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					TAR (1)                                  BSD General Commands Manual                                       TAR (1)

    tar — The GNU version of the tar archiving utility

    tar [ −] A −−catenate −−concatenate | c −−create | d −−diff −−compare |
          −−delete | r −−append | t −−list | −−test−label | u −−update | x
          −−extract −−get [options] [pathname . . .]

    Tar stores and extracts files from a tape or disk archive.
       The first argument to tar should be a function; either one of the letters Acdrtux, or one of the long function
       names. A function letter need not be prefixed with ‘‘−’’, and may be combined with other single-letter
       options. A long function name must be prefixed with −−. Some options take a parameter; with the single-
       letter form these must be given as separate arguments. With the long form, they may be given by appending
       =value to the option.

    Main operation mode:
       −A, −−catenate, −−concatenate
            append tar files to an archive
       −c, −−create
            create a new archive
       −d, −−diff, −−compare
            find differences between archive and file system
            delete from the archive (not on mag tapes!)
       −r, −−append
            append files to the end of an archive
       −t, −−list
            list the contents of an archive
            test the archive volume label and exit
       −u, −−update
            only append files newer than copy in archive
       −x, −−extract, −−get
            extract files from an archive

    Operation modifiers:
             specify drive and density
       −a, −−auto−compress
            use archive suffix to determine the compression program

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TAR (1)                                BSD General Commands Manual                 TAR (1)

           add given FILE to the archive (useful if its name starts with a dash)
           patterns match file name start
           patterns match after any ‘/’ (default for exclusion)
           preserve access times on dumped files, either by restoring the times
           do not use archive suffix to determine the compression program
      −b, −−blocking−factor BLOCKS
           BLOCKS x 512 bytes per record
      −B, −−read−full−records
           reblock as we read (for 4.2BSD pipes)
           backup before removal, choose version CONTROL
      −C, −−directory DIR
           change to directory DIR
           check device numbers when creating incremental archives (default)
           do not check device numbers when creating incremental archives
           display progress messages every NUMBERth record (default 10)
           execute ACTION on each checkpoint
           delay setting modification times and permissions of extracted
           cancel the effect of --delay-directory-restore option
           exclude files, given as a PATTERN
           exclude backup and lock files
           exclude contents of directories containing CACHEDIR.TAG,
           exclude directories containing CACHEDIR.TAG
           exclude everything under directories containing CACHEDIR.TAG

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TAR (1)                                 BSD General Commands Manual            TAR (1)

           exclude contents of directories containing FILE, except
           exclude directories containing FILE
           exclude everything under directories containing FILE
           exclude version control system directories
      −f, −−file ARCHIVE
           use archive file or device ARCHIVE
      −F, −−info−script, −−new−volume−script NAME
           run script at end of each tape (implies -M)
           archive file is local even if it has a colon
      −g, −−listed−incremental FILE
           handle new GNU-format incremental backup
      −G, −−incremental
           handle old GNU-format incremental backup
           force NAME as group for added files
      −h, −−dereference
           follow symlinks; archive and dump the files they point to
      −H, −−format FORMAT
           create archive of the given formatFORMAT is one of the following:
                  GNU tar 1.13.x format
                  GNU format as per tar <= 1.12
                  POSIX 1003.1-2001 (pax) format
                  same as pax
                  POSIX 1003.1-1988 (ustar) format
                  old V7 tar format
           follow hard links; archive and dump the files they refer to
      −i, −−ignore−zeros
           ignore zeroed blocks in archive (means EOF)

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      −I, −−use−compress−program PROG
           filter through PROG (must accept -d)
           ignore case
           case sensitive matching (default)
           ignore exit codes of children
           treat non-zero exit codes of children as error
           do not exit with nonzero on unreadable files
           send verbose output to FILE
      −j, −−bzip2

      −J, −−xz

      −k, −−keep−old−files
           don’t replace existing files when extracting
      −K, −−starting−file MEMBER-NAME
           begin at member MEMBER-NAME in the archive
           don’t replace existing files that are newer than their archive copies
      −l, −−check−links
           print a message if not all links are dumped
      −L, −−tape−length NUMBER
           change tape after writing NUMBER x 1024 bytes
           dump level for created listed-incremental archive



      −m, −−touch
           don’t extract file modified time
      −M, −−multi−volume
           create/list/extract multi-volume archive

