Z .4 .2 .2 92.3 1.0 .9 .3 .8 .8 1.1 1.1 100.0 .4 .3 .1 .1 Z 1.1 .4 .2 .1 Z .2 .3 Z .1 91.9 .2 1.2 .1 .5 .2 .3 .4 Z Z 4.4 4.4 100.0 .4 .3 .1 .1 Z 1.1 .4 .2 .1 Z .2 .3 Z .1 91.9 .2 1.2 .1 .5 .2 .3 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts 100.0 X 100.0 X X X X 100.0 X X X X X X X X X X X X 98.9 X 100.0 X 64.9 X 64.9 X X X 64.9 X X X X X X X X X X 64.6 X X X X X 64.9 X 24.6 X 64.9 X 64.9 X X X 64.9 X X X X X X X X X X 64.6 X X X X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 541340 0550 0750 0751 0752 0753 0754 0800 0801 0802 0803 0805 0808 0809 0811 1000 1750 1800 1950 2050 8600 8607 8940 8956 54135 0700 0750 0751 0752 0753 0800 0801 0802 0803 0804 0808 0811 1750 1800 1850 1950 2000 2001 2002 2004 2009 2050 8600 8607 8940 8956 541350 0700 0750 0751 0752 0753 0800 0801 0802 0803 0804 0808 0811 1750 1800 1850 1950 2000 2001 2002 2004 2009

Establishments (number) 1 872 7 138 16 110 13 11 93 43 22 9 15 13 21 20 20 1 872 89 26 18 53 53 160 160 2 771 159 166 54 113 105 86 30 21 13 10 18 23 11 23 2 771 11 116 22 23 19 72 126 9 9 122 122 2 771 159 166 54 113 105 86 30 21 13 10 18 23 11 23 2 771 11 116 22 23 19 72

Receipts1 ($1,000) 605 362 433 5 441 909 2 041 1 511 757 12 357 4 004 1 461 601 1 427 280 2 329 1 020 1 300 558 874 6 107 5 347 1 629 5 000 5 000 6 919 6 919 639 041 2 543 1 661 320 915 306 7 045 2 295 1 173 537 180 1 088 1 707 38 661 587 046 1 392 7 635 555 2 997 1 173 1 893 2 490 277 277 28 253 28 253 639 041 2 543 1 661 320 915 306 7 045 2 295 1 173 537 180 1 088 1 707 38 661 587 046 1 392 7 635 555 2 997 1 173 1 893

Drafting services Industrial design services Architectural services, except landscape Architectural advisory and predesign services Architectural design services for residential projects Architectural design services for commercial projects Architectural design services for industrial projects Engineering services Engineering advisory and predesign services Engineering design services for construction of foundation and building structures Engineering design services for mechanical and electrical installations for buildings Engineering design services for industrial processes and production equipment Engineering design services for environmental projects Engineering design services for other engineering design projects Other engineering services during the construction and installation phase Computer systems specification and design services Drafting services Architectural, engineering, surveying, drafting, and related services not performed by this establishment and other reimbursables Surveying and mapping services, except geophysical Construction management services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise and equipment All other receipts All other receipts Building inspection services Urban or city planning services Architectural services, except landscape Architectural advisory and predesign services Architectural design services for residential projects Architectural design services for commercial projects Engineering services Engineering advisory and predesign services Engineering design services for construction of foundation and building structures Engineering design services for mechanical and electrical installations for buildings Engineering design services for construction of civil engineering works Engineering design services for environmental projects Other engineering services during the construction and installation phase Drafting services Architectural, engineering, surveying, drafting, and related services not performed by this establishment and other reimbursables Building or home inspection services Surveying and mapping services, except geophysical Testing services (physical or product) Chemical analysis and testing Nondestructive testing Geotechnical or geosciences testing Other testing services Construction management services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise and equipment All other receipts All other receipts Building inspection services Urban or city planning services Architectural services, except landscape Architectural advisory and predesign services Architectural design services for residential projects Architectural design services for commercial projects Engineering services Engineering advisory and predesign services Engineering design services for construction of foundation and building structures Engineering design services for mechanical and electrical installations for buildings Engineering design services for construction of civil engineering works Engineering design services for environmental projects Other engineering services during the construction and installation phase Drafting services Architectural, engineering, surveying, drafting, and related services not performed by this establishment and other reimbursables Building or home inspection services Surveying and mapping services, except geophysical Testing services (physical or product) Chemical analysis and testing Nondestructive testing Geotechnical or geosciences testing Other testing services See footnotes at end of table.

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

17

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 541350 2050 8600 8607 8940 8956 54136 0800 0804 0808 1800 1900 1950 2000 2004 8940 8956 541360 0800 0804 0808 1800 1900 1950 2000 2004 8940 8956 54137 0700 0750 0751 0752 0753 0754 0755 0756 0800 0801 0802 0804 0807 0808 0809 0811 0850 1000 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2001 2004 2009 2050 8600 8607 8940 8956 541370 0700 0750 0751 0752 0753 0754 0755 0756

Establishments (number)

Receipts1 ($1,000)

Building inspection services Construction management services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise and equipment All other receipts All other receipts

Con. 126 9 9 122 122 587 33 14 15 7 587 34 24 24 57 57 587 33 14 15 7 587 34 24 24 57 57 8 864 114 251 70 170 80 6 9 9 950 375 137 571 9 86 161 156 46 63 440 406 47 53 8 864 46 9 26 14 94 11 11 347 347 8 864 114 251 70 170 80 6 9 9 2 490 277 277 28 253 28 253 1 087 786 2 945 1 590 958 1 086 1 054 989 17 454 1 834 1 834 7 629 7 629 1 087 786 2 945 1 590 958 1 086 1 054 989 17 454 1 834 1 834 7 629 7 629 3 041 882 3 871 889 043 754 159 486 2 122 1 325 171 516 39 076 18 054 87 729 789 6 939 9 133 9 398 2 855 1 995 41 899 35 2 74 2 661 550 989 616 937 9 1 2 2 .4 Z Z 4.4 4.4 100.0 .3 .1 .1 .1 97.0 1.6 .2 .2 .7 .7 100.0 .3 .1 .1 .1 97.0 1.6 .2 .2 .7 .7 100.0 .1 .3 Z .1 .1 Z .1 Z 5.6 1.3 .6 2.9 Z .2 .3 .3 .1 .1 1.4 1.2 .1 2.5 87.5 .2 Z .1 Z .1 .1 .1 .7 .7 100.0 .1 .3 Z .1 .1 Z .1 Z X 64.9 X 24.6 X 74.3 74.3 X X X X X 74.3 X 74.3 X 74.3 74.3 X X X X X 74.3 X 74.3 X 98.4 X 98.4 X X X X X X 97.6 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 94.9 X X X X 88.3 X 97.9 X 98.4 X 98.4 X X X X X X

Geophysical surveying & mapping services Engineering services Engineering design services for construction of civil engineering works Engineering design services for environmental projects Architectural, engineering, surveying, drafting, and related services not performed by this establishment and other reimbursables Geophysical surveying and mapping services Surveying and mapping services, except geophysical Testing services (physical or product) Geotechnical or geosciences testing All other receipts All other receipts Geophysical surveying & mapping services Engineering services Engineering design services for construction of civil engineering works Engineering design services for environmental projects Architectural, engineering, surveying, drafting, and related services not performed by this establishment and other reimbursables Geophysical surveying and mapping services Surveying and mapping services, except geophysical Testing services (physical or product) Geotechnical or geosciences testing All other receipts All other receipts Surveying & mapping (except geophysical) services Urban or city planning services Architectural services, except landscape Architectural advisory and predesign services Architectural design services for residential projects Architectural design services for commercial projects Architectural design services for industrial projects Architectural design services for public and institutional projects Architectural design services for other architectural design projects Engineering services Engineering advisory and predesign services Engineering design services for construction of foundation and building structures Engineering design services for construction of civil engineering works Engineering design services for marine projects Engineering design services for environmental projects Engineering design services for other engineering design projects Other engineering services during the construction and installation phase Landscape architectural services Computer systems specification and design services Drafting services Architectural, engineering, surveying, drafting, and related services not performed by this establishment and other reimbursables Building or home inspection services Geophysical surveying and mapping services Surveying and mapping services, except geophysical Testing services (physical or product) Chemical analysis and testing Geotechnical or geosciences testing Other testing services Construction management services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise and equipment All other receipts All other receipts Surveying & mapping (except geophysical) services Urban or city planning services Architectural services, except landscape Architectural advisory and predesign services Architectural design services for residential projects Architectural design services for commercial projects Architectural design services for industrial projects Architectural design services for public and institutional projects Architectural design services for other architectural design projects See footnotes at end of table.

5 880 640 3 380 716 3 388 2 600 2 600 22 001 22 001 3 041 882 3 871 889 043 754 159 486 2 122 1 325 9 1 2 2

18

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 541370 0800 0801 0802 0804 0807 0808 0809 0811 0850 1000 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2001 2004 2009 2050 8600 8607 8940 8956 54138 0800 0801 0802 0803 0804 0805 0806 0807 0808 0809 0811 1000 1330 1750 1800 1850 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2050 8600 8607 8940 8956 541380 0800 0801 0802 0803 0804 0805 0806 0807 0808 0809 0811 1000 1330 1750

Establishments (number) Con. 950 375 137 571 9 86 161 156 46 63 440 406 47 53 8 864 46 9 26 14 94 11 11 347 347 5 488 581 360 65 23 21 27 22 8 76 55 75 6 33 11 86 403 5 488 2 019 1 487 769 747 545 384 112 95 1 314 11 205 205 480 480 5 488 581 360 65 23 21 27 22 8 76 55 75 6 33 11

Receipts1 ($1,000)

Surveying & mapping (except geophysical) services

Engineering services Engineering advisory and predesign services Engineering design services for construction of foundation and building structures Engineering design services for construction of civil engineering works Engineering design services for marine projects Engineering design services for environmental projects Engineering design services for other engineering design projects Other engineering services during the construction and installation phase Landscape architectural services Computer systems specification and design services Drafting services Architectural, engineering, surveying, drafting, and related services not performed by this establishment and other reimbursables Building or home inspection services Geophysical surveying and mapping services Surveying and mapping services, except geophysical Testing services (physical or product) Chemical analysis and testing Geotechnical or geosciences testing Other testing services Construction management services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise and equipment All other receipts All other receipts Testing laboratories Engineering services Engineering advisory and predesign services Engineering design services for construction of foundation and building structures Engineering design services for mechanical and electrical installations for buildings Engineering design services for construction of civil engineering works Engineering design services for industrial processes and production equipment Engineering design services for manufactured products Engineering design services for marine projects Engineering design services for environmental projects Engineering design services for other engineering design projects Other engineering services during the construction and installation phase Computer systems specification and design services Physical and engineering sciences research and development Drafting services Architectural, engineering, surveying, drafting, and related services not performed by this establishment and other reimbursables Building or home inspection services Testing services (physical or product) Chemical analysis and testing Nondestructive testing Mechanical testing Geotechnical or geosciences testing Electrical testing Biological testing Metrology Acoustic, optical, and thermal testing Other testing services Construction management services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise and equipment All other receipts All other receipts Testing laboratories Engineering services Engineering advisory and predesign services Engineering design services for construction of foundation and building structures Engineering design services for mechanical and electrical installations for buildings Engineering design services for construction of civil engineering works Engineering design services for industrial processes and production equipment Engineering design services for manufactured products Engineering design services for marine projects Engineering design services for environmental projects Engineering design services for other engineering design projects Other engineering services during the construction and installation phase Computer systems specification and design services Physical and engineering sciences research and development Drafting services See footnotes at end of table.

171 516 39 076 18 054 87 729 789 6 939 9 133 9 398 2 855 1 995 41 899 35 2 74 2 661 550 989 616 937

5.6 1.3 .6 2.9 Z .2 .3 .3 .1 .1 1.4 1.2 .1 2.5 87.5 .2 Z .1 Z .1 .1 .1 .7 .7 100.0 2.2 .9 .2 .1 .1 Z .1 .1 .5 .1 .2 .1 .5 Z .1 .5 94.0 24.7 18.5 8.8 6.0 11.1 3.5 .9 .5 20.0 Z .8 .8 1.6 1.6 100.0 2.2 .9 .2 .1 .1 Z .1 .1 .5 .1 .2 .1 .5 Z

97.6 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 94.9 X X X X 88.3 X 97.9 X 91.7 90.2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 80.1 X X X X X X X X X X 75.4 X 86.7 X 91.7 90.2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X

5 880 640 3 380 716 3 388 2 600 2 600 22 001 22 001 6 442 964 143 844 61 081 12 433 3 213 3 818 2 887 5 4 34 4 503 157 613 836

11 303 5 975 34 565 2 495 8 893 34 554 6 055 457 1 590 971 1 189 408 569 600 386 928 715 242 222 60 33 1 286 591 686 782 249

2 073 49 145 49 145 101 462 101 462 6 442 964 143 844 61 081 12 433 3 213 3 818 2 887 5 4 34 4 503 157 613 836

11 303 5 975 34 565 2 495

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

19

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 541380 1800 1850 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2050 8600 8607 8940 8956 5414 0500 0501 0502 0503 0550 0570 0600 0602 0603 0750 0800 0850 0900 1450 8600 8602 8940 8952 54141 0500 0501 0502 0503 0550 0570 0600 0602 0603 0750 0800 0850 0900 1450 8600 8602 8940 8952 541410 0500 0501 0502 0503 0550 0570 0600 0602 0603 0750 0800 0850 0900 1450 8600 8602 8940 8952

Establishments (number)

Receipts1 ($1,000)

Testing laboratories

Con. 86 403 5 488 2 019 1 487 769 747 545 384 112 95 1 314 11 205 205 480 480 26 436 9 916 8 389 6 849 3 249 1 535 641 15 215 3 266 13 627 286 182 16 1 280 1 251 2 175 2 175 2 290 2 290 9 612 9 612 8 274 6 793 3 033 146 31 499 117 459 255 32 16 375 31 634 634 543 543 9 612 9 612 8 274 6 793 3 033 146 31 499 117 459 255 32 16 375 31 634 634 543 543 8 893 34 554 6 055 457 1 590 971 1 189 408 569 600 386 928 715 242 222 60 33 1 286 591 686 782 249 .1 .5 94.0 24.7 18.5 8.8 6.0 11.1 3.5 .9 .5 20.0 Z .8 .8 1.6 1.6 100.0 32.4 13.2 16.8 2.4 8.9 1.8 48.7 5.6 43.1 .4 .3 Z 1.7 .5 2.4 2.4 2.8 2.8 100.0 92.5 37.5 48.4 6.6 .3 Z 1.4 .1 1.3 1.2 .1 Z .8 Z 2.1 2.1 1.5 1.5 100.0 92.5 37.5 48.4 6.6 .3 Z 1.4 .1 1.3 1.2 .1 Z .8 Z 2.1 2.1 1.5 1.5 X X 80.1 X X X X X X X X X X 75.4 X 86.7 X 64.6 40.3 X X X X X 60.4 X X X X X X X 48.7 X 59.6 X 64.7 39.9 X X X X X 64.7 X X X X X X X 54.6 X 59.9 X 64.7 39.9 X X X X X 64.7 X X X X X X X 54.6 X 59.9 X

Architectural, engineering, surveying, drafting, and related services not performed by this establishment and other reimbursables Building or home inspection services Testing services (physical or product) Chemical analysis and testing Nondestructive testing Mechanical testing Geotechnical or geosciences testing Electrical testing Biological testing Metrology Acoustic, optical, and thermal testing Other testing services Construction management services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise and equipment All other receipts All other receipts Specialized design services Interior design services Fees Sales of products specified as part of an integrated interior design service Income from subcontracted work Industrial design services Fashion design services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Architectural services, except landscape Engineering services Landscape architectural services Specialized design services Photography services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Interior design services Interior design services Fees Sales of products specified as part of an integrated interior design service Income from subcontracted work Industrial design services Fashion design services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Architectural services, except landscape Engineering services Landscape architectural services Specialized design services Photography services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Interior design services Interior design services Fees Sales of products specified as part of an integrated interior design service Income from subcontracted work Industrial design services Fashion design services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Architectural services, except landscape Engineering services Landscape architectural services Specialized design services Photography services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts See footnotes at end of table.

2 073 49 145 49 145 101 462 101 462 14 254 024 4 613 437 1 876 690 2 396 450 340 297 1 271 234 251 518 6 947 721 803 652 6 144 069 60 373 40 525 315 248 990 73 963 340 749 340 749 403 660 403 660 4 945 340 4 573 940 1 854 087 2 392 930 326 923 13 840 1 642 70 982 5 989 64 993 57 053 3 988 315 41 457 1 966 104 715 104 715 75 442 75 442 4 945 340 4 573 940 1 854 087 2 392 930 326 923 13 840 1 642 70 982 5 989 64 993 57 053 3 988 315 41 457 1 966 104 715 104 715 75 442 75 442

20

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 100.0 .4 .3 Z .1 91.3 1.3 Z 1.3 .1 2.5 .3 1.7 1.7 2.4 2.4 100.0 .4 .3 Z .1 91.3 1.3 Z 1.3 .1 2.5 .3 1.7 1.7 2.4 2.4 100.0 .4 .2 Z .2 .2 90.7 10.6 80.2 Z Z 1.2 1.0 2.5 2.5 3.9 3.9 100.0 .4 .2 Z .2 .2 90.7 10.6 80.2 Z Z 1.2 1.0 2.5 2.5 3.9 3.9 100.0 .4 .2 Z .1 .1 90.6 1.7 88.9 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts 69.5 24.6 X X X X 67.8 X X X X X 13.1 X 52.3 X 69.5 24.6 X X X X 67.8 X X X X X 13.1 X 52.3 X 65.3 65.0 X X X X 60.9 X X X X X X 63.0 X 62.9 X 65.3 65.0 X X X X 60.9 X X X X X X 63.0 X 62.9 X 65.3 65.1 X X X X 61.8 X X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 54142 0500 0501 0502 0503 0550 0600 0602 0603 0750 0800 0900 8600 8602 8940 8952 541420 0500 0501 0502 0503 0550 0600 0602 0603 0750 0800 0900 8600 8602 8940 8952 54143 0500 0501 0502 0503 0550 0600 0602 0603 0750 0800 0900 1450 8600 8602 8940 8952 541430 0500 0501 0502 0503 0550 0600 0602 0603 0750 0800 0900 1450 8600 8602 8940 8952 5414301 0500 0501 0502 0503 0550 0600 0602 0603

Establishments (number) 1 322 80 33 26 46 1 322 64 13 55 11 109 18 172 172 78 78 1 322 80 33 26 46 1 322 64 13 55 11 109 18 172 172 78 78 14 631 210 73 30 161 67 14 631 3 133 13 095 20 31 608 1 216 1 331 1 331 1 636 1 636 14 631 210 73 30 161 67 14 631 3 133 13 095 20 31 608 1 216 1 331 1 331 1 636 1 636 12 565 163 55 27 124 54 12 565 1 076 12 565

Receipts1 ($1,000) 1 363 017 4 969 3 767 224 978 1 244 600 18 288 221 18 067 1 993 33 826 3 910 23 396 23 396 32 029 32 029 1 363 017 4 969 3 767 224 978 1 244 600 18 288 221 18 067 1 993 33 826 3 910 23 396 23 396 32 029 32 029 7 554 903 33 492 18 238 3 296 11 958 12 794 6 855 853 797 300 6 058 553 1 1 89 71 327 951 990 991

Industrial design services Interior design services Fees Sales of products specified as part of an integrated interior design service Income from subcontracted work Industrial design services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Architectural services, except landscape Engineering services Specialized design services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Industrial design services Interior design services Fees Sales of products specified as part of an integrated interior design service Income from subcontracted work Industrial design services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Architectural services, except landscape Engineering services Specialized design services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Graphic design services Interior design services Fees Sales of products specified as part of an integrated interior design service Income from subcontracted work Industrial design services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Architectural services, except landscape Engineering services Specialized design services Photography services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Graphic design services Interior design services Fees Sales of products specified as part of an integrated interior design service Income from subcontracted work Industrial design services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Architectural services, except landscape Engineering services Specialized design services Photography services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Graphic design services (except commercial art & medical artists) Interior design services Fees Sales of products specified as part of an integrated interior design service Income from subcontracted work Industrial design services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services See footnotes at end of table.

191 244 191 244 294 407 294 407 7 554 903 33 492 18 238 3 296 11 958 12 794 6 855 853 797 300 6 058 553 1 1 89 71 327 951 990 991

191 244 191 244 294 407 294 407 6 741 083 29 402 16 124 3 256 10 022 9 810 6 108 370 115 587 5 992 783

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

21

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 5414301 0750 0800 0900 1450 8600 8602 8940 8952 5414302 0500 0501 0503 0550 0600 0602 0603 0750 0800 0900 1450 8600 8602 8940 8952 5414303 0600 0602 0603 54149 0500 0501 0503 0570 0600 0603 0800 0900 8600 8602 8940 8952 541490 0500 0501 0503 0570 0600 0603 0800 0900 8600 8602 8940 8952 5415 0800 0950 0951 0952 0953 1000 1001 1002

Establishments (number)

Receipts1 ($1,000)

Graphic design services (except commercial art & medical artists) Con. Architectural services, except landscape Engineering services Specialized design services Photography services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Commercial art Interior design services Fees Income from subcontracted work Industrial design services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Architectural services, except landscape Engineering services Specialized design services Photography services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Medical artists Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Other specialized design services Interior design services Fees Income from subcontracted work Fashion design services Commercial art and graphic design Graphic design services Engineering services Specialized design services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Other specialized design services Interior design services Fees Income from subcontracted work Fashion design services Commercial art and graphic design Graphic design services Engineering services Specialized design services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Computer systems design & related services Engineering services Custom computer programming and support services Contract or custom programming services Modification of packaged software Software maintenance and systems testing or quality assurance Computer systems specification and design services Sale of integrated or turnkey systems (complete systems) Other systems specification and design services (may include consulting, planning, designing, software development, etc., except sale of complete, integrated systems) Computer facilities management services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Consumer applications software publishing for personal computer applications General business and operating systems applications software publishing for personal computer applications Vertical industry applications software publishing for personal computer applications Mainframe computer applications software publishing See footnotes at end of table. 12 21 547 1 120 1 247 1 247 1 536 1 536 2 017 47 18 37 13 2 017 2 017 517 8 10 57 92 84 84 97 97 49 49 39 13 871 14 9 10 606 21 18 10 279 38 38 33 33 871 14 9 10 606 21 18 10 279 38 38 33 33 72 278 1 561 42 37 7 14 183 180 112 976 1 1 79 65 304 892 825 054 Z Z 1.2 1.0 2.7 2.7 3.8 3.8 100.0 .5 .3 .2 .4 91.9 83.9 7.9 Z Z 1.3 .7 .8 .8 4.4 4.4 100.0 91.3 74.9 16.4 100.0 .3 .2 .1 63.9 .7 .6 .2 29.1 5.5 5.5 .5 .5 100.0 .3 .2 .1 63.9 .7 .6 .2 29.1 5.5 5.5 .5 .5 100.0 1.0 35.1 28.7 1.9 4.4 38.3 23.0 15.3 8.3 5.9 .1 .2 .3 .1 X X X X 62.9 X 62.8 X 62.4 62.4 X X X 50.1 X X X X X X 62.4 X 62.4 X 100.0 100.0 X X 32.3 32.3 X X X 32.3 X X X 25.4 X 32.3 X 32.3 32.3 X X X 32.3 X X X 25.4 X 32.3 X 65.8 X 59.0 X X X 52.8 X X X X X X X X

184 785 184 785 258 787 258 787 801 037 4 090 2 114 1 936 2 984 735 814 672 141 63 673 23 59 10 031 5 974 6 459 6 459 35 603 35 603 12 783 11 669 9 572 2 097 390 764 1 036 598 438 249 561 2 598 2 456 760 113 633 21 394 21 394 1 782 1 782 390 764 1 036 598 438 249 561 2 598 2 456 760 113 633 21 394 21 394 1 782 1 782 108 967 614 1 043 733 38 31 2 4 224 290 117 815 039 851 711 475

38 176 14 400 28 959 3 599 11 921 408 1 339 2 002 317

41 736 145 25 028 891 16 707 254 8 995 817 6 453 684 70 864 244 377 327 678 147 197

1050 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180

22

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 5415 1200 1250 1300 1330 6900 8600 8603 8604 8605 8940 8953 54151 0800 0950 0951 0952 0953 1000 1001 1002

Establishments (number)

Receipts1 ($1,000)

