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					                                      LAHORE BUSINESS SCHOOL

  Spiritual Leadership
Implications on Workplace
This article discusses various spiritual leadership
    theories and their implications on today’s
 workplace. This also gives an idea what are the
main advantages of implementing spirituality in
   Zunair Muhammad Ameer MI-01091057, Sadia Akram MI-01091064, Ahmad Afzal MI-01091041,
     Khubaib Ayub MI-01091071, Imran Ali MI-01091075, Muhammad Fahd Rizwan MI-01091024

“Spirituality in general, and in the workplace in particular, has become an important topic in recent
years, reaching even the front page of the Wall Street Journal”(Miller, 1998, p. A1). Given the many
perspectives and definitions of spirituality, research has failed to produce a common definition of
spirituality. However, if one word could be used to capture the meaning of spirituality, it would be
“interconnectedness”. This article discusses those interconnections and their effects on workplace
Spirituality in Work Place
True Nature or spirituality may be considered as the last think on one’s mind when one starts thinking
about workplace. But according to the advancement in management studies it is now a days emerging
as one of the most important parts of studies. This article tries to identify and explain some of the latest
concepts in this field.

The Inevitable Role of Spirituality in the Workplace
Recently, the term spirituality has gained greater currency in organization and management
development circles. The study of spirituality has begun to be seen as peripheral concern in
management praxis but rather as a subject that can throw considerable light and understanding on
managerial issues and the process of leadership as well as on learning processes in the workplace and
organization. Furthermore spirituality has begun to be seen as an indispensible part of managerial and
organizational success. There is an explosion of interest in spirituality as a new dimension of

“An aspect of existential life which includes emotions, feelings and intellectual components that provide
meaning to the life”

There are two types of spirituality: Pure spirituality and applied spirituality

Pure spirituality refers to silent, unbounded, inner experience of pure self awareness to devoid of
customary content of perception, thoughts and feelings. While applied spirituality refers the domain of
practical applications and measurable outcomes that automatically arise from the inner experience of
pure spirituality” The holistic process of positive transformation through experience of pure spirituality
is called spirituality development.

The scope of this study is closely related to its purpose and significance. It has also a relation with the
thought that the manager and leader in contemporary society and in the workplace have a responsibility
that extends beyond the routine task of running business. Solomon combined feeling and understanding
into the meaning of the word compassion. The majority of studies and researches on management are
strongly related to a rigorous, systematic and methodical investigative process.

Essential to the background on any study on spirituality in the work place is that in the context of
spiritual leadership positive attributes and attitudes might contribute to healthy organizations.
Spirituality has obvious implications for a number of managerial and leadership criteria that will be
explored in this study; this refers to the aspect of leadership and management such as morality, stress
and unawareness of human welfare.
The lack of spiritual cohesion and a concomitant sense of shared and unified morality can be seen fraud
and corruption in business. The qualitative research will explore the managers perspectives in three
problem areas; namely, morality, stress and lack of compassion and love; and discover if spiritual
practices help them to lessen these problems.

In the first sense the significance of this study builds on the results and the potential for further study
have been revealed in contemporary research. Spirituality helps the business person to become more
centered on the important things in life: God, family and a physical word that can be passed on to our
children. Spirituality engaged leadership can build moral solidarity by enabling integration of intellectual,
affective, material and social elements of collective morality.

The conceptual approach in this study is therefore aligned to a subjective and inter-subjective stance in
terms of data collection. The theoretical approach is reliant on subjective interpretations from individual
responses to spirituality. There is a sense of progression or movement from a sense of pure spirituality
to an applied spirituality.

The management field will benefit greatly from incorporating a spiritual perspective into our theories as
well as into our research and theory development process.

Reflection on Current Thinking of Spirituality on Organizations
The most important thing to understand here is that spirituality is not the monopoly of one religion but
is informed by wide variety of faiths it is not a single though but a mixture of all related things such as
feelings, ideas, and etc. spirituality cannot be said or informed but it can only be done, in other words it
cannot be completed without actually implementing the concepts

Meaning of spirituality
Spirituality is “Relationship with supernatural or spiritual realm that provides meanings and a basis for
personal reflection. The connection with the spiritual thoughts connected with our inner feelings that
are connected with each of others.”