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           force (symbolic) mode CHANGES for added files
           set mtime for added files from DATE-OR-FILE
      −n, −−seek
           archive is seekable
      −N, −−newer, −−after−date DATE-OR-FILE
           only store files newer than DATE-OR-FILE
           compare date and time when data changed only
           -T reads null-terminated names, disable -C
           disable the effect of the previous --null option
           always use numbers for user/group names
      −O, −−to−stdout
           extract files to standard output
           process only the NUMBERth occurrence of each file in the archive;
      −−old−archive, −−portability
           same as --format=v7
           stay in local file system when creating archive
           overwrite existing files when extracting
           overwrite metadata of existing directories when extracting (default)
           preserve metadata of existing directories
           force NAME as owner for added files
      −p, −−preserve−permissions, −−same−permissions
           extract information about file permissions (default for superuser)
      −P, −−absolute−names
           don’t strip leading ‘/’s from file names
           control pax keywords
           same as --format=posix

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TAR (1)                                 BSD General Commands Manual                                       TAR (1)

           same as both -p and -s
           additionally quote characters from STRING
           disable quoting for characters from STRING
           set name quoting style; see below for valid STYLE values
      −R, −−block−number
           show block number within archive with each message
           NUMBER of bytes per record, multiple of 512
           recurse into directories (default)
           avoid descending automatically in directories
           empty hierarchies prior to extracting directory
           remove files after adding them to the archive
           disable use of some potentially harmful options
           use given rmt COMMAND instead of rmt
           use remote COMMAND instead of rsh
      −s, −−preserve−order, −−same−order
           sort names to extract to match archive
      −S, −−sparse
           handle sparse files efficiently
           try extracting files with the same ownership as exists in the archive (default for superuser)
           extract files as yourself (default for ordinary users)
           apply the user’s umask when extracting permissions from the archive (default for ordinary users)
           archive is not seekable
           show tar defaults

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TAR (1)                                 BSD General Commands Manual                                   TAR (1)

           when listing or extracting, list each directory that does not match search criteria
      −−show−transformed−names, −−show−stored−names
           show file or archive names after transformation
           set version of the sparse format to use (implies --sparse)
           strip NUMBER leading components from file names on extraction
           backup before removal, override usual suffix (’˜’ unless overridden by environment variable SIM-
      −T, −−files−from FILE
           get names to extract or create from FILE
           pipe extracted files to another program
           print total bytes after processing the archive;
      −−transform, −−xform EXPRESSION
           use sed replace EXPRESSION to transform file names
      −U, −−unlink−first
           remove each file prior to extracting over it
           unquote filenames read with -T (default)
           do not unquote filenames read with -T
           print file modification dates in UTC
      −v, −−verbose
           verbosely list files processed
      −V, −−label TEXT
           create archive with volume name TEXT; at list/extract time, use TEXT as a globbing pattern for vol-
           ume name
           use/update the volume number in FILE
      −w, −−interactive, −−confirmation
           ask for confirmation for every action
      −W, −−verify
           attempt to verify the archive after writing it
           warning control

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TAR (1)                                 BSD General Commands Manual                                       TAR (1)

            use wildcards (default for exclusion)
            wildcards match ‘/’ (default for exclusion)
            wildcards do not match ‘/’
            verbatim string matching
       −X, −−exclude−from FILE
            exclude patterns listed in FILE
       −z, −−gzip, −−gunzip −−ungzip

       −Z, −−compress, −−uncompress

     The behavior of tar is controlled by the following environment variables, among others:
             Backup prefix to use when extracting, if −−suffix is not specified. The backup suffix defaults to
             ‘˜’ if neither is specified.
             Options to prepend to those specified on the command line, separated by whitespace. Embedded
             backslashes may be used to escape whitespace or backslashes within an option.
       TAPE    Device or file to use for the archive if −−file is not specified. If this environment variable is
               unset, use stdin or stdout instead.

    Create archive.tar from files foo and bar.
             tar −cf archive.tar foo bar
    List all files in archive.tar verbosely.
             tar −tvf archive.tar
    Extract all files from archive.tar.
             tar −xf archive.tar

     tar(5), symlink(7), rmt(8)

     The tar command appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

       The GNU folks, in general, abhor man pages, and create info documents instead. Unfortunately, the info
       document describing tar is licensed under the GFDL with invariant cover texts, which makes it impossible to
       include any text from that document in this man page. Most of the text in this document was automatically
       extracted from the usage text in the source. It may not completely describe all features of the program.

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