Computer systems design & related services Con. Data processing services Computer rental and leasing services Computer training (including repair) separate from that provided as part of systems design services Physical and engineering sciences research and development Electronic and precision equipment repair (including computer hardware maintenance and repair services) Merchandise sales Computer hardware and peripheral equipment Computer software (packaged software) All other merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Computer systems design & related services Engineering services Custom computer programming and support services Contract or custom programming services Modification of packaged software Software maintenance and systems testing or quality assurance Computer systems specification and design services Sale of integrated or turnkey systems (complete systems) Other systems specification and design services (may include consulting, planning, designing, software development, etc., except sale of complete, integrated systems) Computer facilities management services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Consumer applications software publishing for personal computer applications General business and operating systems applications software publishing for personal computer applications Vertical industry applications software publishing for personal computer applications Mainframe computer applications software publishing Data processing services Computer rental and leasing services Computer training (including repair) separate from that provided as part of systems design services Physical and engineering sciences research and development Electronic and precision equipment repair (including computer hardware maintenance and repair services) Merchandise sales Computer hardware and peripheral equipment Computer software (packaged software) All other merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Custom computer programming services Engineering services Custom computer programming and support services Contract or custom programming services Modification of packaged software Software maintenance and systems testing or quality assurance Computer systems specification and design services Sale of integrated or turnkey systems (complete systems) Other systems specification and design services (may include consulting, planning, designing, software development, etc., except sale of complete, integrated systems) Computer facilities management services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Consumer applications software publishing for personal computer applications General business and operating systems applications software publishing for personal computer applications Vertical industry applications software publishing for personal computer applications Mainframe computer applications software publishing Data processing services Computer rental and leasing services Computer training (including repair) separate from that provided as part of systems design services Physical and engineering sciences research and development Electronic and precision equipment repair (including computer hardware maintenance and repair services) Merchandise sales Computer hardware and peripheral equipment Computer software (packaged software) All other merchandise All other receipts All other receipts See footnotes at end of table. 31 29 4 9 1 892 658 5 243 159 2 915 11 9 6 2 751 111 713 134 829 625 115 489 710 954 68 607 3 339 400 5 411 773 3 471 169 1 612 477 328 126 1 248 232 1 248 232 108 967 614 1 043 733 38 31 2 4 224 290 117 815 039 851 711 475 .8 .1 .7 .1 3.1 5.0 3.2 1.5 .3 1.1 1.1 100.0 1.0 35.1 28.7 1.9 4.4 38.3 23.0 15.3 8.3 5.9 .1 .2 .3 .1 .8 .1 .7 .1 3.1 5.0 3.2 1.5 .3 1.1 1.1 100.0 .2 84.1 71.7 4.6 7.7 6.0 2.3 3.7 .8 1.5 .1 .5 .5 .2 1.1 .1 .5 .1 .2 2.8 1.4 1.3 .2 1.4 1.4 X X X X X 64.6 X X X 63.5 X 65.8 X 59.0 X X X 52.8 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 64.6 X X X 63.5 X 70.1 X 58.3 X X X 68.0 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 69.1 X X X 63.5 X

4 847 4 847 72 278 1 561 42 37 7 14 183 180 112 976

38 176 14 400 28 959 3 599 11 921 408 1 339 2 002 317 1 892 658 5 243 159 2 915 11 9 6 2 751 111 713 134

41 736 145 25 028 891 16 707 254 8 995 817 6 453 684 70 864 244 377 327 678 147 197 829 625 115 489 710 954 68 607 3 339 400 5 411 773 3 471 169 1 612 477 328 126 1 248 232 1 248 232 38 300 515 86 387 32 27 1 2 207 471 780 956 568 084 449 035

1050 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1250 1300 1330 6900 8600 8603 8604 8605 8940 8953 541511 0800 0950 0951 0952 0953 1000 1001 1002

4 847 4 847 31 624 477 624 817 455 279

6 569 2 529 4 590 954 1 239 191 836 822 200 895 86 1 328 51 549 3 933 2 924 2 023 921 2 004 2 004

2 289 393 881 180 1 408 213 288 896 564 073 56 889 177 477 181 190 78 476 409 809 45 186 182 440 32 230 71 480 1 080 528 479 72 966 940 027 999

1050 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1250 1300 1330 6900 8600 8603 8604 8605 8940 8953

548 055 548 055

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

23

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 100.0 1.9 7.7 3.7 .6 3.3 76.2 47.1 29.2 1.7 1.4 Z .1 .3 .1 .7 .1 .6 .1 1.1 7.0 4.6 1.9 .4 1.0 1.0 100.0 2.4 7.6 3.4 .5 3.7 73.3 67.1 6.2 2.1 1.6 Z .1 .3 .2 .9 .2 .5 Z 1.5 8.4 5.8 2.0 .6 .9 .9 100.0 .7 7.8 4.5 .9 2.4 82.7 2.8 79.9 .9 .8 Z .1 .3 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts 57.2 X 55.1 X X X 39.4 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 54.5 X X X 52.6 X 57.7 X 56.1 X X X 39.3 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 56.3 X X X 54.3 X 56.1 X 52.5 X X X 39.7 X X X X X X X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 541512 0800 0950 0951 0952 0953 1000 1001 1002

Establishments (number) 30 804 1 022 9 6 2 5 431 323 414 411

Receipts1 ($1,000) 51 212 916 951 055 3 936 464 1 916 827 319 651 1 699 986 39 034 210 24 099 382 14 934 828 863 079 706 881 13 755 61 645 144 874 68 475 383 376 64 978 311 805 30 612 559 148 3 570 052 2 360 592 987 231 222 229 512 507 512 507 35 270 055 838 947 2 695 076 1 199 164 176 500 1 319 413 25 845 521 23 652 562 2 192 959 726 785 574 876 12 166 43 010 102 411 53 061 316 453 62 742 178 698 8 622 512 041 2 969 517 2 062 569 711 212 195 736 330 129 330 129 15 942 861 112 108 1 241 717 143 380 388 663 151 573

Computer systems design services Engineering services Custom computer programming and support services Contract or custom programming services Modification of packaged software Software maintenance and systems testing or quality assurance Computer systems specification and design services Sale of integrated or turnkey systems (complete systems) Other systems specification and design services (may include consulting, planning, designing, software development, etc., except sale of complete, integrated systems) Computer facilities management services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Consumer applications software publishing for personal computer applications General business and operating systems applications software publishing for personal computer applications Vertical industry applications software publishing for personal computer applications Mainframe computer applications software publishing Data processing services Computer rental and leasing services Computer training (including repair) separate from that provided as part of systems design services Physical and engineering sciences research and development Electronic and precision equipment repair (including computer hardware maintenance and repair services) Merchandise sales Computer hardware and peripheral equipment Computer software (packaged software) All other merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Computer systems integrators Engineering services Custom computer programming and support services Contract or custom programming services Modification of packaged software Software maintenance and systems testing or quality assurance Computer systems specification and design services Sale of integrated or turnkey systems (complete systems) Other systems specification and design services (may include consulting, planning, designing, software development, etc., except sale of complete, integrated systems) Computer facilities management services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Consumer applications software publishing for personal computer applications General business and operating systems applications software publishing for personal computer applications Vertical industry applications software publishing for personal computer applications Mainframe computer applications software publishing Data processing services Computer rental and leasing services Computer training (including repair) separate from that provided as part of systems design services Physical and engineering sciences research and development Electronic and precision equipment repair (including computer hardware maintenance and repair services) Merchandise sales Computer hardware and peripheral equipment Computer software (packaged software) All other merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Computer systems consultants (except systems integrators) Engineering services Custom computer programming and support services Contract or custom programming services Modification of packaged software Software maintenance and systems testing or quality assurance Computer systems specification and design services Sale of integrated or turnkey systems (complete systems) Other systems specification and design services (may include consulting, planning, designing, software development, etc., except sale of complete, integrated systems) Computer facilities management services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Consumer applications software publishing for personal computer applications General business and operating systems applications software publishing for personal computer applications Vertical industry applications software publishing for personal computer applications See footnotes at end of table.

30 804 11 637 23 745 1 092 2 149 207 453 1 088 106 851 531 3 133 86 2 000 6 5 3 1 553 236 930 027

1050 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1250 1300 1330 6900 8600 8603 8604 8605 8940 8953 5415121 0800 0950 0951 0952 0953 1000 1001 1002

2 430 2 430 10 571 436 4 3 1 2 326 391 106 649

10 571 10 571 3 707 738 1 161 152 250 932 53 667 410 1 691 41 1 419 4 060 3 506 2 391 674 1 366 1 366 20 233 586 5 2 1 2 105 932 308 762

1050 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1250 1300 1330 6900 8600 8603 8604 8605 8940 8953 5415122 0800 0950 0951 0952 0953 1000 1001 1002

20 233 1 066 20 038 354 988 55 203 156

13 188 689 446 820 12 741 869 136 294 132 005 1 589 18 635 42 463

1050 1100 1120 1140 1160

24

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 5415122 1180 1200 1250 1300 1330 6900 8600 8603 8604 8605 8940 8953 541513 0800 0950 0951 0952 0953 1000 1001 1002

Establishments (number)

Receipts1 ($1,000)

Computer systems consultants (except systems integrators) Con. Mainframe computer applications software publishing Data processing services Computer rental and leasing services Computer training (including repair) separate from that provided as part of systems design services Physical and engineering sciences research and development Electronic and precision equipment repair (including computer hardware maintenance and repair services) Merchandise sales Computer hardware and peripheral equipment Computer software (packaged software) All other merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Computer facilities management services Engineering services Custom computer programming and support services Contract or custom programming services Modification of packaged software Software maintenance and systems testing or quality assurance Computer systems specification and design services Sale of integrated or turnkey systems (complete systems) Other systems specification and design services (may include consulting, planning, designing, software development, etc., except sale of complete, integrated systems) Computer facilities management services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management General business and operating systems applications software publishing for personal computer applications Data processing services Computer rental and leasing services Computer training (including repair) separate from that provided as part of systems design services Electronic and precision equipment repair (including computer hardware maintenance and repair services) Merchandise sales Computer hardware and peripheral equipment Computer software (packaged software) All other merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Other computer related services Engineering services Custom computer programming and support services Contract or custom programming services Modification of packaged software Software maintenance and systems testing or quality assurance Computer systems specification and design services Sale of integrated or turnkey systems (complete systems) Other systems specification and design services (may include consulting, planning, designing, software development, etc., except sale of complete, integrated systems) Computer facilities management services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Consumer applications software publishing for personal computer applications General business and operating systems applications software publishing for personal computer applications Vertical industry applications software publishing for personal computer applications Mainframe computer applications software publishing Data processing services Computer rental and leasing services Computer training (including repair) separate from that provided as part of systems design services Physical and engineering sciences research and development Electronic and precision equipment repair (including computer hardware maintenance and repair services) Merchandise sales Computer hardware and peripheral equipment Computer software (packaged software) All other merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Management, scientific, & technical consulting services Public relations services Custom computer programming and support services Computer facilities management services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Construction management services Accounting and auditing services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services See footnotes at end of table. 53 184 121 1 442 45 581 2 493 1 730 1 539 353 1 064 1 064 1 445 6 284 238 9 157 249 67 210 1 445 128 6 83 15 147 230 237 190 153 23 137 137 8 405 56 844 802 234 129 554 167 414 108 8 405 10 44 88 6 63 26 635 19 136 1 028 761 607 162 276 276 80 426 246 427 208 500 307 398 540 15 414 66 923 2 236 133 107 21 990 47 107 600 298 276 26 535 023 019 493 .1 .4 Z .8 .1 .3 3.8 1.9 1.7 .2 1.1 1.1 100.0 Z 13.0 12.0 Z .9 2.3 .3 2.0 51.7 8.8 Z .2 Z .8 17.9 4.2 3.3 .8 .1 1.0 1.0 100.0 .1 2.8 2.1 .4 .4 1.5 .2 1.3 .6 88.7 Z .1 Z Z .1 .1 2.2 .1 .2 2.8 1.7 .5 .5 .7 .7 100.0 Z .4 Z .2 .1 .3 .3 X X X X X X 47.1 X X X 44.1 X 86.2 X 85.5 X X X 86.1 X X X X X X X X X 86.0 X X X 85.9 X 60.1 X 59.3 X X X 59.6 X X X X X X X X X X X X X 56.3 X X X 51.2 X 63.9 X X X X X X X

182 378 182 378 15 114 194 1 456 1 957 333 1 813 945 593 142 793 348 088 38 561 309 527 7 817 630 1 333 905 1 717 30 298 611 123 072 2 702 177 641 506 122 12 174 204 448 521

1050 1100 1140 1200 1250 1300 6900 8600 8603 8604 8605 8940 8953 541519 0800 0950 0951 0952 0953 1000 1001 1002

156 141 156 141 4 339 989 4 835 122 88 17 16 674 995 018 661

64 454 9 768 54 686 26 212 3 848 825 220 3 538 1 524 88 6 142 4 714 93 637 5 421 6 595 119 75 23 20 581 433 771 377

1050 1100 1120 1140 1160 1180 1200 1250 1300 1330 6900 8600 8603 8604 8605 8940 8953 5416 0100 0950 1050 1100 2050 2100 2150

31 529 31 529 63 428 740 22 272 263 858 21 520 130 56 185 183 857 866 626 398

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

25

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 5416 2250 2251 2252 2253 2254 2255 2300 2400 2500 4650 8600 8611 8940 8959 54161 0100 0950 1050 1100 2050 2100 2150 2250 2251 2252 2253 2254 2255 2300 2400 2500 4650 8600 8611 8940 8959 541611 0100 0950 1050 1100 2050 2100 2150 2250 2251 2252 2253 2254 2255 2300 2400 2500 4650 8600 8611 8940 8959 541612 0100 0950 1100 2050 2100 2150 2250 2251 2252 2253 2254 2255 2300 2400 2500 8600 8611 8940 8959

Establishments (number)

Receipts1 ($1,000)

Management, scientific, & technical consulting services Con. Management consulting Administrative and general management consulting Human resources consulting Marketing consulting Process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting Other management consulting Management and administrative services Facilities management services, except computer Scientific or technical consulting Environmental consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts from customers Management consulting services Public relations services Custom computer programming and support services Computer facilities management services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Construction management services Accounting and auditing services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services Management consulting Administrative and general management consulting Human resources consulting Marketing consulting Process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting Other management consulting Management and administrative services Facilities management services, except computer Scientific or technical consulting Environmental consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts from customers Administrative management & general management consulting service Public relations services Custom computer programming and support services Computer facilities management services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Construction management services Accounting and auditing services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services Management consulting Administrative and general management consulting Human resources consulting Marketing consulting Process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting Other management consulting Management and administrative services Facilities management services, except computer Scientific or technical consulting Environmental consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts from customers Human resources & executive search consulting services Public relations services Custom computer programming and support services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Construction management services Accounting and auditing services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services Management consulting Administrative and general management consulting Human resources consulting Marketing consulting Process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting Other management consulting Management and administrative services Facilities management services, except computer Scientific or technical consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts from customers See footnotes at end of table. 27 27 1 1 60 28 15 14 4 5 60 29 15 14 4 5 551 021 686 624 078 184 48 26 9 7 3 2 994 059 553 286 178 915 238 105 389 988 888 868 77.2 41.1 15.1 11.5 5.0 4.6 .3 .1 11.1 7.1 .9 .9 1.9 1.9 100.0 Z .4 Z .2 Z .4 .3 93.6 49.8 18.3 13.9 6.1 5.5 .3 .1 1.9 Z 1.0 1.0 1.6 1.6 100.0 Z .5 Z .4 Z .6 .5 94.4 90.1 1.4 .6 .7 1.6 .3 .1 .9 .1 .9 .9 1.2 1.2 100.0 Z .1 Z Z .1 .2 97.6 .9 84.7 .4 .2 11.5 .1 Z .4 .4 .4 1.1 1.1 48.5 X X X X X X X X X 57.1 X 60.0 X 67.1 X X X X X X X 50.9 X X X X X X X X X 59.3 X 63.0 X 69.6 X X X X X X X 54.6 X X X X X X X X X 60.2 X 67.1 X 62.7 X X X X X X 48.7 X X X X X X X X 61.9 X 48.9 X

647 312 14 257 6 983 2 703 2 703 4 243 4 243 60 794 210 293 202 402 107 398 528 104 828 648 481 041 009 495 237 967 122 2 264 2 264 3 236 3 236 27 399 58 138 177 277 49 346 448 399 399 280 551 604 1 134 333 116 99 52 1 587 1 587 1 029 1 029 14 788 6 40 40 7 29 39 14 711 547 14 169 256 70 1 206 25 21 86 214 214 853 853

210 391 45 016 7 014 624 4 507 546 563 623 563 623 1 228 905 1 228 905 52 224 697 20 236 234 563 21 235 122 19 185 181 48 26 9 7 3 2 886 027 548 267 176 867 150 33 999 23 180 540 626 525 654 842 099 312 172 229 147 675 096 359

508 258 508 258 838 603 838 603 28 556 409 5 675 152 156 9 373 111 11 166 153 001 071 181 546

26 966 860 25 725 256 406 573 179 175 211 848 444 008 94 21 253 17 093 397 417 833

256 459 256 459 337 347 337 347 10 713 115 175 8 723 1 660 442 9 884 19 221 10 452 91 9 072 37 18 1 232 909 934 059 703 592 621

12 366 2 906 45 768 45 085 45 085 113 976 113 976

26

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 100.0 .2 .2 .1 95.0 1.5 12.1 81.3 3.8 .5 .5 100.0 Z Z .1 98.7 .3 96.6 .1 Z 1.7 Z Z Z 1.2 1.2 100.0 Z .1 Z Z .1 .4 96.9 1.3 89.7 .8 .4 4.7 .3 .1 Z 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 100.0 .2 .2 Z Z Z Z 92.4 .9 .3 88.6 .5 2.1 .3 Z .2 2.3 2.3 4.3 4.3 100.0 Z 1.8 .2 .3 .1 .1 91.9 3.3 .5 2.2 85.3 .7 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts 81.7 X X X 74.0 X X X X 78.6 X 60.7 X X X 42.5 X X X X X X 14.3 X 40.8 X 60.1 X X X X X X 49.5 X X X X X X X X 59.8 X 60.1 X 60.3 X X X X X X 48.3 X X X X X X X X 52.8 X 59.4 X 83.9 X X X X X X 42.0 X X X X X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 5416121 0950 2100 2150 2250 2251 2252 2255 2500 8940 8959 5416122 0950 1100 2100 2250 2251 2252 2253 2254 2255 2300 8600 8611 8940 8959 5416123 0100 0950 1100 2050 2100 2150 2250 2251 2252 2253 2254 2255 2300 2400 2500 8600 8611 8940 8959 541613 0100 0950 1050 1100 2050 2150 2250 2251 2252 2253 2254 2255 2300 2400 2500 8600 8611 8940 8959 541614 0100 0950 1050 1100 2050 2100 2250 2251 2252 2253 2254 2255

Establishments (number) 714 14 8 11 637 20 95 574 77 23 23 7 619 13 14 8 7 619 117 7 619 82 17 277 18 20 20 589 589 6 455 6 13 26 6 13 28 6 455 409 6 455 174 53 355 7 21 9 192 192 241 241 12 498 121 28 19 16 10 18 12 498 340 92 12 498 58 426 71 6 74 312 312 1 024 1 024 3 078 15 73 6 61 12 14 3 078 383 74 154 3 078 101

Receipts1 ($1,000) 1 152 766 2 130 2 598 1 092 1 095 17 139 937 195 733 915 547

Actuarial consulting Custom computer programming and support services Accounting and auditing services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services Management consulting Administrative and general management consulting Human resources consulting Other management consulting Scientific or technical consulting All other receipts All other receipts from customers Executive placement services Custom computer programming and support services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Accounting and auditing services Management consulting Administrative and general management consulting Human resources consulting Marketing consulting Process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting Other management consulting Management and administrative services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts from customers Human resources & personnel management consulting Public relations services Custom computer programming and support services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Construction management services Accounting and auditing services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services Management consulting Administrative and general management consulting Human resources consulting Marketing consulting Process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting Other management consulting Management and administrative services Facilities management services, except computer Scientific or technical consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts from customers Marketing consulting services Public relations services Custom computer programming and support services Computer facilities management services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Construction management services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services Management consulting Administrative and general management consulting Human resources consulting Marketing consulting Process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting Other management consulting Management and administrative services Facilities management services, except computer Scientific or technical consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts from customers Process, physical distribution, & logistics consulting services Public relations services Custom computer programming and support services Computer facilities management services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Construction management services Accounting and auditing services Management consulting Administrative and general management consulting Human resources consulting Marketing consulting Process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting Other management consulting See footnotes at end of table.

44 265 5 767 5 767 5 154 804 778 121 3 931 5 087 17 4 979 3 863 594 531 435 869 86 434 1 306 8 8 60 797 60 797 4 405 545 175 5 815 1 539 134 3 355 18 129 4 269 56 3 952 34 17 208 851 607 613 268 723 640

11 060 2 906 1 503 43 666 43 666 47 412 47 412 7 874 497 13 518 14 514 3 815 490 1 357 2 804 7 273 68 21 6 978 38 166 589 290 390 611 838 460

25 918 18 12 745 181 593 181 593 337 365 337 365 3 259 152 533 58 183 8 047 8 691 2 908 2 298 2 996 105 15 71 2 781 21 095 992 619 312 338 834

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

27

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 541614 2300 2400 2500 8600 8611 8940 8959 541618 0100 0950 1100 2050 2100 2150 2250 2251 2252 2253 2254 2255 2300 2400 2500 4650 8600 8611 8940 8959 54162 0100 0950 2050 2250 2251 2255 2300 2400 2500 4650 8600 8611 8940 8959 541620 0100 0950 2050 2250 2251 2255 2300 2400 2500 4650 8600 8611 8940 8959 54169 0100 0950 1100 2050 2150 2250 2251 2252 2253 2254 2255 2300 2500 4650 8600 8611 8940 8959

Establishments (number)

Receipts1 ($1,000)

Process, physical distribution, & logistics consulting services Con. Management and administrative services Facilities management services, except computer Scientific or technical consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts from customers Other management consulting services Public relations services Custom computer programming and support services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Construction management services Accounting and auditing services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services Management consulting Administrative and general management consulting Human resources consulting Marketing consulting Process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting Other management consulting Management and administrative services Facilities management services, except computer Scientific or technical consulting Environmental consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts from customers Environmental consulting services Public relations services Custom computer programming and support services Construction management services Management consulting Administrative and general management consulting Other management consulting Management and administrative services Facilities management services, except computer Scientific or technical consulting Environmental consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts from customers Environmental consulting services Public relations services Custom computer programming and support services Construction management services Management consulting Administrative and general management consulting Other management consulting Management and administrative services Facilities management services, except computer Scientific or technical consulting Environmental consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts from customers Other scientific & technical consulting services Public relations services Custom computer programming and support services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Construction management services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services Management consulting Administrative and general management consulting Human resources consulting Marketing consulting Process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting Other management consulting Management and administrative services Scientific or technical consulting Environmental consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts from customers See footnotes at end of table. 36 29 61 58 58 130 130 3 031 10 14 8 29 6 21 2 418 158 33 21 231 2 142 30 65 647 63 93 93 200 200 6 725 21 24 127 164 107 59 123 73 383 6 725 163 163 433 433 6 725 21 24 127 164 107 59 123 73 383 6 725 163 163 433 433 12 907 15 110 95 73 12 283 86 38 143 35 116 29 12 907 136 276 276 574 574 12 735 5 054 124 087 10 740 10 740 29 268 29 268 1 821 524 335 987 338 3 762 1 094 5 752 1 197 201 36 370 32 458 511 125 556 1 002 306 5 4 563 4 035 300 079 613 .4 .2 3.8 .3 .3 .9 .9 100.0 Z .1 Z .2 .1 .3 65.7 2.0 1.8 Z 6.9 55.0 .3 .2 30.9 .3 .8 .8 1.1 1.1 100.0 Z .1 .5 .6 .2 .4 1.2 .2 1.2 93.4 .4 .4 2.4 2.4 100.0 Z .1 .5 .6 .2 .4 1.2 .2 1.2 93.4 .4 .4 2.4 2.4 100.0 Z .4 .1 .2 Z 1.3 .3 .1 .3 Z .5 .1 92.7 .3 .6 .6 4.3 4.3 X X X 83.2 X 83.9 X 54.5 X X X X X X 30.5 X X X X X X X X X 41.8 X 40.8 X 60.0 X X X 56.9 X X X X X X 60.0 X 52.6 X 60.0 X X X 56.9 X X X X X X 60.0 X 52.6 X 40.7 X X X X X 36.4 X X X X X X X X 37.7 X 40.4 X

14 381 14 381 20 647 20 647 4 780 771 145 4 119 22 814 26 304 9 053 17 171 57 11 59 4 466 038 312 362 073

19 469 19 469 113 696 113 696 4 780 771 145 4 119 22 814 26 304 9 053 17 171 57 11 59 4 466 038 312 362 073

19 469 19 469 113 696 113 696 6 423 272 1 891 25 176 8 458 14 512 1 873 81 22 5 19 2 31 280 210 290 676 636 468

3 206 5 956 166 18 114 35 896 35 896 276 606 276 606

28

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 100.0 Z .4 .1 .2 Z 1.3 .3 .1 .3 Z .5 .1 92.7 .3 .6 .6 4.3 4.3 100.0 59.3 3.5 26.0 .2 5.1 24.5 28.5 2.8 22.6 .8 2.4 5.3 1.2 Z .6 3.4 Z .2 1.6 3.4 3.4 1.8 1.8 100.0 62.7 3.7 27.5 .2 5.4 26.0 30.1 3.0 23.8 .8 2.5 Z Z Z Z .2 1.6 3.6 3.6 1.8 1.8 100.0 62.7 3.7 27.5 .2 5.4 26.0 30.1 3.0 23.8 .8 2.5 Z Z Z Z .2 1.6 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts 40.7 X X X X X 36.4 X X X X X X X X 37.7 X 40.4 X 68.3 40.4 X X X X X 58.8 X X X X 53.4 X X X X X X X 47.3 X 60.8 X 68.5 40.6 X X X X X 58.9 X X X X 68.5 X X X X X 47.4 X 61.1 X 68.5 40.6 X X X X X 58.9 X X X X 68.5 X X X X X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 541690 0100 0950 1100 2050 2150 2250 2251 2252 2253 2254 2255 2300 2500 4650 8600 8611 8940 8959 5417 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1400 2000 2250 8600 8609 8940 8958 54171 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1370 1371 1373 1374 2000 2250 8600 8609 8940 8958 541710 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1370 1371 1373 1374 2000 2250

Establishments (number) 12 907 15 110 95 73 12 283 86 38 143 35 116 29 12 907 136 276 276 574 574 7 830 4 376 602 1 809 27 1 218 2 925 3 228 378 2 513 262 349 997 405 27 99 483 35 145 773 1 439 1 439 537 537 6 855 4 368 602 1 809 27 1 210 2 925 3 215 378 2 500 262 349 22 6 16 7 145 707 1 414 1 414 457 457 6 855 4 368 602 1 809 27 1 210 2 925 3 215 378 2 500 262 349 22 6 16 7 145 707

Receipts1 ($1,000) 6 423 272 1 891 25 176 8 458 14 512 1 873 81 22 5 19 2 31 280 210 290 676 636 468

Other scientific & technical consulting services Public relations services Custom computer programming and support services Other computer services, except programming, systems design, and computer facilities management Construction management services Tax return preparation, bookkeeping, billing, and payroll services Management consulting Administrative and general management consulting Human resources consulting Marketing consulting Process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting Other management consulting Management and administrative services Scientific or technical consulting Environmental consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts from customers Scientific research & development services Physical and engineering sciences research and development Chemistry and chemical engineering Computer science and electrial engineering Civil engineering Earth and environmental sciences Other physical and engineering sciences Life sciences research and development Biology Medical sciences Agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and allied sciences Other life sciences Social sciences and humanities research and development Economics Psychology Education Other social science and humanities Market research and public opinion polling Testing services (physical or product) Management consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts R&D in the physical, engineering, & life sciences Physical and engineering sciences research and development Chemistry and chemical engineering Computer science and electrial engineering Civil engineering Earth and environmental sciences Other physical and engineering sciences Life sciences research and development Biology Medical sciences Agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and allied sciences Other life sciences Social sciences and humanities research and development Economics Education Other social science and humanities Testing services (physical or product) Management consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts R&D in the physical, engineering, & life sciences Physical and engineering sciences research and development Chemistry and chemical engineering Computer science and electrial engineering Civil engineering Earth and environmental sciences Other physical and engineering sciences Life sciences research and development Biology Medical sciences Agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and allied sciences Other life sciences Social sciences and humanities research and development Economics Education Other social science and humanities Testing services (physical or product) Management consulting See footnotes at end of table.