Effect of Spiritualty
Following main effects may be seen once spirituality is implemented

Animating Life Force
The main effect of spirituality is the “animating Life Force”, this means to Change the life of everyone
with positive thinking and not with negative thoughts.

Inner, intangible experience
Spirituality is unique because the experience that can be gained is not touchable but to feel it.

Relationship with something more
Spirituality in an organization educates of team work or to be connected with all of them and make a
hierarchy to make it better for long time
Concerning the meaning in life
Spirituality is connected with life of everyone and makes a smell that can be touched but to realize it
how its work one has to be spiritual in nature as well.

Inner human spirit
Spirituality brings out inner human spirit, makes work fun and makes it spiritual to do it hence making
impossible happen.

Something scared at the core of existence that breathes in life
Spirituality makes work sacred it feels like it’s a part of one’s soul, like it actually existed within oneself
and no one can deny this fact.

Key Elements Of a spiritual organization
Now the question arises what are the key elements of a spiritual organization? What makes an ordinary
organization spiritual? Following elements have been theorized to impart spirituality in workplace

    1. Vision & Values.

    2. Services & love for others.

    3. Empowering others.

    4. Courage to overcome fear.

    5. Changing from within.

They are briefly explained as under

Vision and values
Vision is very important in making an organization spiritual. Vision tells what the meaning of an
organization is. Why it actually exists? The vision and values in an organization must be in accordance
with following

Role of super natural spirit
The most important thing to do is in vision make a spirit that can touch your soul and making things
happen. This is a key motivator for organization.

Non-economic values & empowering culture
It is healthy to feel like it’s not a calculation but something that can say you are a part of this, and realize
that culture can lie in the context of the spirituality.

Value transmitting activity
Value can be delivered to everyone and all of them accept it and think about that it is better for all

Creator of meaning
Be a creator of meaning do not make just one perspective to build a strong belief of doing something
Set of fundamental values deeply embedded
This means to capture the whole soul and connected with values

Service and Love for Others
One needs to widen wider community through corporate social responsibility programmed. Make a
clear sense of meanings that everyone is equally acceptable and realize that it is better for all of us

Lack of love and affection
Love with all of them and make an affection attraction that it can be possible through sporting of all of

Capacity to influence others
Attract the whole hierarchy that can be lying in the area of all of them.

Empowering Others
Empowering others means to perceive more about relationships and internal connections in workplace.
This also includes capturing more you feel about.

Free to take decision
Make a clear sense of decision that can be implemented din correct way

Develop potential and work creativity with others
Share the feelings, ideas, and thoughts with all and make a wide variety of meaning

Saying Great is not enough
Saying it is great is not enough but to make it great is what you would like to achieve

Courage to overcome fears
Lead from an inner place of trust and hope. Hope and trust are the two main stones that can build this

Changing From Within
Following path may be attained in order to have a change from within

     Interconnected whole.

Make a hierarchy.

     Increased awareness.

Everyone should be aware about this that this is the thing that I must do.

     Self-aware, without being self-centered.

Not dependable but to make with self-power not depend on others.
Role of Supernatural Spirit
The supernatural spirit if imparted in an organization empowers the work of human spirit. It gives
contagious energy (exceptional and often unexpected). It is available to all and everyone is open to it

The core result of imparting supernatural spirit is “inspired Performance”

Appreciative Inquiry: Creating Spiritual Resonance in the workplace
Appreciative inquiry referred to as positive revolution in the field of human and organization change
management. It also creates spiritual resonance and enhances performance in the workplace
(Cooperrider and Whitney 2005). AI is actually a process where people are invited to talk with one
another about their work, organization, community etc. they are free to share their ideas, feelings and

Since its origin in 1980 AI has been used by many change agents and leaders to bring dramatic changes
in their organizations, health care, communities, government agencies (Whitney and Trosten –Bloom
2003, cooperrider, Whitney and Stavros 2008). But there was some critic on it in the beginning as it
always encourages the positive aspects and ignores the negative and problems. It is actually an attempt
to change an organization from classical form to a new form where people are encouraged to work
together and in the meetings rather than focusing on problems it focuses on positive stance. Now after
twenty years of its beginning the positive impacts of AI are recognized (Cameron, Dutton and Quinn
2003). With the success of Appreciative Inquiry another set of questions have emerged. “Is
Appreciative Inquiry a spiritual process?” “How does Appreciative Inquiry create such positive
energy?” “What is it about Appreciative Inquiry that enables us to talk about what is really
meaningful to us?

