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					CSR and Sport:
Background and Research
Directions
   Kathy Babiak, Ph.D.
   University of Michigan
     The CSR literature…
 Friedman (1962) – an organization‟s responsibility is
  to its shareholders--to make money (through
  products and/or services).
 Stakeholder perspective – not just responsible to
  shareholders but to stakeholders that can affect / be
  affected by an organization (Donaldson & Preston,
  1995; Freeman, 1984)
 CSR as strategic response (Bruch & Walter, 2005;
  Hess & Warren, 2005; Porter & Kramer, 2006) or as
  „insurance‟ for future misdeeds (Gardberg &
  Fombrun, 2006; Godfrey, 2005 )
    $$

   LEGAL


  ETHICAL


DISCRETIONARY   Carroll, 1979, 1999
                COMMUNITY
                 WELFARE


 PHILANTHROPY
                    ACCOUNTING
                     PRACTICES


                                   EMPLOYEE
ENVIRONMENT         $$            TREATMENT


                   LEGAL        PRODUCT
                                 SAFETY
HEALTH
                  ETHICAL
   EDUCATION
                                 POVERTY
                DISCRETIONARY              Carroll, 1979, 1999
   CSR defined:

CSR represents a set of actions that:
 appear to further some social good,
 extend beyond the explicit pecuniary
interests of the firm,
 and are not required by law
         (McWilliams & Siegel, 2000)
 Unique features of sport CSR

 Mass media distribution and communication
  power
 Youth appeal
 Social interaction
                              (Smith & Westerbeek, 2007)
 Unique, valuable and rare resources
      Celebrity / brand; power to convene partners;
       passion / emotion invoked by sport
                                      (Wolfe et al., 2006)
       CSR and Sport:
       The Landscape

 Professional sport:
 Leagues, Teams, Athletes
 Sport – related foundations
 Sport manufacturers: Reebok, Nike
 Sport „mega-events‟ / Olympic sport
         The perspective of the “players”

 ATHLETE
     “I started this Foundation because I really felt the need to try to help people.
      As a professional athlete, you are in a position and given the opportunity to
      really have an impact on more than just your immediate surroundings. For
      me to be able to do that is something that‟s sometimes challenging, but
      always worthwhile.”                           (Steve Nash, Phoenix Suns)

 TEAM
     “We recognize that our actions on the court are meager compared to our
      greater efforts and actions within our own community.”
                                     (Michael Heisley, Memphis Grizzlies Owner)
 LEAGUE
     "Basketball has the ability to bring people together and address important
      social issues at the same time.”           (NBA Commissioner David Stern)
                    COMMUNITY WELFARE
                    (e.g., MLB partnership with BGCA;
                    NFL partnership with United Way)




                                                         EMPLOYEE
                                                        TREATMENT
                                                   (e.g., NFL Concussion)
 ENVIRONMENT
(e.g., MLB Team Greening;
   NHL Green Initiative)
                                  $$

                                LEGAL                     EDUCATION
                                                    (e.g., NBA’s Read to Achieve)



                               ETHICAL
          HEALTH
      (e.g., NFL Play 60;
   NHL Hockey Fights Cancer)
                            DISCRETIONARY                           Carroll, 1979, 1999
                                 Diffusion of CSR in Professional
                                 Sport
                                                    Profe ssional Sport Te am Foundations

                         35



                         30
Number of Foundations




                         25



                         20                                                                                 NFL Foundations (84%)
                                                                                                            MLB Foundations (100%)
                                                                                                            NHL Foundations (93%)
                         15
                                                                                                            NBA Foundations (77%)


                         10



                          5



                          0
                          72

                                 75

                                        78

                                               81

                                                      84

                                                             87

                                                                    90

                                                                           93

                                                                                  96

                                                                                         99

                                                                                                02

                                                                                                       05
                        19

                               19

                                      19

                                             19

                                                    19

                                                           19

                                                                  19

                                                                         19

                                                                                19

                                                                                       19

                                                                                              20

                                                                                                     20
                                                      Date of Establishment
However….

Despite the prevalence and magnitude of
socially responsible activities within the
sport industry, little attention has been
    devoted to understanding the
motivations, strategies, or outcomes
          derived from them.
          CSR in Sport:
          A research perspective
 Excellent context since:
   All professional sport teams / leagues have community
    outreach programs / foundations.
   Studying organizational phenomena within sport provides
    rare research advantages:
      availability of performance data / clarity of
        outcomes,
      transparency of intended and unintended
        behaviors,
  which result in unique opportunities to observe, measure, and
    compare variables and relationships of interest over time.
    What does the research future
    hold?
 Margolis and Walsh (2003) called for a change in
  empirical research away from justifying CSR to
  examination of the impacts of CSR on recipients
  and society at large (e.g., reductions in poverty,
  increases in health). Research heeding that call has
  yet to reach the publication stage.
 Research: complex problems that span
  disciplinary boundaries (e.g., public policy,
  management, public health, education, economics,
  corporate governance, social work)
 Engaged scholarship – produce „actionable
  knowledge‟
      CSR and Sport Research
   Examining outcome variables; i.e., to what extent do particular programs address
    the social issues; e.g., how much has the reading of students attending NBA
    Read-To-Achieve sessions improved?
   Other outcome variables may include to what extent have such programs had
    corporate reputational benefits?
   How do these programs affect team (fan) loyalty and other rewards an
    organization may expect to receive from socially responsible efforts?
   And on a broader scale, how much does a community benefit from a professional
    sport team‟s CSR related efforts?
   How can / do managers substitute involvement in some CSR activities for lack of
    involvement in others?
   How are sporting organizations (players and coaches, teams and unions, and
    sport governing bodies) responding to (both reactively and proactively) ethical
    blowback? (e.g., performance enhancing drug scandal)
   In terms of the natural environment, what effective measures can sports
    organizations take to reduce levels of pollution, congestion, and garbage around
    their venues?
   Partnerships to maximize social benefits – how are they formed? And how are
    socially responsible initiatives enacted?
   How will the expanding global nature of sport influence CSR initiatives?

				
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posted:5/25/2010
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