3 206 5 956 166 18 114 35 896 35 896 276 606 276 606 23 078 307 13 676 800 5 991 34 1 185 5 664 6 581 643 5 206 185 545 1 211 288 7 128 787 080 222 365 504 529 460 009 745 468 180 616 622 060 445 159 958

1 471 36 653 378 868 780 819 780 819 411 785 411 785 21 821 756 13 675 800 5 991 34 1 185 5 664 6 567 643 5 192 185 545 822 222 365 504 271 460 274 745 733 180 616

2 356 203 656 1 497 36 653 357 307 780 650 780 650 401 283 401 283 21 821 756 13 675 800 5 991 34 1 185 5 664 6 567 643 5 192 185 545 822 222 365 504 271 460 274 745 733 180 616

2 356 203 656 1 497 36 653 357 307

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

29

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 541710 8600 8609 8940 8958 5417101 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1370 1373 2000 2250 8600 8609 8940 8958 5417102 1330 1331 1332 1334 1335 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1370 1371 1373 1374 2000 2250 8600 8609 8940 8958 54172 1330 1334 1350 1352 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1400 2250 8600 8609 8940 8958 541720 1330 1334 1350 1352 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1400 2250 8600 8609 8940 8958

Establishments (number) Con. 1 414 1 414 457 457 4 269 4 269 572 1 770 27 1 185 2 911 629 9 613 11 8 8 8 84 659 1 199 1 199 279 279 2 586 99 30 39 25 14 2 586 369 1 887 251 341 14 6 8 6 61 48 215 215 178 178 975 8 8 13 13 975 399 27 83 476 33 66 25 25 80 80 975 8 8 13 13 975 399 27 83 476 33 66 25 25 80 80

Receipts1 ($1,000)

R&D in the physical, engineering, & life sciences Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts R&D in the physical & engineering sciences

780 650 780 650 401 283 401 283 14 861 730 13 660 797 5 987 34 1 177 5 663 498 741 375 504 538 340

3.6 3.6 1.8 1.8 100.0 91.9 5.4 40.3 .2 7.9 38.1 2.0 .2 1.8 Z Z Z Z .2 2.4 1.6 1.6 1.9 1.9 100.0 .2 Z .1 .1 Z 90.1 8.9 70.8 2.7 7.8 Z Z Z Z .1 .1 7.8 7.8 1.7 1.7 100.0 Z Z 1.1 1.1 96.2 22.9 .6 10.1 62.6 .1 1.7 Z Z .8 .8 100.0 Z Z 1.1 1.1 96.2 22.9 .6 10.1 62.6 .1 1.7 Z Z .8 .8

47.4 X 61.1 X 73.3 43.3 X X X X X 73.3 X X X X 73.3 X X X 45.8 X 63.7 X 58.4 58.4 X X X X 45.6 X X X X 58.4 X X X X X 58.1 X 57.3 X 63.6 63.6 X 63.6 X 40.1 X X X X X X 63.6 X 57.0 X 63.6 63.6 X 63.6 X 40.1 X X X X X X 63.6 X 57.0 X

Physical and engineering sciences research and development Chemistry and chemical engineering Computer science and electrial engineering Civil engineering Earth and environmental sciences Other physical and engineering sciences Life sciences research and development Biology Medical sciences Agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and allied sciences Other life sciences Social sciences and humanities research and development Education Testing services (physical or product) Management consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Research & development in the life sciences Physical and engineering sciences research and development Chemistry and chemical engineering Computer science and electrial engineering Earth and environmental sciences Other physical and engineering sciences Life sciences research and development Biology Medical sciences Agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and allied sciences Other life sciences Social sciences and humanities research and development Economics Education Other social science and humanities Testing services (physical or product) Management consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Research & development in the social sciences & humanities Physical and engineering sciences research and development Earth and environmental sciences Life sciences research and development Medical sciences Social sciences and humanities research and development Economics Psychology Education Other social science and humanities Market research and public opinion polling Management consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts R&D in the social sciences & humanities Physical and engineering sciences research and development Earth and environmental sciences Life sciences research and development Medical sciences Social sciences and humanities research and development Economics Psychology Education Other social science and humanities Market research and public opinion polling Management consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts See footnotes at end of table.

296 937 26 943 266 751 653 2 590 1 917 623 30 262 349 356 238 710 238 710 284 050 284 050 6 960 026 15 2 3 7 1 6 270 616 4 925 184 543 324 481 990 733 120 337 802 982 527 026 439 203 33 203 6 391 7 951 541 940 541 940 117 233 117 233 1 256 551 258 258 13 735 13 735 1 209 287 7 127 786 266 857 445 503 461

1 060 21 561 169 169 10 502 10 502 1 256 551 258 258 13 735 13 735 1 209 287 7 127 786 266 857 445 503 461

1 060 21 561 169 169 10 502 10 502

30

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 100.0 29.6 15.9 4.5 9.2 10.0 9.4 4.8 4.6 17.2 .3 16.9 1.9 7.4 4.6 2.8 2.2 13.7 3.7 1.5 .3 1.2 .1 .1 .1 1.5 .5 .5 .9 .9 100.0 85.5 45.9 13.0 26.5 2.0 .3 .2 .1 1.7 .2 1.5 .1 2.3 1.6 .7 .3 .3 2.1 3.8 .9 3.0 .2 .3 .3 .2 .2 .9 .9 100.0 85.5 45.9 13.0 26.5 2.0 .3 .2 .1 1.7 .2 1.5 .1 2.3 1.6 .7 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts 68.5 59.2 X X X X 63.0 X X 61.3 X X X 40.1 X X X X X 68.4 X X X 68.2 X X 32.0 X 64.3 X 66.5 57.0 X X X X 66.3 X X 66.4 X X X 62.8 X X X X X 66.4 X X X 66.1 X 62.7 X 64.4 X 66.5 57.0 X X X X 66.3 X X 66.4 X X X 62.8 X X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 5418 0050 0051 0052 0053 0100 0150 0151 0152 0200 0201 0202 0250 0300 0301 0302 0350 0400 0450 0600 0602 0603 1400 1450 1452 3350 8600 8601 8940 8951 54181 0050 0051 0052 0053 0100 0150 0151 0152 0200 0201 0202 0250 0300 0301 0302 0350 0400 0450 0600 0602 0603 1400 1450 1452 8600 8601 8940 8951 541810 0050 0051 0052 0053 0100 0150 0151 0152 0200 0201 0202 0250 0300 0301 0302

Establishments (number) 38 832 14 14 9 6 400 021 236 935

Receipts1 ($1,000) 49 290 082 14 7 2 4 598 814 231 552 888 970 528 386

Advertising & related services Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Public relations services Display advertising services Outdoor (e.g., billboards) All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Market research and public opinion polling Photography services Commercial photography Sign painting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts Advertising agencies Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Public relations services Display advertising services Outdoor (e.g., billboards) All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Market research and public opinion polling Photography services Commercial photography Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts Advertising agencies Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Public relations services Display advertising services Outdoor (e.g., billboards) All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) See footnotes at end of table.

9 762 3 971 2 836 1 392 5 681 1 571 5 192 1 425 3 895 2 643 1 799 1 974 5 803 4 046 5 299 1 570 4 994 1 228 1 454 1 454 3 389 1 781 1 775 2 360 2 360 13 390 13 13 8 6 390 390 807 550

4 923 962 4 633 449 2 373 226 2 260 220 8 500 789 157 934 8 342 855 934 314 3 670 453 2 267 271 1 403 180 1 105 439 6 757 601 1 847 307 749 818 163 067 586 749 70 308 54 022 54 022 748 807 227 615 227 478 467 310 467 310 16 871 520 14 7 2 4 417 752 189 474 077 187 984 906

3 147 1 501 1 112 534 1 915 651 1 499 444 905 842 516 832 954 2 347 4 284 1 354 4 030 942 1 301 1 301 273 273 1 054 1 054 13 390 13 13 8 6 390 390 807 550 14 7 2 4

335 685 47 524 34 821 12 702 285 346 29 043 256 303 20 730 390 094 276 047 114 046 57 317 54 402 348 018 646 091 144 370 501 721 39 507 42 656 42 656 30 231 30 231 156 842 156 842 16 871 520 417 752 189 474 077 187 984 906

3 147 1 501 1 112 534 1 915 651 1 499 444 905 842 516

335 685 47 524 34 821 12 702 285 346 29 043 256 303 20 730 390 094 276 047 114 046

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

31

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 541810 0350 0400 0450 0600 0602 0603 1400 1450 1452 8600 8601 8940 8951 54182 0050 0051 0052 0053 0100 0150 0151 0152 0200 0201 0202 0250 0300 0301 0302 0350 0400 0450 0600 0602 0603 1400 1450 1452 8600 8601 8940 8951 541820 0050 0051 0052 0053 0100 0150 0151 0152 0200 0201 0202 0250 0300 0301 0302 0350 0400 0450 0600 0602 0603 1400 1450 1452 8600 8601 8940 8951

Establishments (number)

Receipts1 ($1,000)

Advertising agencies Con. Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Market research and public opinion polling Photography services Commercial photography Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts Public relations agencies Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Public relations services Display advertising services Outdoor (e.g., billboards) All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Market research and public opinion polling Photography services Commercial photography Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts Public relations agencies Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Public relations services Display advertising services Outdoor (e.g., billboards) All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Market research and public opinion polling Photography services Commercial photography Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts See footnotes at end of table. 832 954 2 347 4 284 1 354 4 030 942 1 301 1 301 273 273 1 054 1 054 6 513 499 374 261 176 6 513 129 28 109 156 31 152 106 84 60 36 158 70 96 328 113 319 211 80 80 799 799 450 450 6 513 499 374 261 176 6 513 129 28 109 156 31 152 106 84 60 36 158 70 96 328 113 319 211 80 80 799 799 450 450 57 317 54 402 348 018 646 091 144 370 501 721 39 507 42 656 42 656 30 231 30 231 156 842 156 842 4 771 957 58 18 14 25 119 630 155 332 .3 .3 2.1 3.8 .9 3.0 .2 .3 .3 .2 .2 .9 .9 100.0 1.2 .4 .3 .5 95.7 .1 Z .1 .1 Z .1 Z .2 .1 .1 .1 Z .4 .5 Z .5 .2 Z Z .4 .4 1.1 1.1 100.0 1.2 .4 .3 .5 95.7 .1 Z .1 .1 Z .1 Z .2 .1 .1 .1 Z .4 .5 Z .5 .2 Z Z .4 .4 1.1 1.1 X X X 66.4 X X X 66.1 X 62.7 X 64.4 X 76.4 76.3 X X X X 76.4 X X 76.4 X X X 76.4 X X X X X 76.4 X X X 76.4 X 3.3 X 69.1 X 76.4 76.3 X X X X 76.4 X X 76.4 X X X 76.4 X X X X X 76.4 X X X 76.4 X 3.3 X 69.1 X

4 565 877 4 988 1 934 3 054 5 149 463 4 686 1 035 10 101 5 303 4 797 3 379 2 024 17 261 24 798 2 040 22 758 8 898 992 992 17 419 17 419 51 917 51 917 4 771 957 58 18 14 25 119 630 155 332

4 565 877 4 988 1 934 3 054 5 149 463 4 686 1 035 10 101 5 303 4 797 3 379 2 024 17 261 24 798 2 040 22 758 8 898 992 992 17 419 17 419 51 917 51 917

32

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 100.0 .7 .1 .1 .5 Z Z Z .2 .1 .2 98.0 .3 Z Z .1 .1 .2 .2 .3 .3 100.0 .7 .1 .1 .5 Z Z Z .2 .1 .2 98.0 .3 Z Z .1 .1 .2 .2 .3 .3 100.0 .5 .4 .1 .5 .2 .2 .1 Z .1 98.1 59.5 38.6 Z .1 Z Z .1 Z Z Z Z .3 .3 100.0 .5 .4 .1 .5 .2 .2 .1 Z .1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts 100.0 100.0 X X X 100.0 X X 100.0 X X X X 100.0 X 100.0 X 100.0 X 100.0 X 100.0 100.0 X X X 100.0 X X 100.0 X X X X 100.0 X 100.0 X 100.0 X 100.0 X 67.1 67.1 X X X 67.1 X 67.1 X X 29.4 X X X X 67.1 X X 67.1 X 54.5 X 52.3 X 67.1 67.1 X X X 67.1 X 67.1 X X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 54183 0050 0051 0052 0053 0200 0201 0202 0300 0301 0302 0350 0450 0600 0603 1450 1452 8600 8601 8940 8951 541830 0050 0051 0052 0053 0200 0201 0202 0300 0301 0302 0350 0450 0600 0603 1450 1452 8600 8601 8940 8951 54184 0050 0051 0053 0100 0150 0152 0200 0201 0202 0300 0301 0302 0350 0450 0600 0603 1400 1450 1452 8600 8601 8940 8951 541840 0050 0051 0053 0100 0150 0152 0200 0201 0202

Establishments (number) 882 42 23 6 21 22 13 10 34 30 26 882 19 15 14 11 11 17 17 23 23 882 42 23 6 21 22 13 10 34 30 26 882 19 15 14 11 11 17 17 23 23 2 686 62 54 8 37 20 20 9 6 6 2 686 1 554 1 169 18 22 19 14 7 7 7 15 9 74 74 2 686 62 54 8 37 20 20 9 6 6

Receipts1 ($1,000) 1 056 713 7 1 1 4 263 311 022 930 242 108 134 2 393 660 1 733 1 035 089 3 188 503 260 862 862 2 038 2 038 3 654 3 654 1 056 713 7 1 1 4 263 311 022 930 242 108 134 2 393 660 1 733 1 035 089 3 188 503 260 862 862 2 038 2 038 3 654 3 654 3 308 665 14 905 12 950 1 640 17 773 5 413 5 408 3 538 69 3 469 3 244 527 1 968 055 1 276 472 518 4 605 740 662 1 953 652 652 1 402 1 265 11 391 11 391 3 308 665 14 905 12 950 1 640 17 773 5 413 5 408 3 538 69 3 469

Media buying services Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Graphic design services Photography services Commercial photography Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts Media buying services Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Graphic design services Photography services Commercial photography Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts Media representatives Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Fees Public relations services Display advertising services All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Graphic design services Market research and public opinion polling Photography services Commercial photography Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts Media representatives Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Fees Public relations services Display advertising services All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials See footnotes at end of table.

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

33

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 541840 0300 0301 0302 0350 0450 0600 0603 1400 1450 1452 8600 8601 8940 8951 5418401 0050 0053 0300 0301 0302 0350 0450 8600 8940 8951 5418402 0050 0051 0100 0150 0152 0200 0201 0202 0300 0301 0302 0350 0450 0600 0603 1400 1450 1452 8600 8601 8940 8951 54185 0050 0051 0052 0053 0100 0150 0151 0152 0200 0250 0300 0301 0302 0350 0400 0450 0600 0602 0603 1400 8600 8601

Establishments (number)

Receipts1 ($1,000)

Media representatives Con. Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Graphic design services Market research and public opinion polling Photography services Commercial photography Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts Radio & television advertising representatives Advertising agency receipts Fees Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Other advertising services Merchandise sales All other receipts All other operating receipts Publishers’ advertising representatives Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Public relations services Display advertising services All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Graphic design services Market research and public opinion polling Photography services Commercial photography Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts Display advertising Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Public relations services Display advertising services Outdoor (e.g., billboards) All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Direct mail advertising services Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Market research and public opinion polling Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products See footnotes at end of table. 2 686 1 554 1 169 18 22 19 14 7 7 7 15 9 74 74 1 142 10 8 1 142 10 1 142 8 10 6 38 38 1 544 52 52 37 20 20 9 6 6 1 544 1 544 27 10 12 19 14 7 7 7 9 9 36 36 2 261 74 48 14 29 22 2 261 1 661 695 6 33 36 30 6 24 52 108 107 15 99 20 133 133 3 244 527 1 968 055 1 276 472 518 4 605 740 662 1 953 652 652 1 402 1 265 11 391 11 391 1 278 211 2 043 1 640 1 268 659 2 677 1 265 982 113 4 145 137 3 114 3 114 2 030 454 12 862 12 862 17 773 5 413 5 408 3 538 69 3 469 1 975 868 1 965 378 10 490 405 460 740 662 1 953 652 652 1 265 1 265 8 277 8 277 4 638 974 8 439 4 844 792 2 802 134 4 547 785 2 318 303 2 229 482 622 5 052 1 265 1 212 53 161 12 052 4 527 4 801 453 4 348 28 34 003 34 003 98.1 59.5 38.6 Z .1 Z Z .1 Z Z Z Z .3 .3 100.0 .2 .1 99.3 .2 99.0 Z .3 Z .2 .2 100.0 .6 .6 .9 .3 .3 .2 Z .2 97.3 96.8 .5 Z Z Z Z .1 Z Z .1 .1 .4 .4 100.0 .2 .1 Z .1 Z 98.0 50.0 48.1 Z .1 Z Z Z Z .3 .1 .1 Z .1 Z .7 .7 29.4 X X X X 67.1 X X 67.1 X 54.5 X 52.3 X 67.6 67.6 X 27.9 X X X X X 31.6 X 66.9 66.8 X X 66.9 X 66.9 X X 30.3 X X X X 66.9 X X 66.9 X 64.0 X 66.9 X 85.1 85.1 X X X X 76.5 X X X X 85.1 X X X X X 85.1 X X X 85.1 X

34

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 54185 8940 8951 541850 0050 0051 0052 0053 0100 0150 0151 0152 0200 0250 0300 0301 0302 0350 0400 0450 0600 0602 0603 1400 8600 8601 8940 8951 5418501 0050 0052 0053 0150 0151 0152 0200 0250 0300 0301 0400 0450 0600 0603 8600 8601 8940 8951 5418502 0050 0051 0052 0053 0100 0150 0151 0152 0300 0302 0350 0400 0450 0600 0602 0603 1400 8600 8601 8940 8951

Establishments (number)

Receipts1 ($1,000)

Display advertising Con. All other receipts All other operating receipts Display advertising Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Public relations services Display advertising services Outdoor (e.g., billboards) All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Direct mail advertising services Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Market research and public opinion polling Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts Display advertising (except outdoor) Advertising agency receipts Agency income on materials and services Fees Display advertising services Outdoor (e.g., billboards) All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Direct mail advertising services Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Graphic design services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts Outdoor advertising services Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Public relations services Display advertising services Outdoor (e.g., billboards) All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Fees for soliciting advertising for media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Market research and public opinion polling Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts See footnotes at end of table. 222 222 2 261 74 48 14 29 22 2 261 1 661 695 6 33 36 30 6 24 52 108 107 15 99 20 133 133 222 222 633 16 7 9 633 33 633 6 29 30 30 16 41 19 19 48 48 22 22 1 628 58 45 7 20 22 1 628 1 628 62 6 6 24 36 67 88 10 80 20 85 85 200 200 19 939 19 939 4 638 974 8 439 4 844 792 2 802 134 4 547 785 2 318 303 2 229 482 622 5 052 1 265 1 212 53 161 12 052 4 527 4 801 453 4 348 28 34 003 34 003 19 939 19 939 2 249 617 2 145 632 1 386 2 197 800 3 118 2 194 682 622 4 997 1 212 1 212 10 538 1 807 1 549 1 516 25 223 25 223 3 558 3 558 2 389 357 6 294 4 718 160 1 416 134 2 349 985 2 315 185 34 800 53 53 161 1 514 2 720 3 252 420 2 832 28 8 780 8 780 16 381 16 381 .4 .4 100.0 .2 .1 Z .1 Z 98.0 50.0 48.1 Z .1 Z Z Z Z .3 .1 .1 Z .1 Z .7 .7 .4 .4 100.0 .1 Z .1 97.7 .1 97.6 Z .2 .1 .1 .5 .1 .1 .1 1.1 1.1 .2 .2 100.0 .3 .2 Z .1 Z 98.4 96.9 1.5 Z Z Z .1 .1 .1 Z .1 Z .4 .4 .7 .7 50.8 X 85.1 85.1 X X X X 76.5 X X X X 85.1 X X X X X 85.1 X X X 85.1 X 50.8 X 88.6 88.6 X X 73.9 X X X X 88.6 X X X 88.6 X 88.5 X 88.6 X 81.8 81.8 X X X X 79.0 X X 81.8 X X X X 81.8 X X X 81.8 X 44.3 X

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

35

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 100.0 .6 .2 .2 .2 Z .1 .1 .1 94.4 1.4 92.9 .8 .2 .1 Z .1 .5 .5 .5 .2 .4 .2 .1 .1 .3 .3 1.8 1.8 100.0 .6 .2 .2 .2 Z .1 .1 .1 94.4 1.4 92.9 .8 .2 .1 Z .1 .5 .5 .5 .2 .4 .2 .1 .1 .3 .3 1.8 1.8 100.0 2.1 1.6 .6 .4 95.8 Z Z .2 1.2 1.2 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts 68.7 67.7 X X X X 50.6 X X 59.5 X X X 68.7 X X X X X 68.7 X X X 68.7 X 64.2 X 66.7 X 68.7 67.7 X X X X 50.6 X X 59.5 X X X 68.7 X X X X X 68.7 X X X 68.7 X 64.2 X 66.7 X 47.0 47.0 X 47.0 X X 47.0 X X 47.0 X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 54186 0050 0051 0052 0053 0100 0150 0151 0152 0200 0201 0202 0250 0300 0301 0302 0350 0400 0450 0600 0602 0603 1400 1450 1452 8600 8601 8940 8951 541860 0050 0051 0052 0053 0100 0150 0151 0152 0200 0201 0202 0250 0300 0301 0302 0350 0400 0450 0600 0602 0603 1400 1450 1452 8600 8601 8940 8951 54187 0050 0053 0200 0201 0250 0300 0301 0450 8940 8951

Establishments (number) 3 454 80 26 36 54 11 27 10 20 3 454 803 3 454 156 54 36 32 44 178 97 167 29 155 26 14 14 72 72 252 252 3 454 80 26 36 54 11 27 10 20 3 454 803 3 454 156 54 36 32 44 178 97 167 29 155 26 14 14 72 72 252 252 560 25 25 45 42 560 18 18 9 33 33

Receipts1 ($1,000) 8 672 214 52 20 13 17 175 504 745 925

Direct mail advertising Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Public relations services Display advertising services Outdoor (e.g., billboards) All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Market research and public opinion polling Photography services Commercial photography Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts Direct mail advertising Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Public relations services Display advertising services Outdoor (e.g., billboards) All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Market research and public opinion polling Photography services Commercial photography Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts Advertising material distribution services Advertising agency receipts Fees Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other advertising services All other receipts All other operating receipts See footnotes at end of table.