Appreciative interviews are the starting point of AI where people are encouraged to share their
ideas, feelings and experiences and interviewers feel such interviews are more informative,
enlightening, spiritual, engaging, connected and authentic. These comments reflect the four
dimensions of spirituality (Whitney 1997), spirit as energy, spirit as meaning, spirit as sacred and
spirit as epistemology

Since AI have significant positive impact on business results we seldom hear the interview process
described using business terms as result oriented, strategic, efficient or effectiveness. So from here
we conclude that it is the spiritual vocabulary and spiritual resonance (positive collective
consciousness), created by AI actually leads to strategic business results
AI is a viable high engagement process for positive change (Cooperrider and Sekerka 2003). It enables
large number of stakeholders to join with each other for better future (Whitney, Cooperrider, Trosten
Bloom and Kaplin, 2002, vii). So appreciative inquiry actually works like a bridge that join the people.

AI is most often applied in what has come to be known as AI 4-D process (Whitney and Trosten-Bloom
2003).the 4-D process enable members of an organization to discover their shared foundation of
strengths (Cooperrider and Whitney 2005).

 AI process started with identification of affirmative topic and move through 4 phases of Discovery,
Dream, Design and Destiny (Whitney and Trosten- Bloom 2003,7). The starting point for AI and positive
change is the selection of affirmative topics for inquiry. Topic selection requires the articulation of what
is wanted, what is valued, what is most essential to success. Topic selection invites a spiritual vocabulary
and in so doing creates the field for spiritual resonance. Participants in an AI process are guided by the
notion that “words create worlds.” They are asked to select topics that describe what they want more
of, rather than they don’t want. By talking about and describing what is wanted managers and leaders
unleash a tremendous amount of life affirming energy and provide clear guides for performance. When
managers and leaders talk in the negative people feel blamed and shamed. And more significantly, good
people who want to contribute and succeed cannot understand how to do so (Thatchenkery and
Metzker 2006).

The 4‐D Process enables members of an organization to discover their shared foundation of
strengths (Cooperrider and Whitney 2005). By doing this before envisioning the future (dream),
articulating designs for change (design), and establishing a path forward (destiny) they create
organization wide confidence and hope for the future.

Individuals experience pride and recognition as they share their unique stories of success, and hear
others build upon them and weave them into dreams for the future. When people engage with each
other in conversations about what works well, they learn each other’s capabilities and they gain
tremendous resonance that fosters human well‐being and contributes to strategic business results
Spiritual Resonance
Often when people work well together a kind of communion occurs, a spiritual resonance which is
described as collective wisdom, a palpable sense of connection to each other and to large forces which
is more than just collaboration (Briskin, Erikson, Ott and Callanan 2009). So from here we conclude that
spiritual resonance occurs when people work well together by sharing and encouraging ideas of each
other (AI) so spiritual resonance is the result of appreciative inquiry. Spiritual resonance is always a
plural phenomenon and always reflects co creation and withness. Actually when people work from their
strengths and seek to support each other they feel themselves the part of a powerful “we”

Spirituality in the workplace
Spirituality in workplace can be defined as the fusing of spirit, character, human values and decency
in the workplace and in life as a whole or the ability to behave with wisdom and compassion while
maintaining inner and outer peace regardless of the circumstances
To better understand how AI creates spiritual resonance I think it is useful to consider it through
the lens of spirituality in work place. And inside an organization spirituality is talked in 4 different
ways (Whitney 1997).

