Belongia et al discuss a case-control study, a case of medically attended influenza that was defined as an acute illness in a patient with feverishness, chills, or cough and documentation of influenza infection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). He also provides a traditional case-control designs for the assessment of vaccine effectiveness using persons with acute respiratory symptoms who test negative for influenza. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated by using logistic regression to compare patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza with patients who tested negative for influenza.
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"Interim Within-Season Estimate of the Effectiveness of Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine - Marshfield, Wisconsin, 2007-08 Influenza Season"Please download to view full document