3 699 10 598 5 701 4 897 8 182 524 123 301 8 059 223 70 746 14 205 10 204 4 001 7 700 39 186 41 368 45 677 14 592 31 085 16 660 8 349 8 349 25 131 25 131 154 196 154 196 8 672 214 52 20 13 17 175 504 745 925

3 699 10 598 5 701 4 897 8 182 524 123 301 8 059 223 70 746 14 205 10 204 4 001 7 700 39 186 41 368 45 677 14 592 31 085 16 660 8 349 8 349 25 131 25 131 154 196 154 196 829 683 17 029 13 123 4 909 3 646 795 223 293 293 1 323 10 243 10 243

36

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 100.0 2.1 1.6 .6 .4 95.8 Z Z .2 1.2 1.2 100.0 .3 .1 .1 .1 Z .2 .1 Z .2 Z .2 .4 .1 .1 Z Z 72.8 15.6 .3 Z .3 Z Z Z 8.2 1.3 1.3 .6 .6 100.0 .3 .1 .1 .1 Z .2 .1 Z .2 Z .2 .4 .1 .1 Z Z 72.8 15.6 .3 Z .3 Z Z Z 8.2 1.3 1.3 .6 .6 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts 47.0 47.0 X 47.0 X X 47.0 X X 47.0 X 57.8 56.9 X X X X 56.6 X X 57.0 X X X 34.4 X X X X X 57.5 X X X 57.8 X X 55.5 X 56.3 X 57.8 56.9 X X X X 56.6 X X 57.0 X X X 34.4 X X X X X 57.5 X X X 57.8 X X 55.5 X 56.3 X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 541870 0050 0053 0200 0201 0250 0300 0301 0450 8940 8951 54189 0050 0051 0052 0053 0100 0150 0151 0152 0200 0201 0202 0250 0300 0301 0302 0350 0400 0450 0600 0602 0603 1400 1450 1452 3350 8600 8601 8940 8951 541890 0050 0051 0052 0053 0100 0150 0151 0152 0200 0201 0202 0250 0300 0301 0302 0350 0400 0450 0600 0602 0603 1400 1450 1452 3350 8600 8601 8940 8951

Establishments (number) 560 25 25 45 42 560 18 18 9 33 33 9 086 228 106 108 72 30 28 20 9 74 24 62 116 78 73 15 12 4 546 1 348 375 53 359 21 36 36 3 389 471 471 252 252 9 086 228 106 108 72 30 28 20 9 74 24 62 116 78 73 15 12 4 546 1 348 375 53 359 21 36 36 3 389 471 471 252 252

Receipts1 ($1,000) 829 683 17 029 13 123 4 909 3 646 795 223 293 293 1 323 10 243 10 243 9 140 356 23 4 7 11 881 544 609 728 620 16 563 12 166 4 397 18 459 849 17 610 39 762 7 575 5 497 2 078 1 114 6 649 934 1 427 017 26 863 1 291 25 570 3 054 345 345 748 807 117 234 117 234 59 128 59 128 9 140 356 23 4 7 11 881 544 609 728 620 16 563 12 166 4 397 18 459 849 17 610 39 762 7 575 5 497 2 078 1 114 6 649 934 1 427 017 26 863 1 291 25 570 3 054 345 345 748 807 117 234 117 234 59 128 59 128

Advertising material distribution services Advertising agency receipts Fees Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other advertising services All other receipts All other operating receipts Other services related to advertising Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Public relations services Display advertising services Outdoor (e.g., billboards) All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Market research and public opinion polling Photography services Commercial photography Sign painting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts Other services related to advertising Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Public relations services Display advertising services Outdoor (e.g., billboards) All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Market research and public opinion polling Photography services Commercial photography Sign painting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts See footnotes at end of table.

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

37

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 100.0 .2 .2 .4 13.4 84.3 1.7 1.7 100.0 .1 Z .1 Z Z .2 Z .1 Z .1 .4 Z Z 96.8 .6 .1 Z .1 Z Z 1.2 1.2 .4 .4 100.0 .2 Z .2 Z Z Z Z Z Z .1 .1 .5 1.3 .3 .3 Z 95.2 2.0 2.0 .2 .2 100.0 1.0 .2 Z .8 Z .3 Z .9 .9 .4 .3 .1 .1 1.1 91.3 1.2 Z 1.2 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts 10.3 10.3 X X X X 10.3 X 58.5 56.4 X X X X 58.5 X 55.5 X X X 58.5 X X X 58.5 X X 58.5 X 57.5 X 57.1 X 54.7 52.6 X X X 16.6 X 54.7 X X 54.7 X X X 50.6 X X X 32.6 X 53.1 X 57.6 57.6 X X X X 57.6 X 57.6 X 23.0 X X X X X 57.6 X X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 5418901 0050 0053 0100 0250 0450 0600 0603 5418902 0050 0051 0052 0053 0100 0150 0152 0200 0201 0202 0250 0300 0301 0400 0450 0600 0602 0603 1450 1452 8600 8601 8940 8951 5418903 0050 0051 0052 0053 0150 0151 0200 0202 0250 0300 0301 0400 0450 0600 0603 1400 3350 8600 8601 8940 8951 5418909 0050 0051 0052 0053 0100 0150 0151 0200 0202 0300 0301 0302 0350 0400 0450 0600 0602 0603

Establishments (number) 128 14 14 14 14 128 14 14 4 477 144 83 62 31 6 10 6 33 18 21 84 31 31 4 477 54 146 25 136 10 10 237 237 153 153 3 390 35 14 20 10 7 7 18 18 14 22 17 57 75 95 92 10 3 389 208 208 49 49 1 091 35 9 26 17 7 11 8 23 23 25 25 7 7 12 1 091 120 25 117

Receipts1 ($1,000) 30 970 53 53 114 4 154 26 114 535 535 6 847 023 7 314 1 252 5 700 362 349 12 374 553 4 824 706 4 118 27 376 900 380 6 629 236 43 356 6 162 825 5 336 237 237 82 610 82 610 29 274 29 274 786 247 1 873 29 1 596 248 241 241 377 368 209 1 038 676 4 275 10 379 2 090 2 018 107 748 807 15 379 15 379 1 456 1 456 1 476 116 14 641 3 263 313 11 065 147 3 948 104 13 258 13 124 5 637 4 441 1 196 970 16 423 1 347 168 18 076 394 17 681

Welcoming services Advertising agency receipts Fees Public relations services Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Graphic design services Advertising specialties goods distributor Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Public relations services Display advertising services All other (e.g., indoor, transit, aerial) Direct mail advertising services Sales of mailing lists Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services Photography services Commercial photography Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts Sign painting & lettering shop Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Display advertising services Outdoor (e.g., billboards) Direct mail advertising services Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials Distribution or delivery of advertising materials or samples, except mail advertising Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Graphic design services Market research and public opinion polling Sign painting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts All other advertising Advertising agency receipts Commission on media Agency income on materials and services Fees Public relations services Display advertising services Outdoor (e.g., billboards) Direct mail advertising services Other including preparation and mailing of advertising materials Fees for soliciting advertising for media Newspapers, magazines, and other print media Other (e.g., television, radio) Commissions from buying advertising space or time from media and reselling to advertisers Sale of specialty advertising products Other advertising services Commercial art and graphic design Commercial art and illustration Graphic design services See footnotes at end of table.

38

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 5418909 1400 1450 1452 8600 8601 8940 8951 5419 1400 1450 1451 1452 1500 1550 1570 1580 8600 8606 8940 8954 54191 1400 8600 8606 8940 8954 541910 1400 8600 8606 8940 8954 54192 1400 1450 1451 1452 8600 8606 8940 8954 541921 1450 1451 1452 8600 8606 8940 8954 541922 1400 1450 1451 1452 8600 8606 8940 8954 54193 1500 8600 8606 8940 8954 541930 1500 8600 8606 8940 8954

Establishments (number)

Receipts1 ($1,000)

All other advertising Photography services Commercial photography

Con. 6 24 24 26 26 50 50 25 565 4 099 17 581 13 798 6 841 904 1 443 756 157 4 529 4 526 2 127 2 127 4 030 4 030 36 36 178 178 4 030 4 030 36 36 178 178 17 573 53 17 573 13 795 6 836 4 008 4 005 932 932 13 245 13 245 13 245 2 508 3 592 3 592 392 392 4 328 51 4 328 550 4 328 416 413 540 540 904 904 20 20 88 88 904 904 20 20 88 88 80 102 102 19 245 19 245 28 398 28 398 15 367 590 7 793 891 5 378 637 3 563 461 1 815 176 395 680 335 70 814 446 868 686 Z Z Z 1.3 1.3 1.9 1.9 100.0 50.7 35.0 23.2 11.8 2.6 4.4 2.2 .5 1.0 1.0 3.7 3.7 100.0 98.9 Z Z 1.1 1.1 100.0 98.9 Z Z 1.1 1.1 100.0 Z 96.5 64.0 32.6 1.6 1.6 1.9 1.9 100.0 96.8 95.4 1.4 2.0 2.0 1.2 1.2 100.0 Z 96.1 1.6 94.5 .8 .8 3.1 3.1 100.0 95.5 .1 .1 4.4 4.4 100.0 95.5 .1 .1 4.4 4.4 X 57.6 X 57.6 X 55.6 X 64.4 X 58.1 X X X X X X 58.4 X 41.3 X 63.3 X 8.7 X 21.3 X 63.3 X 8.7 X 21.3 X 71.9 X 64.9 X X 70.6 X 68.3 X 69.7 64.9 X X 68.7 X 67.1 X 76.3 X 64.8 X X 74.0 X 71.8 X 63.5 X 34.9 X 53.8 X 63.5 X 34.9 X 53.8 X

Market research and public opinion polling

Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise, except specialty advertising products All other receipts All other operating receipts Other professional, scientific, & technical services Market research and public opinion polling Photography services Portrait photography Commercial photography Translation or interpretation services Appraisal services Arbitration and conciliation services Auctioneering service fees Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Marketing research & public opinion polling Market research and public opinion polling Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Marketing research & public opinion polling Market research and public opinion polling Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Photographic services Market research and public opinion polling Photography services Portrait photography Commercial photography Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Photographic studios, portrait Photography services Portrait photography Commercial photography Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Commercial photography Market research and public opinion polling Photography services Portrait photography Commercial photography Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Translation & interpretation services Translation or interpretation services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Translation & interpretation services Translation or interpretation services Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts See footnotes at end of table.

147 716 147 709 564 532 564 532 7 879 886 7 793 276 3 471 3 471 83 139 83 139 7 879 886 7 793 276 3 471 3 471 83 139 83 139 5 571 219 225 5 378 511 3 563 382 1 815 129 89 285 89 278 103 198 103 198 3 705 100 3 585 413 3 533 772 51 641 73 816 73 816 45 814 45 814 1 866 119 168 1 793 098 29 610 1 763 488 15 469 15 462 57 384 57 384 414 570 395 814 378 378 18 280 18 280 414 570 395 814 378 378 18 280 18 280

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

39

Table 2a.

Major Sources of Receipts From Customers for Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of receipts Receipts from specified receipt lines as percent of total receipts1 100.0 Z 45.3 22.4 4.7 3.6 3.6 24.0 24.0 100.0 Z 45.3 22.4 4.7 3.6 3.6 24.0 24.0 Receipts of establishments reporting sources of receipts as percent of total receipts 42.8 X X X X 31.2 X 24.0 X 42.8 X X X X 31.2 X 24.0 X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 54199 1400 1550 1570 1580 8600 8606 8940 8954 541990 1400 1550 1570 1580 8600 8606 8940 8954

Establishments (number) 3 058 12 1 443 756 157 465 465 929 929 3 058 12 1 443 756 157 465 465 929 929

Receipts1 ($1,000) 1 501 915 371 680 446 335 868 70 686 54 582 54 582 359 915 359 915 1 501 915 371 680 446 335 868 70 686 54 582 54 582 359 915 359 915

All other professional, scientific, & technical services Market research and public opinion polling Appraisal services Arbitration and conciliation services Auctioneering service fees Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts All other professional, scientific, & technical services Market research and public opinion polling Appraisal services Arbitration and conciliation services Auctioneering service fees Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts
1Receipts

and receipt line percents may not add to totals due to exclusion of selected lines to avoid disclosing data for individual companies and/or due to rounding.

40

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2b.

Major Sources of Revenue From Customers for Firms Exempt From Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997
Kind of business and sources of revenue Revenue from specified revenue lines as percent of total revenue1 100.0 100.0 23.1 6.8 4.4 .3 1.7 Revenue of establishments reporting sources of revenue as percent of total revenue X 67.3 X X X X X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 54 541 1330 1350 1370 1400 1610 1620 1630 1640 1700 2000 2250 8600 8940 9000 9050 9100 9500 5411 1610 1611 1612 1620 1630 1640 1700 8940 8955 54111 1610 1611 1612 1620 1630 1640 1700 8940 8955 541110 1610 1611 1612 1620 1630 1640 1700 8940 8955 5411102 1610 1611 1612 1620 1630 1640 1700 8940 8955

Establishments (number) 5 824 5 824 381 530 589 15 916

Revenue1 ($1,000) 15 708 510 15 708 510 3 628 118 1 063 114 684 192 43 652 265 341

Professional, scientific, & technical services Professional, scientific, & technical services Physical and engineering sciences research and development Life sciences research and development Social sciences and humanities research and development Market research and public opinion polling Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Individuals (including estates) Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Trade, farming, industrial, transportation, financial, and other business firms Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Government (Federal, state, and local, including public authorities) Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Other (e.g., nonprofit organizations, foreign governments, etc.) Other legal services Testing services (physical or product) Management consulting Merchandise sales All other receipts Contributions, gifts, and grants Government Contributions, gifts, and grants Private Investment income, including interest and dividends All other revenue Legal services Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Individuals (including estates) Fees received from real estate settlement services All other fees received Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Trade, farming, industrial, transportation, financial, and other business firms Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Government (Federal, state, and local, including public authorities) Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Other (e.g., nonprofit organizations, foreign governments, etc.) Other legal services All other receipts All other receipts or revenue Offices of lawyers Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Individuals (including estates) Fees received from real estate settlement services All other fees received Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Trade, farming, industrial, transportation, financial, and other business firms Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Government (Federal, state, and local, including public authorities) Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Other (e.g., nonprofit organizations, foreign governments, etc.) Other legal services All other receipts All other receipts or revenue Offices of lawyers Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Individuals (including estates) Fees received from real estate settlement services All other fees received Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Trade, farming, industrial, transportation, financial, and other business firms Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Government (Federal, state, and local, including public authorities) Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Other (e.g., nonprofit organizations, foreign governments, etc.) Other legal services All other receipts All other receipts or revenue Legal aid societies & similar legal services Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Individuals (including estates) Fees received from real estate settlement services All other fees received Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Trade, farming, industrial, transportation, financial, and other business firms Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Government (Federal, state, and local, including public authorities) Receipts, fees, or revenue from the practice of law by class of client: Other (e.g., nonprofit organizations, foreign governments, etc.) Other legal services All other receipts All other receipts or revenue See footnotes at end of table.

156 1 232 1 025 437 35 109 499 213 575 234 960

74 327 496 763 492 223 75 152 7 117 58 98 488 4 380 2 546 761 853 580 766 448 322 943

.5 3.2 3.1 .5 Z .4 .6 3.1 27.9 16.2 4.9 3.5 100.0 17.7 1.2 16.5

X X X X X X X X X X X X 10.0 7.3 X X

1 1 2 1

1 293 2 532 916 219 815

543 598 1 496 807 265 341 18 167 247 174

156 1 232 1 025 437 954 954 2 532 916 219 815

74 327 496 763 492 223 75 152 93 001 93 001 1 496 807 265 341 18 167 247 174

5.0 33.2 32.9 5.0 6.2 6.2 100.0 17.7 1.2 16.5

X X X X 7.4 X 10.0 7.3 X X

156 1 232 1 025 437 954 954 2 532 916 219 815

74 327 496 763 492 223 75 152 93 001 93 001 1 496 807 265 341 18 167 247 174

5.0 33.2 32.9 5.0 6.2 6.2 100.0 17.7 1.2 16.5

X X X X 7.4 X 10.0 7.3 X X

156 1 232 1 025 437 954 954 2 532 916 219 815

74 327 496 763 492 223 75 152 93 001 93 001 1 496 807 265 341 18 167 247 174

5.0 33.2 32.9 5.0 6.2 6.2 100.0 17.7 1.2 16.5

X X X X 7.4 X 10.0 7.3 X X

156 1 232 1 025 437 954 954

74 327 496 763 492 223 75 152 93 001 93 001

5.0 33.2 32.9 5.0 6.2 6.2

X X X X 7.4 X

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

41

Table 2b.

Major Sources of Revenue From Customers for Firms Exempt From Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of revenue Revenue from specified revenue lines as percent of total revenue1 100.0 25.5 1.6 5.8 .2 2.3 15.6 7.5 1.8 5.2 .2 .3 4.8 .7 .2 2.3 1.6 .3 .1 .4 .7 .7 2.8 2.8 30.8 17.9 5.4 3.8 3.8 100.0 29.4 1.9 6.7 .2 2.7 18.0 8.5 2.1 5.9 .2 .3 .5 Z .2 .3 .1 .3 .6 .6 3.1 3.1 32.2 16.6 4.8 3.8 3.8 100.0 29.4 1.9 6.7 .2 2.7 18.0 8.5 2.1 5.9 .2 .3 .5 Z .2 .3 .1 .3 .6 .6 3.1 3.1 32.2 16.6 4.8 3.8 3.8 Revenue of establishments reporting sources of revenue as percent of total revenue 73.3 55.6 X X X X X 71.3 X X X X 60.5 X X X X X X X 72.2 X 72.4 X X X X 71.4 X 73.5 55.8 X X X X X 71.4 X X X X 73.5 X X X X X 73.2 X 73.2 X X X X 72.7 X 73.5 55.8 X X X X X 71.4 X X X X 73.5 X X X X X 73.2 X 73.2 X X X X 72.7 X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 5417 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1400 2000 2250 8600 8609 8940 8958 9000 9050 9100 9500 9501 54171 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1370 1372 1373 1374 2000 2250 8600 8609 8940 8958 9000 9050 9100 9500 9501 541710 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1370 1372 1373 1374 2000 2250 8600 8609 8940 8958 9000 9050 9100 9500 9501

Establishments (number) 3 292 381 136 144 39 156 236 530 115 370 34 42 589 64 51 316 218 15 35 109 499 499 259 259 1 575 2 234 1 960 1 293 1 293 2 318 378 133 144 39 156 236 526 115 366 34 42 103 24 81 32 24 59 223 223 178 178 1 208 1 572 1 363 894 894 2 318 378 133 144 39 156 236 526 115 366 34 42 103 24 81 32 24 59 223 223 178 178 1 208 1 572 1 363 894 894

Revenue1 ($1,000) 14 211 703 3 628 233 826 25 329 2 213 1 063 258 740 21 41 684 95 34 328 226 118 996 099 046 531 444 114 882 646 605 980 192 684 286 197 025

Scientific research & development services Physical and engineering sciences research and development Chemistry and chemical engineering Computer science and electrial engineering Civil engineering Earth and environmental sciences Other physical and engineering sciences Life sciences research and development Biology Medical sciences Agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and allied sciences Other life sciences Social sciences and humanities research and development Economics Psychology Education Other social science and humanities Market research and public opinion polling Testing services (physical or product) Management consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Contributions, gifts, and grants Government Contributions, gifts, and grants Private Investment income, including interest and dividends All other revenue All other revenue R&D in the physical, engineering, & life sciences Physical and engineering sciences research and development Chemistry and chemical engineering Computer science and electrial engineering Civil engineering Earth and environmental sciences Other physical and engineering sciences Life sciences research and development Biology Medical sciences Agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and allied sciences Other life sciences Social sciences and humanities research and development Psychology Education Other social science and humanities Testing services (physical or product) Management consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Contributions, gifts, and grants Government Contributions, gifts, and grants Private Investment income, including interest and dividends All other revenue All other revenue R&D in the physical, engineering, & life sciences Physical and engineering sciences research and development Chemistry and chemical engineering Computer science and electrial engineering Civil engineering Earth and environmental sciences Other physical and engineering sciences Life sciences research and development Biology Medical sciences Agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and allied sciences Other life sciences Social sciences and humanities research and development Psychology Education Other social science and humanities Testing services (physical or product) Management consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Contributions, gifts, and grants Government Contributions, gifts, and grants Private Investment income, including interest and dividends All other revenue All other revenue See footnotes at end of table.

43 652 7 117 58 853 98 580 98 580 395 765 395 765 4 380 448 2 546 322 761 943 543 598 543 598 12 324 171 3 627 233 826 25 329 2 213 1 049 258 726 21 41 65 2 30 31 817 695 099 046 531 444 371 882 903 605 980 169 460 673 515

6 771 40 789 77 029 77 029 382 815 382 815 3 965 035 2 050 244 596 257 462 844 462 844 12 324 171 3 627 233 826 25 329 2 213 1 049 258 726 21 41 65 2 30 31 817 695 099 046 531 444 371 882 903 605 980 169 460 673 515

6 771 40 789 77 029 77 029 382 815 382 815 3 965 035 2 050 244 596 257 462 844 462 844

42

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 2b.

Major Sources of Revenue From Customers for Firms Exempt From Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of revenue Revenue from specified revenue lines as percent of total revenue1 100.0 47.7 3.0 10.9 .3 4.2 29.3 1.0 .4 .3 Z .3 .6 Z .3 .3 .1 .5 .2 .2 4.1 4.1 29.9 12.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 100.0 .5 .1 .3 20.5 4.9 14.8 .4 .4 .4 .2 .2 Z .1 1.3 1.3 1.6 1.6 35.7 23.2 10.1 6.6 6.6 100.0 32.8 5.0 1.7 15.8 10.3 2.3 Z 1.0 1.1 1.1 .7 .7 22.0 26.3 8.8 4.3 4.3 100.0 32.8 5.0 1.7 15.8 10.3 2.3 Z 1.0 1.1 1.1 .7 .7 Revenue of establishments reporting sources of revenue as percent of total revenue 78.6 59.2 X X X X X 78.6 X X X X 78.6 X X X X X 78.6 X 78.5 X X X X 78.1 X 65.4 65.4 X X 62.0 X X X X 65.4 X X X X 64.9 X 64.6 X X X X 64.4 X 71.8 45.4 X X X X X X X 69.6 X 56.8 X X X X 63.0 X 71.8 45.4 X X X X X X X 69.6 X 56.8 X

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 5417101 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1370 1372 1373 1374 2000 2250 8600 8609 8940 8958 9000 9050 9100 9500 9501 5417102 1330 1331 1334 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1370 1373 1374 2000 2250 8600 8609 8940 8958 9000 9050 9100 9500 9501 54172 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1400 2000 2250 8600 8609 8940 8958 9000 9050 9100 9500 9501 541720 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1400 2000 2250 8600 8609 8940 8958

Establishments (number) 860 360 127 141 38 145 231 54 30 28 14 8 61 19 51 18 17 43 89 89 65 65 470 422 441 246 246 1 458 18 6 11 472 85 338 20 34 42 30 13 7 16 134 134 113 113 738 1 150 922 648 648 974 486 60 27 236 187 14 11 50 276 276 81 81 367 662 597 399 399 974 486 60 27 236 187 14 11 50 276 276 81 81

Revenue1 ($1,000) 7 561 476 3 604 229 823 23 314 2 213 74 26 23 2 22 45 1 22 21 918 417 773 955 353 419 951 532 633 441 344 699 081 640 457

R&D in the physical & engineering sciences Physical and engineering sciences research and development Chemistry and chemical engineering Computer science and electrial engineering Civil engineering Earth and environmental sciences Other physical and engineering sciences Life sciences research and development Biology Medical sciences Agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and allied sciences Other life sciences Social sciences and humanities research and development Psychology Education Other social science and humanities Testing services (physical or product) Management consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Contributions, gifts, and grants Government Contributions, gifts, and grants Private Investment income, including interest and dividends All other revenue All other revenue Research & development in the life sciences Physical and engineering sciences research and development Chemistry and chemical engineering Earth and environmental sciences Life sciences research and development Biology Medical sciences Agriculture, forestry, fisheries, and allied sciences Other life sciences Social sciences and humanities research and development Education Other social science and humanities Testing services (physical or product) Management consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Contributions, gifts, and grants Government Contributions, gifts, and grants Private Investment income, including interest and dividends All other revenue All other revenue Research & development in the social sciences & humanities Social sciences and humanities research and development Economics Psychology Education Other social science and humanities Market research and public opinion polling Testing services (physical or product) Management consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts Contributions, gifts, and grants Government Contributions, gifts, and grants Private Investment income, including interest and dividends All other revenue All other revenue R&D in the social sciences & humanities Social sciences and humanities research and development Economics Psychology Education Other social science and humanities Market research and public opinion polling Testing services (physical or product) Management consulting Merchandise sales Sales of merchandise All other receipts All other receipts See footnotes at end of table.