Spirit as energy, spirit as meaning, spirit as sacred and spirit as epistemology.
    The energy of a workplace may be positive or it may be negative. The way people talk about
        their workplace not only describes the energy it also creates it. When people say things like, “It
        is a drag to work here,” “Regularly, I go into a staff meeting happy and I come out depressed,”
        “People give each other the cold shoulder around here these are actually reflecting the
        spiritually negative energy and vice versa. The purpose of AI here to convert negative energy to
    Spirit as Meaning
        Spirit as meaning is the recognition that people want more from work. The search for meaning
        in life, which was once a philosophical or religious question, is now central to conversations
        about quality of work life, job assignments and career paths. This means in order to create a
        faithful workforce is to make their work meaningful
    Spirit as Sacred
        Spirit as Sacred is the recognition of work as something sacred and to die for, in simple
        words the worker may be allowed to give his heart and soul to the workplace if they think
        their work which they do is sacred. The thing to understand is we cannot mind and soul,
        this approach tells to integrate both in order to create harmony and order
    Spirit as epistemology
        Spirit as Epistemology is the integration of all the above approaches it states that the workplace
        must be in an integration of all the above approaches it also includes alternative realities,
        intuition, psychic knowledge, and faith in the workplace. Diversity in workplace is also discussed
        in this part the end result is combined effect of all the above approaches.

AI practices to enhance spiritual resonance
Appreciative check in: The practice of starting a meeting by asking people to check in with an
appreciative story or comment. Whether it is a face‐to‐face meeting or a conference call, begin by
asking people to share stories about something that they feel good about, are proud of, are grateful for
or value. It is a simple practice that makes a big difference
Strength spotting: Strengths spotting is the practice of seeing, articulating, and aligning strengths of
people and situations. It has three steps: one, gathering information and stories about success; two,
analyzing them to discover strengths and positive potential; and three, sharing the strengths and
positive potential with the people involved

The flip: The Flip is the practice of talking about potential rather than problems, of inquiring into
affirmative topics rather than deficit topics. For example, a director of education habitually asked why
18 % of our students are failing. By flipping her question to ask, what are we doing to help 82% of our
students excel she, and her team, learned what was needed to help the failing 18%.

4-D meeting agenda: The 4‐D Meeting Agenda is the practice of using the AI 4‐D process as a template
for meetings. The 4‐D process can be used in a phone call, for a two‐day workshop or as the framework
for a yearlong change initiative. When using it as template for a meeting agenda rather than list issues
for discussion create your agenda by asking: What do we need to discover? What do we need to dream
and envision? What do we need to decide and design? And what do we need to do? Using the 4‐Ds in
this way keeps your meeting focused in the affirmative. It also ensures that people with differing
learning styles will find a topic and time to contribute.

Spirituality in workplace and implications for employees and
To understand this concept we should start from spirituality vs. religion what is the main difference they

Spirituality vs. Religion
Spirituality is not to be confused with religion. “It’s not about converting people. It’s about knowing that
we are all spiritual beings having a human experience” (Laabs, 1995, p. 61). While religion looks outward
focusing on rituals, adhering to dogma, and attending church services, spirituality looks inward focusing
on personal experiences, manifesting itself through behaviors, principles, and practices. Laabs (1995)
concluded “its spirituality not about making people believe a system or a thought system or a religious
system. It’s about knowing that every person has within themselves, a level of truth and integrity, and
that we all have our own divine power”

Research has shown that spirituality and religion are not one in the same. Based upon a study
conducted by Mitroff and Denton (1999), the participants viewed religion as a highly inappropriate topic
in the workplace. They saw spirituality, on the other hand, as a highly appropriate subject for discussion.
Furthermore, spirituality’s focus is inward, while religion’s is outward. Spirituality is broader in scope
and religion more narrow in scope.

Defining Workplace Spirituality
 “Work spirituality is expressing our desires to find meaning and purpose in our lives and is a process of
living out one’s set of deeply held personal values” (Neck & Milliman, 1994, p. 9). It’s not about bringing
religion to the workplace, but about being able to bring one’s entire self to work. Without the existence
of the human spirit at work, there is no meaning in work. In order for people to find self-fulfillment not
only in their personal lives, but at work as well, they must be able to express their values, dreams, and
creativity. “A future-focused corporate culture will make a place for such spiritual expression, which may
take many different forms, resulting in benefits ranging from better internal communication to new
product design” (Herman et al., 1998, p. 28).

There is no question that the interest in spirituality in the workplace is steadily increasing. Because of
social and economic changes in the workplace like downsizing, scandals, and low morale, people are
looking to include the spiritual aspects of their lives into their work. They are trying to create meaning
and purpose in the workplace. “Whether it’s uniting or dividing, benefiting corporations or individuals,
religion is a force that can’t be ignored in the 9-to-5 world” (Gogoi, 2005, p. 3).