6 077 37 687 14 464 14 464 306 545 306 545 2 262 613 945 072 113 821 149 599 149 599 4 762 695 22 899 4 278 15 178 974 232 703 19 19 420 350 270 164 636

19 470 8 033 10 058 694 3 102 62 565 62 565 76 270 76 270 1 702 422 1 105 172 482 436 313 245 313 245 1 887 532 619 95 31 297 194 023 163 826 524 510

43 623 346 18 064 21 551 21 551 12 950 12 950 415 413 496 078 165 686 80 754 80 754 1 887 532 619 95 31 297 194 023 163 826 524 510

43 623 346 18 064 21 551 21 551 12 950 12 950

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

43

Table 2b.

Major Sources of Revenue From Customers for Firms Exempt From Federal Income Tax for the United States: 1997 Con.
Kind of business and sources of revenue Revenue from specified revenue lines as percent of total revenue1 Revenue of establishments reporting sources of revenue as percent of total revenue

[Includes only establishments with payroll. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A] NAICS code and RL code 541720 9000 9050 9100 9500 9501

Establishments (number)

Revenue1 ($1,000)

R&D in the social sciences & humanities Con. Contributions, gifts, and grants Government Contributions, gifts, and grants Private Investment income, including interest and dividends All other revenue All other revenue
1Revenue

367 662 597 399 399

415 413 496 078 165 686 80 754 80 754

22.0 26.3 8.8 4.3 4.3

X X X 63.0 X

and revenue line percents may not add to totals due to exclusion of selected lines to avoid disclosing data for individual companies and/or due to rounding.

44

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 3a.

Concentration by Largest Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax: 1997

[Includes only firms and establishments with payroll. Includes data for establishments classified in Sector 54, Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services only. See introductory text for a description of establishments in this sector. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For method of assignment to categories shown, see Appendix C] Receipts NAICS code Kind of business or operation and largest firms based on receipts Establishments (number) Amount ($1,000) As percent of total Annual payroll ($1,000) First quarter payroll ($1,000) Paid employees for pay period including March 12 (number)

54

PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, & TECHNICAL SERVICES
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 615 305 366 1 237 2 502 4 982 579 542 139 24 39 67 94 390 459 269 041 648 583 490 576 100.0 4.2 6.8 11.6 16.2 225 376 050 5 11 21 30 793 120 994 895 628 002 454 437 50 558 313 1 2 5 7 650 909 488 743 860 072 952 379 5 212 745 107 202 457 710 297 428 871 790

541

Professional, scientific, & technical services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 615 305 366 1 237 2 502 4 982 579 542 139 24 39 67 94 390 459 269 041 648 583 490 576 100.0 4.2 6.8 11.6 16.2 225 376 050 5 11 21 30 793 120 994 895 628 002 454 437 50 558 313 1 2 5 7 650 909 488 743 860 072 952 379 5 212 745 107 202 457 710 297 428 871 790

5411

Legal services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 173 716 36 57 120 296 127 052 406 2 3 7 13 279 665 146 135 666 740 851 640 100.0 1.8 2.9 5.6 10.3 49 060 017 604 937 1 951 3 877 692 994 619 723 10 374 586 139 210 440 896 928 135 371 558 1 012 092 8 12 26 54 125 910 111 113

54111

Offices of lawyers
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 165 757 36 57 120 296 122 616 890 2 3 7 13 279 665 146 135 666 740 851 640 100.0 1.9 3.0 5.8 10.7 47 409 587 604 937 1 951 3 877 692 994 619 723 10 007 220 139 210 440 896 928 135 371 558 956 074 8 12 26 54 125 910 111 113

541110

Offices of lawyers
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 165 757 36 57 120 296 122 616 890 2 3 7 13 279 665 146 135 666 740 851 640 100.0 1.9 3.0 5.8 10.7 47 409 587 604 937 1 951 3 877 692 994 619 723 10 007 220 139 210 440 896 928 135 371 558 956 074 8 12 26 54 125 910 111 113

5411101

Offices of lawyers (except legal aid societies)
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 165 757 36 57 120 296 122 616 890 2 3 7 13 279 665 146 135 666 740 851 640 100.0 1.9 3.0 5.8 10.7 47 409 587 604 937 1 951 3 877 692 994 619 723 10 007 220 139 210 440 896 928 135 371 558 956 074 8 12 26 54 125 910 111 113

54119

Other legal services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 7 959 273 388 494 677 4 435 516 430 615 906 1 281 793 023 925 570 100.0 9.7 13.9 20.4 28.9 1 650 430 142 191 255 410 353 462 568 508 367 366 32 45 60 96 557 616 684 058 56 018 3 6 8 12 975 030 008 156

541191

Title abstract & settlement offices
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 6 391 254 359 510 695 3 489 167 349 478 704 1 016 485 676 153 279 100.0 10.0 13.7 20.2 29.1 1 386 275 135 172 256 387 573 281 605 743 307 378 31 41 61 90 702 041 379 624 46 711 3 5 7 11 825 365 762 268

541199

All other legal services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 1 568 55 60 73 116 946 349 246 331 432 550 068 148 893 910 100.0 26.0 35.0 45.7 58.2 264 155 40 44 91 132 015 742 250 818 59 988 9 10 20 31 319 419 997 289 9 307 1 1 2 3 386 555 667 798

5412

Accounting, tax return prep, bookkeeping, & payroll services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 97 512 470 758 1 646 1 834 61 117 315 12 22 27 29 208 004 108 564 048 923 366 689 100.0 20.0 36.0 44.4 48.4 26 104 086 4 7 10 11 745 973 388 537 406 280 306 993 6 007 695 1 1 2 2 044 808 417 683 510 971 617 981 966 533 154 223 374 415 655 002 120 930

54121

Accounting, tax return prep, bookkeeping, & payroll services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 97 512 470 758 1 646 1 834 61 117 315 12 22 27 29 208 004 108 564 048 923 366 689 100.0 20.0 36.0 44.4 48.4 26 104 086 4 7 10 11 745 973 388 537 406 280 306 993 6 007 695 1 1 2 2 044 808 417 683 510 971 617 981 966 533 154 223 374 415 655 002 120 930

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

45

Table 3a.

Concentration by Largest Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax: 1997 Con.

[Includes only firms and establishments with payroll. Includes data for establishments classified in Sector 54, Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services only. See introductory text for a description of establishments in this sector. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For method of assignment to categories shown, see Appendix C] Receipts NAICS code Kind of business or operation and largest firms based on receipts Establishments (number) Amount ($1,000) As percent of total Annual payroll ($1,000) First quarter payroll ($1,000) Paid employees for pay period including March 12 (number)

54 541 541211

PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, & TECHNICAL SERVICES Con. Professional, scientific, & technical services Offices of certified public accountants
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 53 651 364 613 773 938 38 601 265 10 15 17 17 483 962 076 880 754 993 469 729 100.0 27.2 41.4 44.2 46.3 15 167 282 3 5 5 5 700 217 573 945 853 013 615 552 3 427 274 808 1 212 1 301 1 391 366 540 805 814 389 340 70 109 117 126 752 830 885 229

Con.

541213

Tax return preparation services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 12 830 569 731 809 951 2 184 210 D D 875 410 933 636 100.0 D D 40.1 42.7 760 170 D D 371 589 391 616 279 420 D D 145 676 151 239 147 698 l l 91 029 92 766

541214

Payroll services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 2 709 434 475 494 568 14 113 017 8 9 10 11 187 666 980 846 031 512 727 812 100.0 58.0 68.5 77.8 83.9 7 598 085 3 4 5 5 651 427 317 972 492 161 907 571 1 695 658 800 985 1 173 1 331 598 604 967 362 316 425 146 170 207 230 912 464 142 918

541219

Other accounting services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 28 322 32 36 117 238 6 218 823 451 637 877 1 164 405 893 630 885 100.0 7.3 10.3 14.1 18.7 2 578 549 145 180 299 448 086 656 389 668 605 343 35 45 75 106 741 119 096 330 113 070 3 4 7 11 739 581 583 741

5413

Architectural, engineering, & related services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 92 710 93 227 746 1 692 116 986 061 9 14 22 30 434 175 145 928 112 741 143 043 100.0 8.1 12.1 18.9 26.4 46 942 816 2 4 6 10 476 174 737 241 570 828 452 831 10 593 413 597 990 1 635 2 485 812 495 865 485 1 038 317 40 73 119 184 107 194 187 370

54131

Architectural services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 20 602 28 50 115 201 16 988 338 893 1 271 1 892 2 797 512 929 188 583 100.0 5.3 7.5 11.1 16.5 6 468 524 293 399 654 1 026 359 645 061 536 1 357 068 69 89 150 231 711 998 772 221 146 702 4 6 11 18 820 650 596 878

541310

Architectural services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 20 602 28 50 115 201 16 988 338 893 1 271 1 892 2 797 512 929 188 583 100.0 5.3 7.5 11.1 16.5 6 468 524 293 399 654 1 026 359 645 061 536 1 357 068 69 89 150 231 711 998 772 221 146 702 4 6 11 18 820 650 596 878

54133

Engineering services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 52 526 91 224 714 1 592 88 180 688 9 14 21 30 424 165 904 109 718 754 229 580 100.0 10.7 16.1 24.8 34.1 35 337 890 2 4 6 9 471 169 679 978 493 501 407 028 8 049 622 596 989 1 621 2 421 964 587 687 131 730 048 40 73 117 178 025 108 920 585

541330

Engineering services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 52 526 91 224 714 1 592 88 180 688 9 14 21 30 424 165 904 109 718 754 229 580 100.0 10.7 16.1 24.8 34.1 35 337 890 2 4 6 9 471 169 679 978 493 501 407 028 8 049 622 596 989 1 621 2 421 964 587 687 131 730 048 40 73 117 178 025 108 920 585

54134

Drafting services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 1 872 8 13 27 59 605 362 56 86 140 218 324 009 778 864 100.0 9.3 14.2 23.3 36.2 310 342 39 56 92 135 951 305 001 749 72 168 9 12 23 33 175 978 724 692 9 150 651 1 117 1 931 3 002

541340

Drafting services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 1 872 8 13 27 59 605 362 56 86 140 218 324 009 778 864 100.0 9.3 14.2 23.3 36.2 310 342 39 56 92 135 951 305 001 749 72 168 9 12 23 33 175 978 724 692 9 150 651 1 117 1 931 3 002

46

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 3a.

Concentration by Largest Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax: 1997 Con.

[Includes only firms and establishments with payroll. Includes data for establishments classified in Sector 54, Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services only. See introductory text for a description of establishments in this sector. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For method of assignment to categories shown, see Appendix C] Receipts NAICS code Kind of business or operation and largest firms based on receipts Establishments (number) Amount ($1,000) As percent of total Annual payroll ($1,000) First quarter payroll ($1,000) Paid employees for pay period including March 12 (number)

54 541 54135

PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, & TECHNICAL SERVICES Con. Professional, scientific, & technical services Building inspection services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 2 771 17 21 44 85 639 041 44 66 113 176 113 664 835 175 100.0 6.9 10.4 17.8 27.6 240 080 9 21 44 69 465 130 948 410 49 561 1 4 10 14 672 439 222 812 8 674 229 555 1 194 1 807

Con.

541350

Building inspection services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 2 771 17 21 44 85 639 041 44 66 113 176 113 664 835 175 100.0 6.9 10.4 17.8 27.6 240 080 9 21 44 69 465 130 948 410 49 561 1 4 10 14 672 439 222 812 8 674 229 555 1 194 1 807

54136

Geophysical surveying & mapping services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 587 16 27 40 77 1 087 786 469 604 776 913 392 886 064 846 100.0 43.2 55.6 71.3 84.0 445 595 240 277 335 382 122 222 936 211 110 008 63 71 85 97 782 794 548 532 9 905 4 5 6 8 534 624 806 071

541360

Geophysical surveying & mapping services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 587 16 27 40 77 1 087 786 469 604 776 913 392 886 064 846 100.0 43.2 55.6 71.3 84.0 445 595 240 277 335 382 122 222 936 211 110 008 63 71 85 97 782 794 548 532 9 905 4 5 6 8 534 624 806 071

54137

Surveying & mapping (except geophysical) services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 8 864 16 21 45 117 3 041 882 183 268 412 584 345 794 162 131 100.0 6.0 8.8 13.5 19.2 1 431 603 62 103 164 244 777 598 386 092 312 831 14 23 37 55 034 938 474 974 51 814 1 2 4 6 640 655 214 447

541370

Surveying & mapping (except geophysical) services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 8 864 16 21 45 117 3 041 882 183 268 412 584 345 794 162 131 100.0 6.0 8.8 13.5 19.2 1 431 603 62 103 164 244 777 598 386 092 312 831 14 23 37 55 034 938 474 974 51 814 1 2 4 6 640 655 214 447

54138

Testing laboratories
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 5 488 397 429 543 835 6 442 964 778 1 074 1 523 2 188 445 647 919 322 100.0 12.1 16.7 23.7 34.0 2 708 782 352 457 616 885 507 575 297 751 642 155 85 110 154 221 433 731 006 412 82 024 9 11 16 24 544 810 573 780

541380

Testing laboratories
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 5 488 397 429 543 835 6 442 964 778 1 074 1 523 2 188 445 647 919 322 100.0 12.1 16.7 23.7 34.0 2 708 782 352 457 616 885 507 575 297 751 642 155 85 110 154 221 433 731 006 412 82 024 9 11 16 24 544 810 573 780

5414

Specialized design services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 26 436 31 36 61 114 14 254 024 343 514 834 1 338 067 458 155 440 100.0 2.4 3.6 5.9 9.4 4 088 006 183 247 368 543 442 201 455 476 906 641 49 64 92 132 025 637 589 695 113 035 4 5 8 11 205 677 249 325

54141

Interior design services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 9 612 10 20 36 67 4 945 340 97 167 307 537 608 457 302 572 100.0 2.0 3.4 6.2 10.9 1 021 531 29 48 85 137 221 974 997 279 218 189 6 10 19 31 784 911 199 721 33 915 550 963 1 812 2 692

541410

Interior design services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 9 612 10 20 36 67 4 945 340 97 167 307 537 608 457 302 572 100.0 2.0 3.4 6.2 10.9 1 021 531 29 48 85 137 221 974 997 279 218 189 6 10 19 31 784 911 199 721 33 915 550 963 1 812 2 692

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

47

Table 3a.

Concentration by Largest Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax: 1997 Con.

[Includes only firms and establishments with payroll. Includes data for establishments classified in Sector 54, Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services only. See introductory text for a description of establishments in this sector. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For method of assignment to categories shown, see Appendix C] Receipts NAICS code Kind of business or operation and largest firms based on receipts Establishments (number) Amount ($1,000) As percent of total Annual payroll ($1,000) First quarter payroll ($1,000) Paid employees for pay period including March 12 (number)

54 541 54142

PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, & TECHNICAL SERVICES Con. Professional, scientific, & technical services Industrial design services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 1 322 25 30 47 85 1 363 017 319 412 560 738 098 170 002 914 100.0 23.4 30.2 41.1 54.2 582 591 170 238 280 347 927 874 222 464 141 006 46 62 72 88 602 730 591 342 13 607 3 5 6 7 907 336 319 750

Con.

541420

Industrial design services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 1 322 25 30 47 85 1 363 017 319 412 560 738 098 170 002 914 100.0 23.4 30.2 41.1 54.2 582 591 170 238 280 347 927 874 222 464 141 006 46 62 72 88 602 730 591 342 13 607 3 5 6 7 907 336 319 750

54143

Graphic design services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 14 631 11 15 41 79 7 554 903 192 312 528 870 132 790 409 845 100.0 2.5 4.1 7.0 11.5 2 354 674 68 100 179 288 544 693 479 081 520 777 17 23 41 67 262 144 964 425 61 622 969 2 261 3 643 5 463

541430

Graphic design services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 14 631 11 15 41 79 7 554 903 192 312 528 870 132 790 409 845 100.0 2.5 4.1 7.0 11.5 2 354 674 68 100 179 288 544 693 479 081 520 777 17 23 41 67 262 144 964 425 61 622 969 2 261 3 643 5 463

5414301

Graphic design services (except commercial art & medical artists)
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 12 565 11 15 38 77 6 741 083 192 296 496 803 132 269 498 627 100.0 2.9 4.4 7.4 11.9 2 109 127 68 99 182 275 544 413 309 535 465 035 17 23 42 65 262 044 543 942 54 791 969 2 125 3 561 5 430

5414302

Commercial art
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 2 017 4 10 22 54 801 037 86 129 208 302 313 366 789 007 100.0 10.8 16.1 26.1 37.7 240 746 20 33 63 91 099 551 175 634 54 652 4 8 14 21 602 248 440 929 6 688 403 575 1 191 1 806

5414303

Medical artists
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 49 4 8 20 49 12 783 3 6 10 12 566 045 606 783 100.0 27.9 47.3 83.0 100.0 4 801 1 2 4 4 641 397 014 801 1 090 371 514 909 1 090 143 37 56 103 143

54149

Other specialized design services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 871 4 8 20 50 390 764 74 102 136 188 178 008 429 951 100.0 19.0 26.1 34.9 48.4 129 210 26 33 48 68 962 144 881 721 26 669 5 6 9 13 412 542 639 336 3 891 444 690 989 1 432

541490

Other specialized design services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 871 4 8 20 50 390 764 74 102 136 188 178 008 429 951 100.0 19.0 26.1 34.9 48.4 129 210 26 33 48 68 962 144 881 721 26 669 5 6 9 13 412 542 639 336 3 891 444 690 989 1 432

5415

Computer systems design & related services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 72 278 657 1 173 1 870 2 826 108 967 614 16 20 27 36 874 718 635 952 333 739 789 160 100.0 15.5 19.0 25.4 33.9 42 150 658 4 5 7 11 060 110 395 261 910 040 889 158 9 805 343 1 1 2 3 230 516 125 046 076 698 113 496 764 659 70 87 128 192 817 924 882 074

54151

Computer systems design & related services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 72 278 657 1 173 1 870 2 826 108 967 614 16 20 27 36 874 718 635 952 333 739 789 160 100.0 15.5 19.0 25.4 33.9 42 150 658 4 5 7 11 060 110 395 261 910 040 889 158 9 805 343 1 1 2 3 230 516 125 046 076 698 113 496 764 659 70 87 128 192 817 924 882 074

48

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 3a.

Concentration by Largest Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax: 1997 Con.

[Includes only firms and establishments with payroll. Includes data for establishments classified in Sector 54, Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services only. See introductory text for a description of establishments in this sector. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For method of assignment to categories shown, see Appendix C] Receipts NAICS code Kind of business or operation and largest firms based on receipts Establishments (number) Amount ($1,000) As percent of total Annual payroll ($1,000) First quarter payroll ($1,000) Paid employees for pay period including March 12 (number)

54 541 541511

PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, & TECHNICAL SERVICES Con. Professional, scientific, & technical services Custom computer programming services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 31 624 520 730 939 1 253 38 300 515 2 4 7 10 609 358 382 330 981 566 277 539 100.0 6.8 11.4 19.3 27.0 18 417 084 1 1 3 4 077 774 226 720 237 957 813 686 4 107 483 300 468 801 1 159 759 205 297 559 318 198 18 31 54 79 978 300 193 775

Con.

541512

Computer systems design services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 30 804 333 405 991 1 317 51 212 916 5 8 13 18 311 455 134 163 462 996 642 632 100.0 10.4 16.5 25.6 35.5 18 459 669 1 2 4 5 950 970 211 872 864 867 195 123 4 249 529 463 751 1 077 1 479 548 870 231 095 337 526 27 42 65 93 882 797 573 489

5415121

Computer systems integrators
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 10 571 205 265 830 1 058 35 270 055 4 7 11 16 839 712 926 046 589 200 779 775 100.0 13.7 21.9 33.8 45.5 11 341 975 1 2 3 4 780 492 683 874 637 643 912 331 2 652 101 417 604 916 1 198 816 241 000 766 207 741 24 36 56 77 354 324 300 292

5415122

Computer systems consultants (except systems integrators)
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 20 233 168 218 328 434 15 942 861 1 2 3 5 802 450 563 006 488 600 839 972 100.0 11.3 15.4 22.4 31.4 7 117 694 707 948 1 495 2 143 291 524 859 356 1 597 428 202 259 396 561 690 110 704 077 129 785 12 16 26 38 404 300 255 530

541513

Computer facilities management services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 1 445 328 499 558 689 15 114 194 12 12 13 14 440 965 586 274 719 074 275 691 100.0 82.3 85.8 89.9 94.4 3 389 511 2 2 2 2 241 465 686 976 950 393 827 339 1 051 577 780 827 885 954 330 659 214 425 71 821 45 50 56 62 429 175 129 167

541519

Other computer related services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 8 405 73 116 145 178 4 339 989 799 1 027 1 317 1 650 466 633 359 441 100.0 18.4 23.7 30.4 38.0 1 884 394 309 417 562 721 400 635 746 693 396 754 72 98 131 164 894 269 887 951 37 114 3 7 10 13 969 952 198 023

5416

Management, scientific, & technical consulting services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 80 426 166 296 571 991 63 428 740 7 9 12 15 078 801 781 756 287 170 831 507 100.0 11.2 15.5 20.2 24.8 26 581 677 2 4 5 6 798 297 575 941 378 575 312 185 5 766 476 718 1 014 1 340 1 607 111 174 327 089 511 252 40 57 72 87 145 020 358 769

54161

Management consulting services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 60 794 162 292 574 887 52 224 697 7 9 12 15 050 773 691 411 233 116 540 431 100.0 13.5 18.7 24.3 29.5 22 296 821 2 4 5 6 794 293 622 904 412 609 163 028 4 830 950 716 1 012 1 338 1 583 470 533 441 982 411 044 40 56 72 85 034 909 086 820

541611

Administrative management & general management consulting service
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 27 399 126 257 350 448 28 556 409 6 9 10 12 700 303 891 638 766 449 234 245 100.0 23.5 32.6 38.1 44.3 12 738 842 2 4 4 5 733 097 954 690 466 870 220 083 2 776 200 575 954 1 138 1 280 859 768 283 674 208 674 36 54 60 69 520 322 532 293

541612

Human resources & executive search consulting services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 14 788 122 173 386 501 10 713 115 1 1 2 3 159 717 539 232 918 284 827 305 100.0 10.8 16.0 23.7 30.2 5 160 322 541 865 1 266 1 589 274 806 101 899 1 118 438 145 209 316 393 537 143 069 554 99 719 7 9 15 22 762 568 727 605

5416121

Actuarial consulting
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 714 65 75 108 149 1 152 766 522 640 768 888 714 864 223 958 100.0 45.3 55.6 66.6 77.1 571 565 227 298 358 428 715 291 157 280 136 717 53 76 90 107 256 244 992 084 10 299 3 5 6 7 038 255 511 723

5416122

Executive placement services

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

49

Table 3a.

Concentration by Largest Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax: 1997 Con.

[Includes only firms and establishments with payroll. Includes data for establishments classified in Sector 54, Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services only. See introductory text for a description of establishments in this sector. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For method of assignment to categories shown, see Appendix C] Receipts NAICS code Kind of business or operation and largest firms based on receipts Establishments (number) Amount ($1,000) As percent of total Annual payroll ($1,000) First quarter payroll ($1,000) Paid employees for pay period including March 12 (number)

54 541 5416122

PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, & TECHNICAL SERVICES Con. Professional, scientific, & technical services Executive placement services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms

Con.
7 619 55 148 200 267 5 154 804 499 725 995 1 304 408 763 629 816 100.0 9.7 14.1 19.3 25.3 2 640 672 285 416 534 683 843 225 427 813 524 452 53 81 103 141 577 620 896 099 47 179 1 3 4 6 440 121 268 413

Con.