Benefits of Spirituality in Workplace
Research has shown that there are numerous benefits associated with integrating spirituality in the
workplace. The employees and organization alike reap the benefits. This means higher profits, less
absenteeism, higher morale, and less stress. Brandt (1996) suggested “By recognizing and appreciating
colleagues not only for the professional roles they play, but also for the interesting, diverse and
worthwhile people they are, you will take the most effective step possible toward a more spiritually
sustaining workplace”

Wong (2003) asserted “A healthy dose of spirituality and meaning at the workplace is good for business,
because it improves moral and productivity” (p. 1). These are just two of the many benefits of
incorporating spirituality in the workplace. Other benefits include, but are not limited to higher profits,
less absenteeism, more positive attitudes, increased commitment, greater satisfaction, and team
performance. When an individual feels connected with self, others, and the organization, optimal
performance is achieved, thus rendering the organization a success.

Perceptions of Spirituality
Although there are various perspectives and definitions of spirituality, it is important to remember that
its focus is on the individual. It is about individual personal behaviors, principles, practices, and values.
Howard (2002) concluded: Spirituality encompasses the way an individual lives out his or her sense of
interconnectedness with the world through an ability to tap into deep resources. It encompasses truth,
service, and wholeness. It is about self-awareness and unity.
The role of emotional intelligence: Implications for Individuals in an
Just as a child must learn to crawl before being able to walk and run, relationship between emotional
intelligence and the latter stages aspects of an individual’s spiritual path may be hierarchical. European-
based psychologist provides a definition of spirituality that crosses religious boundaries and allows for
an appropriate consideration of spirituality within the context of work. Spirituality is people’s search for
meaning, in relation to the big existential questions. The second definition of spirituality offers a world-
oriented perspective of the construct. This research exploring an African-centered view, the construct of
spirituality was defined as, “… the vital life force that animates and connects us all to the rhythms of the
universe, nature, the ancestors, and the community.

Workplace Emotion and Employee relation
We propose a hierarchical relationship between workplace emotional intelligence and employee
spirituality. An explanation of how spirituality and an employee’s spiritual practice can enhance the
demonstration of emotional intelligence at work is provided. Emotional intelligence based principles and
activities within organizations provide employees with additional skills to better understand and
integrate their personal spiritual experience into their work. Spirituality provides organizations and
employees with an entirely different way of knowing and experiencing work (Flier, 1995). It is a way of
experiencing work that does result in measurable market advantage (Aburdene, 2005).

Application of the relation
The relationship between the effective application of emotional intelligence at work and another
emerging indicator of enhanced organizational performance: workplace spirituality (Aburdene, 2005;
Mitroff & Denton, 1999), spiritual attentiveness and understanding both interrelates and builds upon
other developmental lines of the ‘Self’ or Selves such as: Cognitions, what do I think about what I am
aware of?; Needs, what do I require?; Morals, what should I do?; Self-Identity, who am I?; Values, what
is significant to me?; Kinesthetic, how do I physically do that?; Aesthetics, what appeals to me?;
Emotions/Affects, what are the range of emotions I experience?; Intrapersonal, how resilient and
confident am I?; and Interpersonal, how do I socially relate to others?

Resulting relationship effects
Organizations that provide employees with the feeling they belong to a community willing to support,
guide and help them through the many emotional peaks and troughs of work will be more engaged and
committed to achieve organizational goals. Emotional intelligence is also related to a leader’s capability
to show sensitivity and empathy towards others; build on other work colleagues’ ideas; influence others
to accept alternative points of view; demonstrate integrity and; act according to prevailing ethical
standards by remaining consistent with one’s words and actions. The following four attributes are
applicable to any organizational context:
Commitment to the ‘Inner Journey’
 Spiritually aware leaders are committed to understanding who they are by looking deep within ( self-
awareness) and in so doing set their spiritual compass for the search for truth, authenticity and meaning
(Lowney, 2003).

A search for meaning and significance
Spiritually aware leaders are able to rise above the mundane nature of daily life to try to make sense of
the world and their place in it.

An acceptance and expression of one’s ‘Wholeness’
Spiritually aware leaders do not shy from expressing who they are – both their inner and outer worlds –
to those with whom they work.

An embracing of “Connectedness”
For many employees, the workplace has become their primary community and source of social support.