5416123

Human resources & personnel management consulting
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 6 455 85 146 182 268 4 405 545 912 1 188 1 489 1 842 677 501 765 457 100.0 20.7 27.0 33.8 41.8 1 948 085 442 580 712 885 595 317 735 577 457 269 133 166 202 241 187 193 517 005 42 241 6 8 12 16 297 983 309 295

541613

Marketing consulting services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 12 498 10 18 40 84 7 874 497 572 798 1 168 1 725 864 277 926 632 100.0 7.3 10.1 14.8 21.9 2 547 408 143 194 347 534 179 005 498 368 536 176 32 39 72 122 709 158 239 354 61 418 4 4 10 14 099 910 115 769

541614

Process, physical distribution, & logistics consulting services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 3 078 125 135 204 246 3 259 152 547 766 1 138 1 584 618 178 835 369 100.0 16.8 23.5 34.9 48.6 1 195 682 207 293 407 568 282 847 103 614 257 721 47 60 85 121 000 696 418 988 25 366 4 4 7 10 116 718 586 327

541618

Other management consulting services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 3 031 82 89 103 149 1 821 524 365 435 572 760 389 509 787 258 100.0 20.1 23.9 31.4 41.7 654 567 77 103 148 218 225 693 762 945 142 415 20 26 36 50 796 538 300 718 15 867 1 1 2 4 499 985 687 287

54162

Environmental consulting services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 6 725 101 134 236 391 4 780 771 389 566 943 1 369 315 884 444 405 100.0 8.1 11.9 19.7 28.6 1 777 594 135 191 318 472 713 974 001 415 404 953 35 51 84 119 960 083 252 099 46 145 2 3 7 10 921 999 155 534

541620

Environmental consulting services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 6 725 101 134 236 391 4 780 771 389 566 943 1 369 315 884 444 405 100.0 8.1 11.9 19.7 28.6 1 777 594 135 191 318 472 713 974 001 415 404 953 35 51 84 119 960 083 252 099 46 145 2 3 7 10 921 999 155 534

54169

Other scientific & technical consulting services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 12 907 24 52 85 146 6 423 272 434 661 1 123 1 681 600 105 356 841 100.0 6.8 10.3 17.5 26.2 2 507 262 78 175 361 596 300 601 466 017 530 573 15 33 77 130 127 846 644 662 54 063 1 2 5 10 140 713 674 501

541690

Other scientific & technical consulting services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 12 907 24 52 85 146 6 423 272 434 661 1 123 1 681 600 105 356 841 100.0 6.8 10.3 17.5 26.2 2 507 262 78 175 361 596 300 601 466 017 530 573 15 33 77 130 127 846 644 662 54 063 1 2 5 10 140 713 674 501

5417

Scientific research & development services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 7 830 517 550 591 725 23 078 307 6 7 9 12 806 999 918 035 136 072 904 856 100.0 29.5 34.7 43.0 52.2 9 322 150 2 3 3 4 534 025 712 501 360 469 149 366 2 287 996 641 769 972 1 173 537 854 493 551 176 974 49 56 69 84 228 964 916 359

54171

R&D in the physical, engineering, & life sciences
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 6 855 513 546 597 725 21 821 756 6 7 9 11 785 978 831 810 065 001 894 965 100.0 31.1 36.6 45.1 54.1 8 820 582 2 3 3 4 528 019 694 417 853 962 090 779 2 176 420 639 768 971 1 154 725 042 263 724 161 304 49 56 66 79 117 853 928 814

50

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 3a.

Concentration by Largest Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax: 1997 Con.

[Includes only firms and establishments with payroll. Includes data for establishments classified in Sector 54, Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services only. See introductory text for a description of establishments in this sector. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For method of assignment to categories shown, see Appendix C] Receipts NAICS code Kind of business or operation and largest firms based on receipts Establishments (number) Amount ($1,000) As percent of total Annual payroll ($1,000) First quarter payroll ($1,000) Paid employees for pay period including March 12 (number)

54 541 541710

PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, & TECHNICAL SERVICES Con. Professional, scientific, & technical services R&D in the physical, engineering, & life sciences
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 6 855 513 546 597 725 21 821 756 6 7 9 11 785 978 831 810 065 001 894 965 100.0 31.1 36.6 45.1 54.1 8 820 582 2 3 3 4 528 019 694 417 853 962 090 779 2 176 420 639 768 971 1 154 725 042 263 724 161 304 49 56 66 79 117 853 928 814

Con.

5417101

R&D in the physical & engineering sciences
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 4 269 495 531 617 735 14 861 730 6 7 9 10 752 811 023 311 579 747 944 483 100.0 45.4 52.6 60.7 69.4 5 890 352 2 2 3 3 466 889 330 888 072 712 839 828 1 449 935 626 732 848 984 006 573 481 352 108 832 47 53 61 70 513 690 902 748

5417102

Research & development in the life sciences
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 2 586 16 35 58 116 6 960 026 956 1 407 2 138 3 140 673 156 974 522 100.0 13.7 20.2 30.7 45.1 2 930 230 392 563 797 1 200 273 704 323 758 726 485 129 170 230 328 430 019 485 097 52 472 5 8 12 19 498 616 843 867

54172

Research & development in the social sciences & humanities
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 975 9 15 31 68 1 256 551 400 535 682 846 266 924 185 826 100.0 31.9 42.7 54.3 67.4 501 568 144 199 258 322 383 995 748 350 111 576 33 45 57 71 515 209 593 803 15 670 6 7 8 9 556 336 754 822

541720

R&D in the social sciences & humanities
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 975 9 15 31 68 1 256 551 400 535 682 846 266 924 185 826 100.0 31.9 42.7 54.3 67.4 501 568 144 199 258 322 383 995 748 350 111 576 33 45 57 71 515 209 593 803 15 670 6 7 8 9 556 336 754 822

5418

Advertising & related services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 38 832 369 606 893 1 386 49 290 082 5 7 11 15 071 729 519 306 163 597 971 537 100.0 10.3 15.7 23.4 31.1 16 012 117 1 2 4 4 641 944 083 978 856 541 889 042 3 688 245 431 749 1 020 1 249 386 054 521 384 417 214 44 63 84 100 836 242 126 503

54181

Advertising agencies
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 13 390 293 348 444 558 16 871 520 3 5 6 7 559 067 432 484 017 988 992 372 100.0 21.1 30.0 38.1 44.4 7 556 880 1 2 3 3 752 505 090 563 066 907 222 205 1 762 109 454 624 777 888 143 215 980 670 139 486 25 35 43 51 383 301 595 426

541810

Advertising agencies
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 13 390 293 348 444 558 16 871 520 3 5 6 7 559 067 432 484 017 988 992 372 100.0 21.1 30.0 38.1 44.4 7 556 880 1 2 3 3 752 505 090 563 066 907 222 205 1 762 109 454 624 777 888 143 215 980 670 139 486 25 35 43 51 383 301 595 426

54182

Public relations agencies
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 6 513 91 119 152 208 4 771 957 742 963 1 222 1 559 575 872 384 405 100.0 15.6 20.2 25.6 32.7 1 951 633 300 411 547 692 862 323 789 089 426 576 72 96 125 155 735 660 167 822 38 735 4 6 8 11 817 405 336 028

541820

Public relations agencies
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 6 513 91 119 152 208 4 771 957 742 963 1 222 1 559 575 872 384 405 100.0 15.6 20.2 25.6 32.7 1 951 633 300 411 547 692 862 323 789 089 426 576 72 96 125 155 735 660 167 822 38 735 4 6 8 11 817 405 336 028

54183

Media buying services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 882 59 80 121 155 1 056 713 264 326 453 642 417 287 290 023 100.0 25.0 30.9 42.9 60.8 422 027 86 117 172 257 269 007 988 973 98 591 22 30 43 61 731 110 168 940 8 534 1 2 3 4 586 092 065 365

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

51

Table 3a.

Concentration by Largest Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax: 1997 Con.

[Includes only firms and establishments with payroll. Includes data for establishments classified in Sector 54, Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services only. See introductory text for a description of establishments in this sector. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For method of assignment to categories shown, see Appendix C] Receipts NAICS code Kind of business or operation and largest firms based on receipts Establishments (number) Amount ($1,000) As percent of total Annual payroll ($1,000) First quarter payroll ($1,000) Paid employees for pay period including March 12 (number)

54 541 541830

PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, & TECHNICAL SERVICES Con. Professional, scientific, & technical services Media buying services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 882 59 80 121 155 1 056 713 264 326 453 642 417 287 290 023 100.0 25.0 30.9 42.9 60.8 422 027 86 117 172 257 269 007 988 973 98 591 22 30 43 61 731 110 168 940 8 534 1 2 3 4 586 092 065 365

Con.

54184

Media representatives
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 2 686 153 283 421 497 3 308 665 822 1 277 1 786 2 129 876 314 000 691 100.0 24.9 38.6 54.0 64.4 1 060 529 276 395 539 637 667 033 051 045 253 691 70 99 135 157 806 825 052 923 26 437 5 8 11 13 303 003 689 545

541840

Media representatives
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 2 686 153 283 421 497 3 308 665 822 1 277 1 786 2 129 876 314 000 691 100.0 24.9 38.6 54.0 64.4 1 060 529 276 395 539 637 667 033 051 045 253 691 70 99 135 157 806 825 052 923 26 437 5 8 11 13 303 003 689 545

5418401

Radio & television advertising representatives
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 1 142 218 284 306 350 1 278 211 482 653 809 945 000 900 067 562 100.0 37.7 51.2 63.3 74.0 541 527 220 301 349 405 377 122 812 645 129 724 56 76 87 99 339 718 609 179 12 946 4 6 7 8 387 402 183 366

5418402

Publishers’ advertising representatives
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 1 544 65 112 161 241 2 030 454 795 1 041 1 222 1 401 314 176 608 904 100.0 39.2 51.3 60.2 69.0 519 002 174 213 255 306 656 654 950 957 123 967 43 52 63 77 486 517 179 158 13 491 3 4 5 7 616 652 642 000

54185

Display advertising
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 2 261 92 216 283 349 4 638 974 2 2 3 3 046 605 100 467 856 219 832 903 100.0 44.1 56.2 66.8 74.8 823 063 226 319 411 500 079 575 934 641 196 335 58 83 104 125 230 441 816 010 41 357 21 24 27 30 353 026 952 700

541850

Display advertising
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 2 261 92 216 283 349 4 638 974 2 2 3 3 046 605 100 467 856 219 832 903 100.0 44.1 56.2 66.8 74.8 823 063 226 319 411 500 079 575 934 641 196 335 58 83 104 125 230 441 816 010 41 357 21 24 27 30 353 026 952 700

5418501

Display advertising (except outdoor)
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 633 42 46 64 99 2 249 617 1 1 1 1 553 668 833 979 653 764 220 493 100.0 69.1 74.2 81.5 88.0 303 398 140 158 193 229 580 047 809 681 71 097 34 39 47 54 394 101 366 848 26 434 21 21 22 23 284 560 940 854

5418502

Outdoor advertising services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 1 628 155 191 258 309 2 389 357 955 1 233 1 522 1 736 722 334 145 153 100.0 40.0 51.6 63.7 72.7 519 665 167 213 281 333 147 161 155 691 125 238 45 56 71 83 323 542 470 738 14 923 4 5 7 8 169 454 066 258

54186

Direct mail advertising
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 3 454 74 110 136 184 8 672 214 1 2 2 3 701 124 835 723 226 909 261 872 100.0 19.6 24.5 32.7 42.9 2 426 572 302 492 721 985 528 089 064 103 560 921 75 123 176 237 389 542 474 487 85 669 9 12 19 27 216 939 820 812

541860

Direct mail advertising
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 3 454 74 110 136 184 8 672 214 1 2 2 3 701 124 835 723 226 909 261 872 100.0 19.6 24.5 32.7 42.9 2 426 572 302 492 721 985 528 089 064 103 560 921 75 123 176 237 389 542 474 487 85 669 9 12 19 27 216 939 820 812

52

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 3a.

Concentration by Largest Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax: 1997 Con.

[Includes only firms and establishments with payroll. Includes data for establishments classified in Sector 54, Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services only. See introductory text for a description of establishments in this sector. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For method of assignment to categories shown, see Appendix C] Receipts NAICS code Kind of business or operation and largest firms based on receipts Establishments (number) Amount ($1,000) As percent of total Annual payroll ($1,000) First quarter payroll ($1,000) Paid employees for pay period including March 12 (number)

54 541 54187

PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, & TECHNICAL SERVICES Con. Professional, scientific, & technical services Advertising material distribution services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 560 42 48 76 120 829 683 246 354 497 629 853 154 619 797 100.0 29.8 42.7 60.0 75.9 174 956 33 56 89 120 616 351 302 378 37 769 7 12 18 25 572 690 258 195 9 642 905 1 717 4 557 5 962

Con.

541870

Advertising material distribution services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 560 42 48 76 120 829 683 246 354 497 629 853 154 619 797 100.0 29.8 42.7 60.0 75.9 174 956 33 56 89 120 616 351 302 378 37 769 7 12 18 25 572 690 258 195 9 642 905 1 717 4 557 5 962

54189

Other services related to advertising
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 9 086 17 71 118 227 9 140 356 839 1 239 1 889 2 766 742 245 742 870 100.0 9.2 13.6 20.7 30.3 1 596 457 59 96 208 374 950 594 760 970 352 253 13 22 49 89 463 471 103 997 67 354 850 2 380 6 558 10 186

541890

Other services related to advertising
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 9 086 17 71 118 227 9 140 356 839 1 239 1 889 2 766 742 245 742 870 100.0 9.2 13.6 20.7 30.3 1 596 457 59 96 208 374 950 594 760 970 352 253 13 22 49 89 463 471 103 997 67 354 850 2 380 6 558 10 186

5418901

Welcoming services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 128 4 9 21 52 30 970 11 15 21 27 141 466 784 123 100.0 36.0 49.9 70.3 87.6 7 230 1 2 4 5 762 926 815 922 1 389 216 521 891 1 114 606 52 186 278 392

5418902

Advertising specialties goods distributor
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 4 477 17 71 140 194 6 847 023 839 1 239 1 817 2 517 742 245 929 162 100.0 12.3 18.1 26.6 36.8 943 235 59 96 167 265 950 594 961 495 209 077 13 22 38 61 463 471 555 899 29 665 850 2 380 4 048 6 470

5418903

Sign painting & lettering shop
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 3 390 11 15 27 59 786 247 38 56 88 137 967 229 949 132 100.0 5.0 7.2 11.3 17.4 214 789 6 12 21 35 860 070 586 766 44 938 891 1 759 3 787 7 208 10 959 211 391 731 1 355

5418909

All other advertising
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 1 091 5 49 76 122 1 476 116 230 368 570 839 938 061 927 047 100.0 15.6 24.9 38.7 56.8 431 203 59 122 168 240 123 089 251 464 96 849 15 31 40 55 604 032 399 335 26 124 3 4 5 12 006 182 040 028

5419

Other professional, scientific, & technical services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 25 565 1 2 4 4 027 530 173 404 15 367 590 1 2 3 5 865 625 840 080 441 467 306 105 100.0 12.1 17.1 25.0 33.1 5 114 523 745 930 1 362 1 805 490 910 651 553 1 127 918 162 206 315 410 163 437 288 009 212 669 22 35 50 63 853 330 772 050

54191

Marketing research & public opinion polling
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 4 030 139 200 252 410 7 879 886 1 2 3 3 665 165 052 986 708 993 312 157 100.0 21.1 27.5 38.7 50.6 2 963 417 630 814 1 125 1 480 415 385 444 432 655 053 136 181 257 332 000 347 282 123 107 552 13 19 26 37 132 927 927 362

541910

Marketing research & public opinion polling
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 4 030 139 200 252 410 7 879 886 1 2 3 3 665 165 052 986 708 993 312 157 100.0 21.1 27.5 38.7 50.6 2 963 417 630 814 1 125 1 480 415 385 444 432 655 053 136 181 257 332 000 347 282 123 107 552 13 19 26 37 132 927 927 362

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

53

Table 3a.

Concentration by Largest Firms Subject to Federal Income Tax: 1997 Con.

[Includes only firms and establishments with payroll. Includes data for establishments classified in Sector 54, Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services only. See introductory text for a description of establishments in this sector. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For method of assignment to categories shown, see Appendix C] Receipts NAICS code Kind of business or operation and largest firms based on receipts Establishments (number) Amount ($1,000) As percent of total Annual payroll ($1,000) First quarter payroll ($1,000) Paid employees for pay period including March 12 (number)

54 541 54192

PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, & TECHNICAL SERVICES Con. Professional, scientific, & technical services Photographic services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 17 573 2 3 3 4 378 920 982 177 5 571 219 926 1 183 1 396 1 651 372 089 178 190 100.0 16.6 21.2 25.1 29.6 1 539 891 283 384 439 526 622 099 765 597 339 456 71 92 104 122 636 434 285 373 83 905 22 27 29 32 825 767 926 892

Con.

541921

Photographic studios, portrait
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 13 245 2 3 4 4 378 940 106 171 3 705 100 926 1 173 1 324 1 491 372 310 914 879 100.0 25.0 31.7 35.8 40.3 990 666 283 378 428 477 622 759 555 991 218 504 71 90 101 112 636 913 243 147 65 395 22 27 29 32 825 397 808 154

541922

Commercial photography
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 4 328 6 20 34 95 1 866 119 99 147 252 393 544 918 296 845 100.0 5.3 7.9 13.5 21.1 549 225 23 34 78 131 486 344 596 408 120 952 5 7 17 29 480 516 369 522 18 510 895 1 330 2 365 3 739

54193

Translation & interpretation services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 904 5 9 21 51 414 570 50 75 124 189 622 579 973 643 100.0 12.2 18.2 30.1 45.7 142 155 21 31 50 74 617 047 858 091 30 422 4 6 10 16 143 303 919 069 4 863 715 938 1 447 2 069

541930

Translation & interpretation services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 904 5 9 21 51 414 570 50 75 124 189 622 579 973 643 100.0 12.2 18.2 30.1 45.7 142 155 21 31 50 74 617 047 858 091 30 422 4 6 10 16 143 303 919 069 4 863 715 938 1 447 2 069

54199

All other professional, scientific, & technical services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 3 058 127 133 178 228 1 501 915 216 288 433 630 865 377 771 041 100.0 14.4 19.2 28.9 41.9 469 060 62 79 125 197 403 557 619 605 102 987 15 19 29 44 185 209 485 002 16 349 1 2 3 5 601 169 771 426

541990

All other professional, scientific, & technical services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 3 058 127 133 178 228 1 501 915 216 288 433 630 865 377 771 041 100.0 14.4 19.2 28.9 41.9 469 060 62 79 125 197 403 557 619 605 102 987 15 19 29 44 185 209 485 002 16 349 1 2 3 5 601 169 771 426

54

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Table 3b.

Concentration by Largest Firms Exempt From Federal Income Tax: 1997

[Includes only firms and establishments with payroll. Includes data for establishments classified in Sector 54, Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services only. See introductory text for a description of establishments in this sector. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For method of assignment to categories shown, see Appendix C] Revenue NAICS code Kind of business or operation and largest firms based on revenue Establishments (number) Amount ($1,000) As percent of total Annual payroll ($1,000) First quarter payroll ($1,000) Paid employees for pay period including March 12 (number)

54

PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, & TECHNICAL SERVICES
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 5 824 55 83 213 345 15 708 510 1 3 5 8 901 318 693 374 850 698 590 278 100.0 12.1 21.1 36.2 53.3 6 022 741 925 1 323 2 181 3 141 270 908 363 198 1 430 744 220 322 518 754 974 724 050 875 148 465 22 29 50 72 875 886 449 835

541

Professional, scientific, & technical services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 5 824 55 83 213 345 15 708 510 1 3 5 8 901 318 693 374 850 698 590 278 100.0 12.1 21.1 36.2 53.3 6 022 741 925 1 323 2 181 3 141 270 908 363 198 1 430 744 220 322 518 754 974 724 050 875 148 465 22 29 50 72 875 886 449 835

5411

Legal services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 2 532 79 128 192 369 1 496 807 223 296 406 582 606 907 949 176 100.0 14.9 19.8 27.2 38.9 796 671 114 149 202 304 514 148 051 362 185 233 27 35 47 72 486 003 841 320 23 316 2 3 5 7 750 655 122 861

54111

Offices of lawyers
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 2 532 79 128 192 369 1 496 807 223 296 406 582 606 907 949 176 100.0 14.9 19.8 27.2 38.9 796 671 114 149 202 304 514 148 051 362 185 233 27 35 47 72 486 003 841 320 23 316 2 3 5 7 750 655 122 861

541110

Offices of lawyers
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 2 532 79 128 192 369 1 496 807 223 296 406 582 606 907 949 176 100.0 14.9 19.8 27.2 38.9 796 671 114 149 202 304 514 148 051 362 185 233 27 35 47 72 486 003 841 320 23 316 2 3 5 7 750 655 122 861

5411102

Legal aid societies & similar legal services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 2 532 79 128 192 369 1 496 807 223 296 406 582 606 907 949 176 100.0 14.9 19.8 27.2 38.9 796 671 114 149 202 304 514 148 051 362 185 233 27 35 47 72 486 003 841 320 23 316 2 3 5 7 750 655 122 861

5417

Scientific research & development services
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 3 292 55 83 213 324 14 211 703 1 3 5 8 901 318 693 307 850 698 590 502 100.0 13.4 23.4 40.1 58.5 5 226 070 925 1 323 2 181 3 095 270 908 363 892 1 245 511 220 322 518 743 974 724 050 813 125 149 22 29 50 71 875 886 449 789

54171

R&D in the physical, engineering, & life sciences
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 2 318 55 83 212 308 12 324 171 1 3 5 8 901 318 689 138 850 698 680 684 100.0 15.4 26.9 46.2 66.0 4 593 475 925 1 323 2 179 3 053 270 908 406 635 1 093 752 220 322 517 733 974 724 578 306 107 812 22 29 50 70 875 886 406 112

541710

R&D in the physical, engineering, & life sciences
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 2 318 55 83 212 308 12 324 171 1 3 5 8 901 318 689 138 850 698 680 684 100.0 15.4 26.9 46.2 66.0 4 593 475 925 1 323 2 179 3 053 270 908 406 635 1 093 752 220 322 517 733 974 724 578 306 107 812 22 29 50 70 875 886 406 112

5417101

R&D in the physical & engineering sciences
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 860 55 83 135 220 7 561 476 1 3 5 6 901 318 188 613 850 698 390 067 100.0 25.2 43.9 68.6 87.5 2 842 628 925 1 323 1 964 2 477 270 908 980 535 684 288 220 322 475 601 974 724 349 721 62 005 22 29 44 53 875 886 029 355

5417102

Research & development in the life sciences
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 1 458 95 111 132 208 4 762 695 820 1 432 2 161 2 978 556 433 758 126 100.0 17.2 30.1 45.4 62.5 1 750 847 316 528 803 1 035 533 002 226 473 409 464 71 117 183 241 668 134 774 087 45 807 8 14 20 27 976 029 927 222

54172

Research & development in the social sciences & humanities
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 974 19 34 57 107 1 887 532 361 552 868 1 193 205 936 310 439 100.0 19.1 29.3 46.0 63.2 632 595 114 176 269 374 749 094 366 622 151 759 27 41 64 89 113 849 559 661 17 337 3 4 6 9 245 425 646 592

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

SUMMARY

55

Table 3b.

Concentration by Largest Firms Exempt From Federal Income Tax: 1997 Con.

[Includes only firms and establishments with payroll. Includes data for establishments classified in Sector 54, Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services only. See introductory text for a description of establishments in this sector. For meaning of abbreviations and symbols, see introductory text. For explanation of terms, see Appendix A. For method of assignment to categories shown, see Appendix C] Revenue NAICS code Kind of business or operation and largest firms based on revenue Establishments (number) Amount ($1,000) As percent of total Annual payroll ($1,000) First quarter payroll ($1,000) Paid employees for pay period including March 12 (number)

54 541 541720

PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, & TECHNICAL SERVICES Con. Professional, scientific, & technical services R&D in the social sciences & humanities
All firms 4 largest firms 8 largest firms 20 largest firms 50 largest firms 974 19 34 57 107 1 887 532 361 552 868 1 193 205 936 310 439 100.0 19.1 29.3 46.0 63.2 632 595 114 176 269 374 749 094 366 622 151 759 27 41 64 89 113 849 559 661 17 337 3 4 6 9 245 425 646 592

Con.