The development of the competencies of emotional intelligence has been found to underpin a spiritual
leader’s effectiveness with regard to each of these four attributes.

Growth of Spiritual emotionalism
Transpersonal theorist and human potential philosopher, Ken Wilbur, suggests spiritual growth could
occur both concurrently and consequently to other aspects of human potential. Spiritual growth is only
available to individuals who have attained latter stages of human consciousness. Latter stages of
consciousness allow the individual to concurrently consider different perspectives, and to integrate
these differing perspectives and world-views without judgment or recourse.

The Shifting Territory of Organizational Performance
A different way of knowing is required. Such levels of human consciousness are available to less than
10% of the world’s population. The application of spirituality and spiritual principles results in improved
employee tenure, increased employee motivation and enthusiasm, and greater work productivity as
well as the promotion of an employee’s responsibility in molding a personally meaningful career.

Development of individual spiritualism
In highlighting the relationship, the present authors demonstrated the hierarchical nature between
other developmental lines of human potential (including the emotional awareness and intelligence lines)
and the transpersonal aspects of spirituality. Just as emotional intelligence development can support an
individual’s spiritual growth, the practices of spirituality can be used to facilitate the enhancement of
individual and organizational emotional intelligence. Research into spirituality shows the positive impact
of spiritual development on organizational performance. Workplace emotional intelligence provided a
strong foundation for the development of an employee’s spiritual capacity which, in turn, can contribute
to employee attraction, engagement and retention.
The effects of spiritual leadership on organizational learning capacity
In order to proper understand the effects of spiritual leadership on organizational learning a research
has been conducted on steel industry of turkey the description of this research is as under

Research Background
       This research report is based on the development of organizations

       The question of the research is increasing the development process of an organization through
        spiritual leadership (SL) and organizational learning capacity (OLC)

       The business should follow the new improvements in their sector and adapt them to their
        organizations in order to survive in the market

       This research develops relation between organizational learning capacity and spiritual

       The main focus of research is on metal industry because

             o   No research has been undertaken in this respect

             o   According to Pitarch and Marhuenda (2002), the mentality of work on metal sector does
                 require high educated personnel

       The research was done on 578 employees of the sector and results were generated by SPSS. The
        research was then analyzed by correlation and regression analysis

The results of this research are as under

Spiritual Leadership
The notion of spirituality in the workplace has come into a considerable prominence in the last decade
(Gibbons, 2000). It becomes in the mind (Maxwell, 2003) and has the property of inspiring. Spirituality
should be thought as an integrated component of leadership in today’s businesses. It is related with the
member’s inquiring, thinking, perceiving, valuing, and acting in the community with the team spirit rather
than acting individually. Hence team work is more supported in SL rather than individual work.
Organizational learning is a wide concept and many authors emphasized on it on reaching better and
healthier organizations. Organizational Learning Capacity to contribute to business development, the
strategy planners should take into consideration the spiritual leaders (and focus on them) in providing
organizational learning in metalworking area (which is also the main question of this research). Spiritual
Leadership is concerned with moral, transformational and ethical leadership and it defends integrity,
goodness, honesty, teamwork, knowing, congruency, wholeness and interconnectedness. Thus,
cynicism, impatience, greed, envy or moral decline will be avoided in the businesses

Model Used for research
The model used for research is by Fry et al. (2005) as it best suits to their research model. According to
this followers are strictly motivated with the spiritual leaders
To accommodate the theory of Fry et al. (2005), research model investigates the Spiritual Leadership in
terms of vision, hope/faith, altruistic love, meaning/calling and membership.

       ‘Vision’ defines the attractive future for an organization, which is also in motivator role.

       ‘hope/faith’, which keeps followers looking forward to the future and provides the desire and
        positive expectation that ensures to create effort through intrinsic motivation

       ‘Altruistic love’, is to love everybody with no exception.

       ‘meaning/calling’, means the organization members believe that the job they do is important
        and meaningful for them.

Organizational Learning Capacity
Learning at the organizational level is becoming greater in importance for businesses and is a complex
process. Organizational learning, is, developing and applying new knowledge has the potential to change
employees’ behavior. Organizational Learning Capacity goes one step further in that it is an
organization’s capacity to develop the capabilities to acquire new information and convert that
information into knowledge. In order to survive in the global business; organizations need to develop
their productive learning capacity, which is related with how more they can learn.