56

SUMMARY

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV. SUBJECT SERIES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census Apr. 30, 2001

Appendix A. Explanation of Terms
ANNUAL PAYROLL Payroll includes all forms of compensation, such as salaries, wages, commissions, dismissal pay, bonuses, vacation allowances, sick-leave pay, and employee contributions to qualified pension plans paid during the year to all employees. Also included are tips and gratuities received by employees from patrons and reported to employers and the value of payments in kind (e.g., free meals and lodging). If an employee works at more than one location, the payroll is included in the one location where they spend most of their time. Also included are salaries of professional service organizations or associations which operate under state professional corporation statutes and file a corporate Federal income tax return. Excluded are payrolls of departments or concessions operated by other companies at the establishment. For corporations, payroll includes amounts paid to officers and executives; for unincorporated businesses, it does not include profit or other compensation of proprietors or partners. Payroll is reported before deductions for social security, income tax, insurance, union dues, etc. This definition of payroll is the same as that used by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) on Form 941. EXPENSES ($1,000) Includes program service grants, specified assistance to individuals, benefits paid to or for members, payroll, employee benefits, payroll taxes, interest and rent expenses, cost of supplies used for operation, cost of merchandise sold, depreciation expenses, fundraising expenses, contracted or purchased services, and other expenses charged to operations during 1997. Expenses exclude outlays for the purchase of real estate; construction and all other capital improvements; funds invested; assessments or dues paid to the parent or other chapters of the same organization; incomes taxes; sales and other taxes collected directly from customers or clients and paid directly to a local, state, or Federal tax agency; and, for fundraising organizations, funds transferred to charities and other organizations. FIRST-QUARTER PAYROLL ($1,000) Represents payroll paid to persons employed at any time during the quarter January to March 1997. NUMBER OF ESTABLISHMENTS An establishment is a single physical location at which business is conducted and/or services are provided. It is not necessarily identical with a company or enterprise, PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, & TECHNICAL SERVICES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

which may consist of one establishment or more. Economic census figures represent a summary of reports for individual establishments rather than companies. For cases where a census report was received, separate information was obtained for each location where business was conducted. When administrative records of other Federal agencies were used instead of a census report, no information was available on the number of locations operated. Each economic census establishment was tabulated according to the physical location at which the business was conducted. The count of establishments represents those in business at any time during 1997. When two activities or more were carried on at a single location under a single ownership, all activities generally were grouped together as a single establishment. The entire establishment was classified on the basis of its major activity and all data for it were included in that classification. However, when distinct and separate economic activities (for which different industry classification codes were appropriate) were conducted at a single location under a single ownership, separate establishment reports for each of the different activities were obtained in the census. An establishment is included in the census if it is an employer, the establishment has $1,000 in payroll, and was in operation at any time during 1997. Leased service departments (separately owned businesses operated as departments or concessions of other service establishments or of retail businesses, such as a separately owned shoeshine parlor in a barber shop, or a beauty shop in a department store) are treated as separate service establishments for census purposes. Leased retail departments located in service establishments (e.g., a gift shop located in a hotel) are considered separate retail establishments. NUMBER OF PAID EMPLOYEES FOR PAY PERIOD INCLUDING MARCH 12 Paid employees consists of full-time and part-time employees, including salaried officers and executives of corporations, who were on the payroll during the pay period including March 12. Included are employees on paid sick leave, paid holidays, and paid vacations; and members of a professional service organization or association which operates under state professional corporation statutes and files a corporate Federal income tax return. Not included are proprietors and partners of unincorporated businesses, and employees of departments or concessions operated by other companies at the establishment. The definition of paid employees is the same as that used on IRS Form 941. APPENDIX A A–1

RECEIPTS/REVENUE ($1,000) Receipts (basic dollar volume measure for service establishments of firms subject to Federal income tax). Includes receipts from customers or clients for services rendered, from the use of facilities, and from merchandise sold during 1997 whether or not payment was received in 1997. For advertising agencies, travel industries, and other service establishments operating on a commission basis, receipts include commissions, fees, and other operating income, NOT gross billings and sales. Excise taxes on gasoline, liquor, tobacco, etc., which are paid by the manufacturer or wholesaler and passed on in the cost of goods purchased by the service establishment, are also included. The establishments share of receipts from departments, concessions, and vending and amusement machines operated by others are included as part of receipts. Receipts also include the total value of service contracts, market value of compensation received in lieu of cash, amounts received for work subcontracted to others, and dues and assessments from members and affiliates. Receipts from services provided to foreign customers from U.S. locations, including services preformed for foreign parent firms, subsidiaries, and branches are included. Receipts are net after deductions for refunds and allowances for merchandise returned by customers. Receipts do not include sales, occupancy, admissions, or other taxes collected from customers and remitted directly by the firm to a local, state, or Federal tax agency, nor do they include income from such sources as contributions, gifts, and grants; dividends, interest, and investments; or sale or rental of real estate. Also excluded are receipts (gross) of departments and concessions which are operated by others; sales of used equipment rented or leased to customers; domestic intracompany transfers; receipts of foreign

subsidiaries; and other nonoperating income, such as royalties, franchise fees, etc. Receipts do not include service receipts of manufacturers, wholesalers, retail establishments, or other businesses whose primary activity is other than service. They do, however, include receipts other than from services rendered (e.g., sale of merchandise to individuals or other businesses) by establishments primarily engaged in performing services and classified in the service industries. Revenue (basic dollar volume measure for firms exempt from Federal income tax). Includes revenue from customers or clients for services rendered and merchandise sold during 1997, whether or not payment was received in 1997, and gross sales of merchandise, minus returns and allowances. Also included are income from interest, dividends, gross rents (including display space rentals and share of receipts from departments operated by other companies), gross contributions, gifts, grants (whether or not restricted for use in operations), royalties, dues and assessments from members and affiliates, commissions earned from the sale of merchandise owned by others (including commissions from vending machine operators), and gross receipts from fundraising activities. Receipts from taxable business activities of firms exempt from Federal income tax (unrelated business income) are also included in revenue. Revenue does not include sales, admissions, or other taxes collected by the organization from customers or clients and paid directly to a local, state, or Federal tax agency; income from the sale of real estate, investments, or other assets (except inventory held for resale); gross receipts of departments, concessions, etc., that are operated by others; and amounts transferred to operating funds from capital or reserve funds.

A–2 APPENDIX A

PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, & TECHNICAL SERVICES
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

Appendix B. NAICS Codes, Titles, and Descriptions
54 PROFESSIONAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND TECHNICAL SERVICES The Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services sector comprises establishments that specialize in performing professional, scientific, and technical activities for others. These activities require a high degree of expertise and training. The establishments in this sector specialize according to expertise and provide these services to clients in a variety of industries and, in some cases, to households. Activities performed include: legal advice and representation; accounting, bookkeeping, and payroll services; architectural, engineering, and specialized design services; computer services; consulting services; research services; advertising services; photographic services; translation and interpretation services; veterinary services; and other professional, scientific, and technical services. This sector excludes establishments primarily engaged in providing a range of day-to-day office administrative services, such as financial planning, billing and recordkeeping, personnel, and physical distribution and logistics. These establishments are classified in Sector 56, Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services. 541 Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services Industries in the Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services subsector group establishments engaged in processes where human capital is the major input. These establishments make available the knowledge and skills of their employees, often on an assignment basis, where an individual or team is responsible for the delivery of services to the client. The individual industries of this subsector are defined on the basis of the particular expertise and training of the services provider. The distinguishing feature of the Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services subsector is the fact that most of the industries grouped in it have production processes that are almost wholly dependent on worker skills. In most of these industries, equipment and materials are not of major importance, unlike health care, for example, where ‘‘high tech’’ machines and materials are important collaborating inputs to labor skills in the production of health care. Thus, the establishments classified in this subsector sell expertise. Much of the expertise requires degrees, though not in every case. PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

5411 Legal Services This NAICS industry group includes establishments classified in the following NAICS industries: 54111, Offices of Lawyers; and 54119, Other Legal Services. 54111 Offices of Lawyers This industry comprises offices of legal practitioners known as lawyers or attorneys (i.e., counselors-at-law) primarily engaged in the practice of law. Establishments in this industry may provide expertise in a range or in specific areas of law, such as criminal law, corporate law, family and estate law, patent law, real estate law, or tax law. 541110 Offices of Lawyers This industry comprises offices of legal practitioners known as lawyers or attorneys (i.e., counselors-at-law) primarily engaged in the practice of law. Establishments in this industry may provide expertise in a range or in specific areas of law, such as criminal law, corporate law, family and estate law, patent law, real estate law, or tax law. The data published with NAICS code 541110 are comprised of the following SIC industry: 8111 Legal Services 5411101 Offices of Lawyers (Except Legal Aid Societies) Establishments, headed by members of the bar, primarily engaged in the practice of law. These establishments may specialize in a particular form of law practice or provide a range of legal services. 5411102 Legal Aid Societies and Similar Legal Services Establishments primarily engaged in providing legal aid or advice and are nonprofit and tax-exempt. 54119 Other Legal Services This industry comprises establishments of legal practitioners (except lawyers and attorneys) primarily engaged in providing specialized legal or paralegal services. 541191 Title Abstract and Settlement Offices This U.S. industry comprises establishments (except offices of lawyers and attorneys) primarily engaged in one or more of the following activities: (1) researching public land records to gather information relating to real estate APPENDIX B B–1

titles; (2) preparing documents necessary for the transfer of the title, financing, and settlement; (3) conducting final real estate settlements and closings; and (4) filing legal and other documents relating to the sale of real estate. Real estate settlement offices, title abstract companies, and title search companies are included in this industry. The data published with NAICS code 541191 are comprised of the following SIC industry: 6541 Title and Settlement Offices 541199 All Other Legal Services This U.S. industry comprises establishments of legal practitioners (except offices of lawyers and attorneys, settlement offices, and title abstract offices). These establishments are primarily engaged in providing specialized legal or paralegal services. The data published with NAICS code 541199 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 7389 (pt) Process Services, Patent Agents, Notaries Public, and Paralegal Services 5412 Accounting, Tax Preparation, Bookkeeping, and Payroll Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing services, such as auditing of accounting records, designing accounting systems, preparing financial statements, developing budgets, preparing tax returns, processing payrolls, bookkeeping, and billing. 54121 Accounting, Tax Preparation, Bookkeeping, and Payroll Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing services, such as auditing of accounting records, designing accounting systems, preparing financial statements, developing budgets, preparing tax returns, processing payrolls, bookkeeping, and billing. 541211 Offices of Certified Public Accountants This U.S. industry comprises establishments of accountants that are certified to audit the accounting records of public and private organizations and to attest to compliance with generally accepted accounting practices. Offices of certified public accountants (CPAs) may provide one or more of the following accounting services: (1) auditing financial statements; (2) designing accounting systems; (3) preparing financial statements; (4) developing budgets; and (5) providing advice on matters related to accounting. These establishments may also provide related services, such as bookkeeping, tax return preparation, and payroll processing. The data published with NAICS code 541211 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 8721 (pt) Offices of Certified Public Accountants B–2 APPENDIX B

541213 Tax Preparation Services This U.S. industry comprises establishments (except offices of CPAs) engaged in providing tax return preparation services without also providing accounting, bookkeeping, billing, or payroll processing services. Basic knowledge of tax law and filing requirements is required. The data published with NAICS code 541213 are comprised of the following SIC industry: 7291 Tax Preparation Services 541214 Payroll Services This U.S. industry comprises establishments (except offices of CPAs) engaged in the following without also providing accounting, bookkeeping, or billing services: (1) collecting information on hours worked, pay rates, deductions, and other payroll-related data from their clients and (2) using that information to generate paychecks, payroll reports, and tax filings. These establishments may use data processing and tabulating techniques as part of providing their services. The data published with NAICS code 541214 are comprised of these parts of the following SIC industries: 7819 (pt) Talent Payment Services 8721 (pt) Payroll Services 5412141 Talent Payment Services Establishments primarily engaged in providing payment services for actors, actresses, and other entertainment professionals. 5412142 Payroll Services (Except Talent Payment Services) Establishments primarily engaged in the following, without also providing accounting or accounts auditing services: (a) collecting information on hours worked, pay rates, deductions, and other payroll-related data from their clients; and (b) using that information to generate paychecks, payroll reports, and tax filings. These establishments may use data processing and tabulating techniques in the execution of their services. 541219 Other Accounting Services This U.S. industry comprises establishments (except offices of CPAs) engaged in providing accounting services (except tax return preparation services only or payroll services only). These establishments may also provide tax return preparation or payroll services. Accountant (except CPA) offices, bookkeeper offices, and billing offices are included in this industry. The data published with NAICS code 541219 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 8721 (pt) Other Accounting Services PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

5413 Architectural, Engineering, and Related Services This NAICS industry group includes establishments classified in the following NAICS industries: 54131, Architectural Services; 54133, Engineering Services; 54134, Drafting Services; 54135, Building Inspection Services; 54136, Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services; 54137, Surveying and Mapping (Except Geophysical) Services; and 54138, Testing Laboratories. 54131 Architectural Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning and designing residential, institutional, leisure, commercial, and industrial buildings and structures by applying knowledge of design, construction procedures, zoning regulations, building codes, and building materials. 541310 Architectural Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning and designing residential, institutional, leisure, commercial, and industrial buildings and structures by applying knowledge of design, construction procedures, zoning regulations, building codes, and building materials. The data published with NAICS code 541310 are comprised of the following SIC industry: 8712 Architectural Services 54133 Engineering Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in applying physical laws and principles of engineering in the design, development, and utilization of machines, materials, instruments, structures, processes, and systems. The assignments undertaken by these establishments may involve any of the following activities: provision of advice, preparation of feasibility studies, preparation of preliminary and final plans and designs, provision of technical services during the construction or installation phase, inspection and evaluation of engineering projects, and related services. 541330 Engineering Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in applying physical laws and principles of engineering in the design, development, and utilization of machines, materials, instruments, structures, processes, and systems. The assignments undertaken by these establishments may involve any of the following activities: provision of advice, preparation of feasibility studies, preparation of preliminary and final plans and designs, provision of technical services during the construction or installation phase, inspection and evaluation of engineering projects, and related services. PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

The data published with NAICS code 541330 are comprised of the following SIC industry: 8711 Engineering Services 54134 Drafting Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in drawing detailed layouts, plans, and illustrations of buildings, structures, systems, or components from engineering and architectural specifications. 541340 Drafting Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in drawing detailed layouts, plans, and illustrations of buildings, structures, systems, or components from engineering and architectural specifications. The data published with NAICS code 541340 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 7389 (pt) Drafting Services 54135 Building Inspection Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing building inspection services. These establishments typically evaluate all aspects of the building structure and component systems and prepare a report on the physical condition of the property, generally for buyers or others involved in real estate transactions. Building inspection bureaus and establishments providing home inspection services are included in this industry. 541350 Building Inspection Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing building inspection services. These establishments typically evaluate all aspects of the building structure and component systems and prepare a report on the physical condition of the property, generally for buyers or others involved in real estate transactions. Building inspection bureaus and establishments providing home inspection services are included in this industry. The data published with NAICS code 541350 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 7389 (pt) Building Inspection Services 54136 Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in gathering, interpreting, and mapping geophysical data. Establishments in this industry often specialize in locating and measuring the extent of subsurface resources, such as oil, gas, and minerals, but they may also conduct surveys for engineering purposes. Establishments in this industry use a variety of surveying techniques depending on the purpose of the survey, including magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, seismic surveys, or electrical and electromagnetic surveys. APPENDIX B B–3

541360 Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in gathering, interpreting, and mapping geophysical data. Establishments in this industry often specialize in locating and measuring the extent of subsurface resources, such as oil, gas, and minerals, but they may also conduct surveys for engineering purposes. Establishments in this industry use a variety of surveying techniques depending on the purpose of the survey, including magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, seismic surveys, or electrical and electromagnetic surveys. The data published with NAICS code 541360 are comprised of these parts of the following SIC industries: 1081 (pt) Geophysical Surveying Services for Metal Mining, on a Contract Basis 1382 (pt) Geophysical Surveying Services for Oil and Gas Fields, on a Contract Basis 1481 (pt) Geophysical Surveying Services for Nonmetallic Minerals (Except Fuels) on a Contract Basis 8713 (pt) Geophysical Surveying 5413601 Geophysical Surveying Establishments primarily engaged in surveying and mapping of subsurface terrain or formations. Establishments in this industry specialize in such areas as identifying the location of subsurface fault lines and mineral deposits using a variety of surveying techniques including magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, seismic surveys, or electrical and electromagnetic surveys. 5413602 Geophysical Surveying Services Only for Metal Mining, Contract Basis Establishments primarily engaged in surveying and mapping subsurface terrain or formations for metal mining. 5413603 Geophysical Surveying Services Only for Oil and Gas Fields, Contract Basis Establishments primarily engaged in surveying and mapping subsurface and surface terrain or formations for oil and gas fields. 5413604 Geophysical Surveying Services Only for Nonmetallic Mineral (Except Fuels), Contract Basis Establishments primarily engaged in surveying and mapping subsurface terrain or formations for nonmetallic minerals, except fuels. 54137 Surveying and Mapping (Except Geophysical) Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing surveying and mapping services of the surface of the earth, including the sea floor. These services may include surveying and mapping of areas above B–4 APPENDIX B

or below the surface of the earth, such as the creation of view easements or segregating rights in parcels of land by creating underground utility easements. 541370 Surveying and Mapping (Except Geophysical) Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing surveying and mapping services of the surface of the earth, including the sea floor. These services may include surveying and mapping of areas above or below the surface of the earth, such as the creation of view easements or segregating rights in parcels of land by creating underground utility easements. The data published with NAICS code 541370 are comprised of these parts of the following SIC industries: 7389 (pt) Map Making Services 8713 (pt) Surveying Services 5413701 Surveying Services Establishments primarily engaged in providing professional land and water surveying services (except geophysical) or providing land, water, and underwater terrain survey mapping services. 5413702 Map Making Services Establishments primarily engaged in providing land, water, and underwater terrain mapping services, without surveying services. 54138 Testing Laboratories This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing physical, chemical, and other analytical testing services, such as acoustics or vibration testing, assaying, biological testing (except medical and veterinary), calibration testing, electrical and electronic testing, geotechnical testing, mechanical testing, nondestructive testing, or thermal testing. The testing may occur in a laboratory or on-site. 541380 Testing Laboratories This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in performing physical, chemical, and other analytical testing services, such as acoustics or vibration testing, assaying, biological testing (except medical and veterinary), calibration testing, electrical and electronic testing, geotechnical testing, mechanical testing, nondestructive testing, or thermal testing. The testing may occur in a laboratory or on-site. The data published with NAICS code 541380 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 8734 (pt) Testing Laboratories PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

5414 Specialized Design Services This industry group comprises establishments providing specialized design services (except architectural, engineering, and computer systems design). 54141 Interior Design Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning, designing, and administering projects in interior spaces to meet the physical and aesthetic needs of people using them, taking into consideration building codes, health and safety regulations, traffic patterns and floor planning, mechanical and electrical needs, and interior fittings and furniture. Interior designers and interior design consultants work in areas, such as hospitality design, health care design, institutional design, commercial and corporate design, and residential design. This industry also includes interior decorating consultants engaged exclusively in providing aesthetic services associated with interior spaces. 541410 Interior Design Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning, designing, and administering projects in interior spaces to meet the physical and aesthetic needs of people using them, taking into consideration building codes, health and safety regulations, traffic patterns and floor planning, mechanical and electrical needs, and interior fittings and furniture. Interior designers and interior design consultants work in areas, such as hospitality design, health care design, institutional design, commercial and corporate design, and residential design. This industry also includes interior decorating consultants engaged exclusively in providing aesthetic services associated with interior spaces. The data published with NAICS code 541410 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 7389 (pt) Interior Design Services 54142 Industrial Design Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in creating and developing designs and specifications that optimize the use, value, and appearance of their products. These services can include the determination of the materials, construction, mechanisms, shape, color, and surface finishes of the product, taking into consideration human characteristics and needs, safety, market appeal, and efficiency in production, distribution, use, and maintenance. Establishments providing automobile or furniture industrial design services or industrial design consulting services are included in this industry. 541420 Industrial Design Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in creating and developing designs and specifications that optimize the use, value, and appearance of their PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

products. These services can include the determination of the materials, construction, mechanisms, shape, color, and surface finishes of the product, taking into consideration human characteristics and needs, safety, market appeal, and efficiency in production, distribution, use, and maintenance. Establishments providing automobile or furniture industrial design services or industrial design consulting services are included in this industry. The data published with NAICS code 541420 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 7389 (pt) Industrial Design Services 54143 Graphic Design Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning, designing, and managing the production of visual communication in order to convey specific messages or concepts, clarify complex information, or project visual identities. These services can include the design of printed materials, packaging, advertising, signage systems, and corporate identification (logos). This industry also includes commercial artists engaged exclusively in generating drawings and illustrations requiring technical accuracy or interpretative skills. 541430 Graphic Design Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning, designing, and managing the production of visual communication in order to convey specific messages or concepts, clarify complex information, or project visual identities. These services can include the design of printed materials, packaging, advertising, signage systems, and corporate identification (logos). This industry also includes commercial artists engaged exclusively in generating drawings and illustrations requiring technical accuracy or interpretative skills. The data published with NAICS code 541430 are comprised of these parts of the following SIC industries: 7336 Commercial Art and Graphic Design

8099 (pt) Medical Artists 5414301 Graphic Design Services (Except Commercial Art and Medical Artists) Establishments primarily engaged in planning, designing and managing the production of the design of printed materials, packaging video screen displays, advertising signage systems, and corporate logos. 5414302 Commercial Art Establishments primarily engaged in providing commercial art and illustration services. 5414303 Medical Artists Establishments primarily engaged in providing commercial sketches and drawings of body parts and other biological objects. APPENDIX B B–5

54149 Other Specialized Design Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing professional design services (except architectural, landscape architecture, engineering, interior, industrial, graphic, and computer system design). 541490 Other Specialized Design Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing professional design services (except architectural, landscape architecture, engineering, interior, industrial, graphic, and computer system design). The data published with NAICS code 541490 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 7389 (pt) Other Design Services 5415 Computer Systems Design and Related Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing expertise in the field of information technologies through one or more of the following activities: (1) writing, modifying, testing, and supporting software to meet the needs of a particular customer; (2) planning and designing computer systems that integrate computer hardware, software, and communication technologies; (3) on-site management and operation of clients’ computer systems and/or data processing facilities; and (4) other professional and technical computer-related advice and services. 54151 Computer Systems Design and Related Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing expertise in the field of information technologies through one or more of the following activities: (1) writing, modifying, testing, and supporting software to meet the needs of a particular customer; (2) planning and designing computer systems that integrate computer hardware, software, and communication technologies; (3) on-site management and operation of clients’ computer systems and/or data processing facilities; and (4) other professional and technical computer-related advice and services. 541511 Custom Computer Programming Services This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in writing, modifying, testing, and supporting software to meet the needs of a particular customer. The data published with NAICS code 541511 are comprised of the following SIC industry: 7371 Custom Computer Programming Services 541512 Computer Systems Design Services This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in planning and designing computer systems that integrate computer hardware, software, and communication technologies. The hardware and software components B–6 APPENDIX B

of the system may be provided by this establishment or company as part of integrated services or may be provided by third parties or vendors. These establishments often install the system and train and support users of the system. The data published with NAICS code 541512 are comprised of these parts of the following SIC industries: 7373 Computer Systems Integrators

7379 (pt) Computer Systems Consultants 5415121 Computer Systems Integrators Establishments primarily engaged in developing or modifying computer software, and packaging or bundling the software with computer hardware (computers and computer peripheral equipment) to create and market an integrated system for specific applications. These establishments must provide each of the following services: (1) the development or modification of the computer software; (2) the marketing of purchased computer hardware; and (3) involvement in all phases of system development from design through installation. 5415122 Computer Systems Consultants (Except Systems Integrators) Establishments primarily engaged in consulting with clients and planning and designing systems that integrate computer hardware, software, and communication technologies. 541513 Computer Facilities Management Services This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing on-site management and operation of clients’ computer systems and/or data processing facilities. Establishments providing computer systems or data processing facilities support services are included in this industry. The data published with NAICS code 541513 are comprised of the following SIC industry: 7376 Computer Facilities Management Services 541519 Other Computer Related Services This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing computer related services (except custom programming, systems integration design, and facilities management services). Establishments providing computer disaster recovery services or software installation services are included in this industry. The data published with NAICS code 541519 are comprised of these parts of the following SIC industries: 7379 (pt) All Other Computer Consultants, (Except Computer Systems Consultants) 7379 (pt) All Other Computer Related Services PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

5415191 Computer Consultants (Except Computer Systems Consultants) Establishments primarily engaged in providing computer consulting services (except computer systems consulting). 5415199 All Other Computer Related Services Establishments primarily engaged in supplying computer related services (except computer programming services, computer systems integrators, computer facilities management services, and computer consultants). 5416 Management, Scientific, and Technical Consulting Services This NAICS industry group includes establishments classified in the following NAICS industries: 54161, Management Consulting Services; 54162, Environmental Consulting Services; and 54169, Other Scientific and Technical Consulting Services. 54161 Management Consulting Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on management issues, such as strategic and organizational planning; financial planning and budgeting; marketing objectives and policies; human resource policies, practices, and planning; production scheduling; and control planning. 541611 Administrative Management and General Management Consulting Services This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing operating advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on administrative management issues, such as financial planning and budgeting, equity and asset management, records management, office planning, strategic and organizational planning, site selection, new business startup, and business process improvement. This industry also includes establishments of general management consultants that provide a full range of administrative; human resource; marketing; process, physical distribution, and logistics; or other management consulting services to clients. The data published with NAICS code 541611 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 8742 (pt) Administrative Management and General Management Consulting Services 541612 Human Resources and Executive Search Consulting Services This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations in one or more of the following PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

areas: (1) human resource and personnel policies, practices, and procedures; (2) employee benefits planning, communication, and administration; (3) compensation systems planning; (4) wage and salary administration; and (5) executive search and recruitment. The data published with NAICS code 541612 are comprised of these parts of the following SIC industries: 7361 (pt) Executive Placement Services 8742 (pt) Human Resources and Personnel Management Consulting 8999 (pt) Actuarial Consulting Services 5416121 Actuarial Consulting Establishments primarily engaged in applying statistical calculation especially of life expectancy in assessing life, health, social, and casualty insurance; annuities; pensions; and compensation and benefits planning. 5416122 Executive Placement Services Establishments primarily engaged in executive search and recruitment services or executive placement services. 5416123 Human Resources and Personnel Management Consulting Establishments primarily engaged in one or more of the following: (a) providing operating advice and assistance in areas, such as human resource and personnel policies, practices, and procedures; (b) employee benefits planning, communication, and administration; (c) compensation systems planning; and (d) wage and salary administration. 541613 Marketing Consulting Services This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing operating advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on marketing issues, such as developing marketing objectives and policies, sales forecasting, new product developing and pricing, licensing and franchise planning, and marketing planning and strategy. The data published with NAICS code 541613 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 8742 (pt) Marketing Consulting Services 541614 Process, Physical Distribution, and Logistics Consulting Services This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing operating advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations in areas, such as: (1) manufacturing operations improvement; (2) productivity improvement; (3) production planning and control; (4) APPENDIX B B–7

quality assurance and quality control; (5) inventory management; (6) distribution networks; (7) warehouse use, operations, and utilization; (8) transportation and shipment of goods and materials; and (9) materials management and handling. The data published with NAICS code 541614 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 8742 (pt) Process, Physical, Distribution, and Logistics Consulting 541618 Other Management Consulting Services This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing management consulting services (except administrative and general management consulting; human resources consulting; marketing consulting; or process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting). Establishments providing telecommunications or utilities management consulting services are included in this industry. The data published with NAICS code 541618 are comprised of these parts of the following SIC industries: 4731 (pt) Tariff Consultants 8748 (pt) Other Management Consulting Services 5416181 Tariff Consulting Establishments primarily engaged in providing information and advise on freight shipping or tariffs. 5416182 All Other Management Consulting Services Establishments primarily engaged in providing management consulting services (expert administrative and general management consulting; human resource consulting; marketing consulting; tariff consulting; or process, physical distribution, and logistics consulting). Establishments providing telecommunications or utilities management consulting services are included in this industry. 54162 Environmental Consulting Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on environmental issues, such as the control of environmental contamination from pollutants, toxic substances, and hazardous materials. These establishments identify problems (e.g., inspect buildings for hazardous materials), measure and evaluate risks, and recommend solutions. They employ a multidisciplined staff of scientists, engineers, and other technicians with expertise in areas, such as air and water quality, asbestos contamination, remediation, and environmental law. Establishments providing sanitation or site remediation consulting services are included in this industry. B–8 APPENDIX B

541620 Environmental Consulting Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on environmental issues, such as the control of environmental contamination from pollutants, toxic substances, and hazardous materials. These establishments identify problems (e.g., inspect buildings for hazardous materials), measure and evaluate risks, and recommend solutions. They employ a multidisciplined staff of scientists, engineers, and other technicians with expertise in areas, such as air and water quality, asbestos contamination, remediation, and environmental law. Establishments providing sanitation or site remediation consulting services are included in this industry. The data published with NAICS code 541620 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 8999 (pt) Environmental Consulting Services 54169 Other Scientific and Technical Consulting Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on scientific and technical issues (except environmental). 541690 Other Scientific and Technical Consulting Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to businesses and other organizations on scientific and technical issues (except environmental). The data published with NAICS code 541690 are comprised of these parts of the following SIC industries: 8748 (pt) Other Scientific and Technical Consulting Services 8999 (pt) Scientific and Related Consulting Services (Except Environmental and Actuarial) 5416901 Economic and Related Consulting Services Establishments primarily engaged in providing advice and assistance to business and other organizations on scientific and technical issues (except environmental). 5416902 Scientific and Related Consulting Services (Except Environmental and Actuarial) Establishments primarily engaged in furnishing scientific or related advice on a contract or fee basis. 5417 Scientific Research and Development Services This industry group comprises establishments engaged in conducting original investigation undertaken on a systematic basis to gain new knowledge (research) and/or the PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

application of research findings or other scientific knowledge for the creation of new or significantly improved products or processes (experimental development). The industries within this industry group are defined on the basis of the domain of research; that is, on the scientific expertise of the establishment. 54171 Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and experimental development in the physical, engineering, or life sciences, such as agriculture, electronics, environmental, biology, botany, biotechnology, computers, chemistry, food, fisheries, forests, geology, health, mathematics, medicine, oceanography, pharmacy, physics, veterinary, and other allied subjects. 541710 Research and Development in the Physical, Engineering, and Life Sciences This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and experimental development in the physical, engineering, or life sciences, such as agriculture, electronics, environmental, biology, botany, biotechnology, computers, chemistry, food, fisheries, forests, geology, health, mathematics, medicine, oceanography, pharmacy, physics, veterinary, and other allied subjects. The data published with NAICS code 541710 are comprised of these parts of the following SIC industries: 8731 (pt) Commercial Physical and Engineering Sciences Research 8733 (pt) Noncommercial Physical and Engineering Sciences Research 8731 (pt) Commercial Life Sciences Research 8733 (pt) Noncommercial Life Sciences Research 5417101 Research and Development in the Physical and Engineering Sciences Establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and experimental development in the physical sciences, engineering, electronics, computer, chemistry, oceanography, geology, mathematics, physics, environmental, and other allied subjects. 54171011 Noncommercial Research and Development in the Physical and Engineering Sciences Establishments primarily engaged in conducting noncommercial research and experimental development in the physical sciences, engineering, electronics, computer, chemistry, oceanography, geology, mathematics, physics, environmental, and other allied subjects funded from gifts, grants, and contributions. PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

54171012 Commercial Research and Development in the Physical and Engineering Sciences Establishments primarily engaged in conducting commercial research and experimental development in the physical sciences, engineering, electronics, computer, chemistry, oceanography, geology, mathematics, physics, environmental, and other allied subjects on a fee or contract basis. 5417102 Research and Development in the Life Sciences Establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and experimental development in medicine, health, biology, botany, biotechnology, agriculture, fisheries, forests, pharmacy, and other life sciences including veterinary sciences. 54171021 Noncommercial Research and Development in the Life Sciences This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and experimental development in medicine, health, biology, botany, biotechnology, agriculture, fisheries, forests, pharmacy, and other life sciences including veterinary sciences. The noncommercial establishments included here operate primarily on funds from gifts, grants, and contributions. 54171022 Commercial Research and Development in the Life Sciences Establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and experimental development in medicine, health, biology, botany, biotechnology, agriculture, fisheries, forests, pharmacy, and other life sciences including veterinary sciences, on a contract or fee (commercial) basis. 54172 Research and Development in the Social Sciences and Humanities This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and analyses in cognitive development, sociology, psychology, language, behavior, economic, and other social science and humanities research. 541720 Research and Development in the Social Sciences and Humanities This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and analyses in cognitive development, sociology, psychology, language, behavior, economic, and other social science and humanities research. The data published with NAICS code 541720 are comprised of these parts of the following SIC industries: 8732 (pt) Social Science and Humanities Research APPENDIX B B–9

8733 (pt) Noncommercial Research in Social Sciences and Humanities 5417201 Noncommercial Research and Development in the Social Sciences and Humanities This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and analysis in education, sociology, psychology, language, behavior, economic, legal, and other social science and humanities research. The noncommercial establishments included here operate primarily on funds from gifts, grants, and contributions. 5417202 Commercial Research and Development in the Social Sciences and Humanities Establishments primarily engaged in conducting research and analysis in education, sociology, psychology, language, behavior, economic, legal, and other social science and humanities research on a contract or fee (commercial) basis. 5418 Advertising and Related Services This NAICS industry group includes establishments classified in the following NAICS industries: 54181, Advertising Agencies; 54182, Public Relations Agencies; 54183, Media Buying Agencies; 54184, Media Representatives; 54185, Display Advertising; 54186, Direct Mail Advertising; 54187, Advertising Material Distribution Services; and 84189, Other Services Related to Advertising. 54181 Advertising Agencies This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in creating advertising campaigns and placing such advertising in periodicals, newspapers, radio and television, or other media. These establishments are organized to provide a full range of services (i.e., through in-house capabilities or subcontracting), including advice, creative services, account management, production of advertising material, media planning, and buying (i.e., placing advertising). 541810 Advertising Agencies This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in creating advertising campaigns and placing such advertising in periodicals, newspapers, radio and television, or other media. These establishments are organized to provide a full range of services (i.e., through in-house capabilities or subcontracting), including advice, creative services, account management, production of advertising material, media planning, and buying (i.e., placing advertising). The data published with NAICS code 541810 are comprised of the following SIC industry: 7311 Advertising Agencies B–10 APPENDIX B

54182 Public Relations Agencies This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in designing and implementing public relations campaigns. These campaigns are designed to promote the interests and image of their clients. Establishments providing lobbying, political consulting, or public relations consulting are included in this industry. 541820 Public Relations Agencies This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in designing and implementing public relations campaigns. These campaigns are designed to promote the interests and image of their clients. Establishments providing lobbying, political consulting, or public relations consulting are included in this industry. The data published with NAICS code 541820 are comprised of the following SIC industry: 8743 Public Relations Services 54183 Media Buying Agencies This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in purchasing advertising time or space from media outlets and reselling it to advertising agencies or individual companies directly. 541830 Media Buying Agencies This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in purchasing advertising time or space from media outlets and reselling it to advertising agencies or individual companies directly. The data published with NAICS code 541830 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 7319 (pt) Media Buying Services 54184 Media Representatives This industry comprises establishments of independent representatives primarily engaged in selling media time or space for media owners. 541840 Media Representatives This industry comprises establishments of independent representatives primarily engaged in selling media time or space for media owners. The data published with NAICS code 541840 are comprised of the following SIC industry: 7313 Radio, Television, and Publishers’ Advertising Representatives 5418401 Radio and Television Advertising Representatives Establishments primarily engaged in selling time or space to advertisers or advertising agencies for radio or television station (or network) owners. PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

5418402 Publishers’ Advertising Representatives Establishments primarily engaged in selling time or space to advertisers or advertising agencies for newspapers, magazines, and other publications. 54185 Display Advertising This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in creating and designing public display advertising, campaign materials, such as printed, painted, or electronic displays, and/or placing such displays on indoor or outdoor billboards and panels, or on or within transit vehicles or facilities, shopping malls, retail (in-store) displays, and other display structures or sites. 541850 Display Advertising This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in creating and designing public display advertising, campaign materials, such as printed, painted, or electronic displays, and/or placing such displays on indoor or outdoor billboards and panels, or on or within transit vehicles or facilities, shopping malls, retail (in-store) displays, and other display structures or sites. The data published with NAICS code 541850 are comprised of these parts of the following SIC industries: 7312 Outdoor Advertising Services

chains, magnets, pens with customized messages imprinted) by mail or other direct distribution; and/or (2) preparing advertising materials or specialties for mailing or other direct distribution. These establishments may also compile, maintain, sell, and rent mailing lists. The data published with NAICS code 541860 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 7331 (pt) Direct Mail Advertising Services (Except Mail List Services) 54187 Advertising Material Distribution Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the direct distribution or delivery of advertisements (e.g., circulars, coupons, handbills) or samples. Establishments in this industry use methods, such as delivering advertisements or samples door-to-door, placing flyers or coupons on car windshields in parking lots, or handing out samples in retail stores. 541870 Advertising Material Distribution Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the direct distribution or delivery of advertisements (e.g., circulars, coupons, handbills) or samples. Establishments in this industry use methods, such as delivering advertisements or samples door-to-door, placing flyers or coupons on car windshields in parking lots, or handing out samples in retail stores. The data published with NAICS code 541870 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 7319 (pt) Advertising Materials Distribution Services 54189 Other Services Related to Advertising This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advertising services (except advertising agency services, public relations agency services, media buying agency services, media representative services, display advertising services, direct mail advertising services, advertising material distribution services, and marketing consulting services). 541890 Other Services Related to Advertising This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advertising services (except advertising agency services, public relations agency services, media buying agency services, media representative services, display advertising services, direct mail advertising services, advertising material distribution services, and marketing consulting services). The data published with NAICS code 541890 are comprised of these parts of the following SIC industries: 5199 (pt) Advertising Specialties Goods Distributors 7319 (pt) Other Advertising Services 7389 (pt) Sign Painting and Lettering Shop APPENDIX B B–11

7319 (pt) Display Advertising, Except Outdoor 5418501 Display Advertising (Except Outdoor) Establishments primarily engaged in preparing display advertising services (except outdoor). 5418502 Outdoor Advertising Services Establishments primarily engaged in the preparation and presentation of poster displays and painted and electric sign displays on billboards, panels, bulletins, and frames principally outdoors. 54186 Direct Mail Advertising This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) creating and designing advertising campaigns for the purpose of distributing advertising materials (e.g., coupons, flyers, samples) or specialties (e.g., key chains, magnets, pens with customized messages imprinted) by mail or other direct distribution; and/or (2) preparing advertising materials or specialties for mailing or other direct distribution. These establishments may also compile, maintain, sell, and rent mailing lists. 541860 Direct Mail Advertising This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in (1) creating and designing advertising campaigns for the purpose of distributing advertising materials (e.g., coupons, flyers, samples) or specialties (e.g., key PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

7389 (pt) Welcoming Services 5418901 Welcoming Services Establishments primarily engaged in providing promotional business services to tourists and new residents of a community. 5418902 Advertising Specialities Goods Distributors Establishments primarily engaged in the wholesale distribution of advertising novelties and specialties. 5418903 Sign Painting and Lettering Shop Establishments primarily engaged in making signs to individual order or in office door and window lettering. 5418909 All Other Advertising This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing advertising services (except advertising agency services, public relations agency services, media buying agency services, media representative services, display advertising services, direct mail advertising services, advertising material distribution services, sign painting and lettering shops, marketing consulting services, and welcoming services). 5419 Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services This industry group comprises establishments engaged in professional, scientific, and technical services (except legal services; accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and related services; architectural, engineering, and related services; specialized design services; computer systems design and related services; management, scientific, and technical consulting services; scientific research and development services; and advertising and related services). 54191 Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in systematically gathering, recording, tabulating, and presenting marketing and public opinion data. 541910 Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in systematically gathering, recording, tabulating, and presenting marketing and public opinion data. The data published with NAICS code 541910 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 8732 (pt) Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling B–12 APPENDIX B

54192 Photographic Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing still, video, or digital photography services. These establishments may specialize in a particular field of photography, such as commercial and industrial photography, portrait photography, and special events photography. Commercial or portrait photography studios are included in this industry. 541921 Photography Studios, Portrait This U.S. industry comprises establishments known as portrait studios primarily engaged in providing still, video, or digital portrait photography services. The data published with NAICS code 541921 are comprised of the following SIC industry: 7221 Photographic Studios, Portrait 541922 Commercial Photography This U.S. industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in providing commercial photography services, generally for advertising agencies, publishers, and other business and industrial users. The data published with NAICS code 541922 are comprised of these parts of the following SIC industries: 7335 Commercial Photography

8099 (pt) Medical Photography 5419221 Commercial Photography (Except Medical Photography) Establishments primarily engaged in providing commercial photography services (except medical photography). 5419222 Medical Photography Establishments primarily engaged in making still photographs or motion pictures of body parts, medical specimens, or other biological objects. 54193 Translation and Interpretation Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in translating written material and interpreting speech from one language to another and establishments primarily engaged in providing sign language services. 541930 Translation and Interpretation Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in translating written material and interpreting speech from one language to another and establishments primarily engaged in providing sign language services. The data published with NAICS code 541930 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 7389 (pt) Translation and Interpretation Services PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

54199 All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the provision of professional, scientific, or technical services (except legal services; accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and related services; architectural, engineering, and related services; specialized design services; computer systems design and related services; management, scientific, and technical consulting services; scientific research and development services; advertising and related services; market research and public opinion polling; photographic services; translation and interpretation services; and veterinary services). 541990 All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the provision of professional, scientific, or

technical services (except legal services; accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and related services; architectural, engineering, and related services; specialized design services; computer systems design and related services; management, scientific, and technical consulting services; scientific research and development services; advertising and related services; market research and public opinion polling; photographic services; translation and interpretation services; and veterinary services). The data published with NAICS code 541990 are comprised of this part of the following SIC industry: 7389 (pt) All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

APPENDIX B

B–13

Appendix C. Coverage and Methodology
MAIL/NONMAIL UNIVERSE For this sector, large- and medium-size firms, plus all firms known to operate more than one establishment, were sent questionnaires to be completed and returned to the Census Bureau by mail. For most very small firms, data from existing administrative records of other Federal agencies were used instead. These records provided basic information on location, kind of business, receipts, payroll, number of employees, and legal form of organization. Firms in the 1997 Economic Census were divided into the mail universe and nonmail universe. The coverage of and the method of obtaining census information from each are described below: 1. The mail universe consisted of firms for which information was obtained by means of a mail canvass and included: a. Large employers, i.e., all multiestablishment firms, and all employer firms with payroll above a specified cutoff (The term ‘‘employers’’ refers to firms with one or more paid employees at any time during 1997 as shown in the active administrative records of other Federal agencies.). b. A sample of small employers, i.e., singleestablishment firms with payroll below a specified cutoff, in classifications for which specialized data precluded reliance solely on administrative records sources. 2. The nonmail universe consisted of firms that were not required to file a regular census return and included: a. Selected small employers, i.e., single-establishment firms with payroll below a specified cutoff. Although the payroll cutoff varied by kind of business, small employers in the nonmail universe generally included firms with less than 10 employees and represented about 10 percent of total receipts of establishments covered in the census. Data on receipts, payroll, and employment for small employers in the nonmail universe were derived or estimated from administrative records of other Federal agencies. b. All taxable nonemployers, i.e., all firms subject to Federal income tax with no paid employees during 1997. Receipts information for these firms was obtained from administrative records of other Federal agencies. Although consisting of many firms, PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

nonemployers accounted for less than 10-percent of total receipts of all establishments covered in the census. The census included only those nonemployer firms which reported a receipts volume of $1,000 or more during 1997. Establishments exempt from Federal income tax with no paid employees were excluded as in previous censuses. Data for nonemployers are not included in this report, but are released as part of the ‘‘Core Business Statistics Series.’’ INDUSTRY CLASSIFICATION OF ESTABLISHMENTS The classifications for all establishments in this sector were assigned in accordance with the 1997 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Manual, United States. NAICS is a common classification system developed by the United States, Canada, and Mexico. This system replaces the 1987 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) that was used in previous censuses. Appendix A of the 1997 NAICS manual provides information on the comparability between the 1987 SIC and the 1997 NAICS. More information on NAICS is available in the NAICS manual and at www.census.gov/naics. The method of assigning classifications, and the level of detail at which establishments were classified, differed between the mail and nonmail universe as follows: 1. The mail universe. Establishments in the mail universe were classified on the basis of their self-designation, sources of receipts, and other industry-specific inquiries. 2. The nonmail universe. a. Selected small employers were classified on the basis of the most current kind-of-business classification available from one of the Census Bureau’s current sample surveys or the 1992 Economic Census. Otherwise, the classification was obtained from administrative records of other Federal agencies. If the census or administrative record classifications proved inadequate (none corresponded to a 1997 Economic Census classification in the detail required for employers), the firm was sent a brief inquiry requesting information necessary to assign a 1997 census kind-of-business code. b. Nonemployers were classified on the basis of information obtained from administrative records of other Federal agencies. APPENDIX C C–1

METHOD OF ASSIGNING TAX STATUS For kind-of-business classifications where there were substantial numbers of taxable and tax-exempt establishments, establishments were classified based on the Federal income tax filing requirement for the establishment or organization. This classification was based primarily on the response to an inquiry on the census questionnaire. Establishments that indicated that all or part of their income was exempt from Federal income tax under provisions of section 501 of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) code were classified as tax-exempt; establishments indicating no such exemption were classified as taxable. All government-operated hospitals were classified as taxexempt. For establishments in the nonmail universe, the tax status classification was based upon the type of tax return filed by the firm or organization. For selected kind-of-business classifications that are comprised primarily of tax-exempt establishments, all establishments in those classifications were defined as tax-exempt. All establishments in the remaining kind-ofbusiness classifications (comprised primarily of taxable establishments) were defined as taxable. RELIABILITY OF DATA All data compiled for this sector are subject to nonsampling errors. Nonsampling errors can be attributed to many sources: inability to identify all cases in the actual universe; definition and classification difficulties; differences in the interpretation of questions; errors in recording or coding the data obtained; and other errors of collection, response, coverage, processing, and estimation for missing or misreported data. Data presented in the Miscellaneous Subjects and the Sources of Receipt or Revenue reports for this sector are subject to sampling errors as well as nonsampling errors. Specifically, these data are estimated based on information obtained from census questionnaires mailed to all large employers and to a sample of small employers in the universe. Sampling errors affect these estimates insofar as they may differ from results that would be obtained from a complete enumeration. The accuracy of these tabulated data is determined by the joint effects of the various nonsampling errors or by the joint effects of sampling and nonsampling errors. No direct measurement of these effects has been obtained except for estimation for missing or misreported data; however, precautionary steps were taken in all phases of the collection, processing, and tabulation of the data in an effort to minimize the effects of nonsampling errors. The Census Bureau obtains limited information extracted from administrative records of other Federal agencies. This information is used in conjunction with other information available to the Census Bureau to develop estimates for nonemployers, small employers, and other establishments for which responses were not received in time for publication. C–2 APPENDIX C

TREATMENT OF NONRESPONSE Census report forms included two different types of inquiries, ‘‘basic’’ and ‘‘industry-specific.’’ Data for the basic inquiries, which include location, kind of business or operation, receipts or revenue, payroll, number of employees, and legal form of organization, were available from a combination of sources for all establishments. Data for industry-specific inquiries, tailored to the particular kinds of business or operation covered by the report, were available only from the establishments in the mail universe that completed the appropriate inquiries on the questionnaire. Two methods were used to account for nonresponse to industry-specific inquiries. For some inquiries, missing data was imputed for individual records based on responses from similar establishments. For other inquiries, the total of reported data was expanded to represent 100 percent of the mail and nonmail universe. Data presented for industry-specific inquiries based on a December 31 reference date were expanded in direct relationship to total receipts or revenue of only those establishments in business at the end of the year. Unless otherwise noted in specific reports, data for other industry-specific inquiries were expanded in direct relationship to total receipts or revenue of all establishments included in the category. In a few cases, expansion on the basis of the receipts or revenue item was not appropriate, and another basic data item was used as the basis for expansion. All reports in which data were expanded to account for nonmail employers and nonrespondents include a coverage indicator for each publication category, which shows the receipts or revenue of establishments responding to the industry-specific inquiry as a percent of total receipts or revenue for all establishments for which data are shown. For some inquiries, coverage is determined by the ratio of total payroll or employment of establishments responding to the inquiry to total payroll or employment of all establishments in the category. ESTABLISHMENT AND FIRM SIZE CATEGORIES The Establishment and Firm Size report represents a recompilation of data collected in the 1997 Economic Census for the Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services Sector and is divided into three categories: establishment size, firm size, and legal form of organization. Establishment size. Only establishments which operated for the entire year have been classified into the various receipt/revenue and employment size groups used in the establishment size tables. An establishment is classified as ‘‘operated for the entire year’’ if it operated 10 months or more during the year. Data for establishments which reported that they were in operation fewer than 10 months are separately summarized as ‘‘not operated for the entire year.’’ PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

Firm size. Only firms which operated for the entire year have been classified into the various receipt/revenue and employment size groups used in the firm size tables. A firm may be either a single establishment (single unit) firm or a multiestablishment (multiunit) firm. A single unit firm is a firm with only one establishment engaged in economic activities. A multiunit firm is a firm with two establishments or more engaged in economic activities. A multiunit firm may, however, operate only one establishment classified in service industries. Firm size groups are based on aggregate data for all establishments operated by the same firm in the kind-of-business classification, group, or total for which data are presented. For example, a firm

operates two service establishments: a testing laboratory (NAICS 541380) and a surveying service (NAICS 541360). At each of the two most detailed levels of classification, each of the establishments is a single unit operated by a multiunit firm. At the professional, scientific, and technical services major group level (NAICS 541), it is a twoestablishment multiunit firm. A firm is considered to have ‘‘operated for the entire year’’ if any of its establishments at that NAICS level operated 10 months or more during the year. Data for firms which reported that none of their establishments operated 10 months or more are separately summarized as ‘‘not operated entire year.’’

PROFESS., SCIENTIFIC, & TECH. SERV.
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

APPENDIX C C–3

Appendix D. Geographic Notes
Not applicable for this report.

1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

APPENDIX D

D–1

Appendix E. Metropolitan Areas
Not applicable for this report.

1997 ECONOMIC CENSUS
U.S. Census Bureau, 1997 Economic Census

APPENDIX E

E–1

EC97S54S-SM

1997
1997 Economic Census Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services Subject Series

Summary

USCENSUSBUREAU


								
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