Organizational Learning Capacity is investigated in this report on four components, systems orientation,
organizational climate for learning orientation, knowledge acquisition and utilization orientation and
information sharing and dissemination orientation

       ‘Systems orientation’ makes the person a systems thinker and provides identifying the problems
        and solving them faster.

       ‘Organizational climate for learning orientation’ analyzes how the organization members’
        learning is affected by the environmental conditions.

       Knowledge acquisition and utilization orientation

            o   knowledge acquisition represents the extent to which an organization is skilled in
                obtaining knowledge

            o   utilization orientation is making that knowledge a part of the organization that is
                necessary for improvement and innovation

       ‘Information sharing and dissemination orientation’ facilitates reaching the information within
        the organization. Information sharing helps the colleagues to gain new knowledge
The research model

Here in Organizational Learning Capacity the big circle minus the four small circles represent there may
be other factors affecting OLC but these four are significant in the metalwork sector

Result of the Analysis
Following results were observed in this research

       Out of 578 respondents, the average age of individuals who joined the survey is 32.75 (Mean =
        32.75, standard deviation =7.94)

       The average of total working year is 11.01 (Mean =11.01, standard deviation = 7.91)
       The average of working year on their current employer is 7.69 (Mean = 7.69, standard deviation
        = 6.21).

       8% of 578 employees are graduated from primary school (44/578), 67% of them are graduated
        from high school (387/578), 25% of them are graduated from university (147/578).

       The rate of the respondents whose job-life is between 1 and 10 years is 54% (314/578), 11 and
        20 years is 32% (183/578), more than 20 years is 14% (81/578).

       The rate of the respondents who have been working on their current firm for 1 to 10 years is
        71% (410 /578), for 11 to 20 years is24% (138/578), for more than 20 years is 5% (30/578).

Results of the descriptive statistics
The researchers found that

“Through correlation analysis statistical test, we have found that there are positive significant
correlations (at 0.000 levels) between Organizational Learning Capacity and each Spiritual Learning
dimensions (vision, hope/faith, altruistic love, meaning/calling and membership). The correlation
analysis gives the result about the variables that they tend to vary together and implies that as the
vision, hope/faith, altruistic love, meaning/ calling and membership varies, the learning capacity of the
organization also changes. Therefore, if the managerial level employees need to make sense on
Organizational Learning Capacity, they should try to focus on the values of Spiritual Leadership.”

Conclusion from the research
Following points inspire the learning process of an organization however not at a considerable rate

       Acting as a systems-thinker and seeing the big-picture in organizational learning processes.

       Creating a climate that facilitates organizational learning.

       Increasing the skill of employees in knowledge acquisition and utilizing that knowledge in their

       Sharing information, trying to convert it into knowledge and disseminating that knowledge
        through the organization

       Spiritual leaders have very low impact on OLC in the metal industry. This finding may refer that
        metalworking manufacturing is heavy industry and trading in this sector requires great
        monetary power. Therefore, these businesses may be more finance-focused rather than

       The spiritual leaders should more focus on organizational learning concept and try to find the
        factors that hinder or facilitate the learning business.
       Acquiring the knowledge utilization orientation, sharing the information and disseminating
        through the organization are value chain activities and each should have different mission for
        the respondents.

       Whenever a new knowledge comes into the organizations it must be shared rapidly.

Recommendations for Organizational Implementation
 An effort should be made to help employees feel comfortable expressing themselves and or their ideas.
Provide them with immediate feedback. Let them know that you are listening and that their
ideas/suggestions or even complaints are not falling on deaf ears.

Efforts should be made by organizations to encourage balance between work and family. Life off the job
is just as important as life on the job to employees. When it comes to personal/professional balance,
organizations need to be sensitive to the needs of its employees.

Efforts should be made to acknowledge and reward employee achievements. Organizations should have
a compensation policy to recognize and reward employees’ contributions to the organization. For
example, if your team has perfect attendance for the month, bring them a treat.

Efforts should be made by organizations to show commitment to employees. Organizations need to
show their employees that they are valued based on who they are as an individual rather than what
they can do for the company. Commitment can be shown through respect, listening and words of
encouragement to let them know their contributions are not going unnoticed.

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