Docstoc

Drug Causes_Consequence_Impact

Document Sample
Drug Causes_Consequence_Impact Powered By Docstoc
					INTRODUCTION
      From the dawn of civilization, there had many drug elements to use which increases day by day.
Drug and alcohol addiction is big problem in recent years to the world population. Everyday we are
getting affected by young bright child to get addicted and ruin the family. It not only devalued the moral
of the society but also creating criminal, jobless to the young dynamic youth. Substance that affects the
function of living cells, used in medicine to diagnose, cure, prevent the occurrence of diseases and
disorders, and prolong the life of patients with incurable conditions.

Since 1900 the availability of new and more effective drugs such as antibiotics, which fight bacterial
infections, and vaccines, which prevent diseases caused by bacteria and viruses, has increased the
average American‟s life span from about 60 years to about 75 years. Drugs have vastly improved the
quality of life. Today, drugs have contributed to the eradication of once widespread and sometimes fatal
diseases such as poliomyelitis and smallpox. Drug addiction may be conceptualized as crime without
victim, addict himself is the victim who becomes a prey of it‟s misuse. This devastating melody is
eroding the roots of social, economic & cultural fiber of Indian society. It gives rise to criminality &
criminal behavior which eventually leads to social disorganization. Drug habituation has been prevalent
in most societies over the ages because of their allegedly pleasurable & relaxing effects or as a means of
relieving physical tensions, fatigue & as stimulant to withstand adversities. However, with the
unprecedented expansion of pharmaceutical industry, the use, abuse & misuse of alcohol & drugs have
increased leaps & bounds covering almost all sections of society.

Alcoholism & drug addiction are indicative of the irresponsibility & weakness of the character of the
persons using these intoxicants. The relation between alcoholism & various aggressive & criminal acts is
often confirmed by police records & prison statistics which indicate that in the present day there is a
considerable increase in such alcoholic-criminal episodes. Experience has shown that various preventive
& punitive measures such as fine, imprisonment or detention for drunkenness & other disorderly
behaviours have failed in eliminating this menace.
Drug
Drug is a substance that is used as a medicine or narcotic. It is like any substance, other than food, that is
used to prevent, diagnose, treat or relieve symptoms of a disease or abnormal condition. Also refers to a
substance that alters mood or body function, or that can be habit-forming or addictive, especially a
narcotic.
For broadly speaking, a drug is any substance that alters normal bodily function. There is no single,
precise definition, as there are different meanings in medicine, government regulations, and colloquial
usage.

In pharmacology, Dictionary.com defines a drug as "a chemical substance used in the treatment,
cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well-
being. Drugs may be prescribed for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic
disorders.

A drug is any biological substance, synthetic or non-synthetic, that is taken primarily for non-dietary
needs. It is usually synthesized outside of an organism, but introduced into an organism to produce its
action.1

Any substance presented for treating, curing or preventing disease in human beings or in animals. A drug
may also be used for making a medical diagnosis or for restoring, correcting, or modifying physiological
functions.2
So it may define as, Drug is a chemical compound or substance that can alter the structure and function
of the body. Psychoactive drugs affect the function of the brain, and some of these may be illegal to use
and possess. And drug is a substance used as or in medicine. Drug is a chemical entity that affects the
processes of a living organisms or system.
Any recognized chemical compound that may be used on or administered to humans or animals as an aid
in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of disease or other abnormal conditions termed as drug.

Drug means any controlled substance approved for hair or urine testing by OSDH, including
amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, phencyclidine (PCP), hallucinogens, methaqualone, opiates,
barbiturates, benzodiazepines, synthetic narcotics, designer drugs, or a metabolite of any of the
substances.

Drug Addiction
Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disease, characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, and by
neurochemical and molecular changes in the brain. Drug abusers gradually spend more and more time
and energy obtaining and using the drug. Once they are addicted, the drug abusers' primary purpose in
life becomes seeking and using drugs.




1
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drug
2
    www.chemdiv.com/en/Information/glossary
Classification of drugs
A. The UK classification system of Drug
According to Nutt, King, Saulsbury and Blakemore's research, In March 2007, The Lancet published the
results of the study that, in their opinion, highlighted the inadequacy of the current drugs classification
system in the UK, calling it "not fit for purpose”. The research, which compared 20 substances, some
classified and some not classified, concluded that alcohol was the fifth most harmful drug, behind
heroin, cocaine, barbiturates and methadone. Tobacco came ninth, resulting more harmful than cannabis,
and even than some Class-A drugs like LSD and ecstasy.

The researchers said that "the exclusion of alcohol and tobacco from the Misuse of Drugs Act is, from a
scientific perspective, arbitrary".

There are mainly three categories of drugs, viz.:



Class A drugs                                  Class B drugs                Class C drugs

This list is not exhaustive                    Some list of B class Drug    Some list of C class
2C-B (4-Bromo-2,5-                                                          Drug
dimethoxybenzeneethanamine)

Acetorphine                                    Acetyldihydrocodeine         Benzphetamine
Allylprodine                                   Amphetamine                  Benzodiazapines
Alphacetylmethadol                             Codeine                      Cannabinol cannabinol
Benzethidine                                                                Cannabis
                                               Dexamphetamine
Benzylmorphine                                                              Cathine
                                               Dihydrocodeine
Betacetylmethadol
                                               Ethylmorphine           (3- Chlorphentermine
Clonitazene
                                               ethylmorphine)              Fencamfamin
Coca leaf
                                               Flunitrazepam                Gammahydroxybutyrate
Cocaine
Diacetylmorphine (heroin INN)                  Methaqualone                 Ketamine
Diamorphine (heroin BAN)                       Methylphenidate              Mephentermine
Diampromide                                    Nicocodine                   Pemoline
Dimepheptanol                                  Norcodeine                   Phendirnetrazine
Dipipanone                                     Phenmetrazine                Phentermine
Ethylmethylthiambutene                         Pholcodine                   Pipradrol
Etonitazene
                                               Temazepam                    Prolintane
Etorphine
Etoxeridine
Furethidine
Hydromorphone
Hydroxypethidine
Isomethadone
Ketobemidone
Levomethorphan
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
Methyldesorphine
Morpheridine
Morphine
Nicomorphine
Noracyinethadol
Opium,
Pethidine
Phenadoxone
Phenampromide
poppy-straw
Racemcthorphan
Trimeperidine
4-Cyano-2-dimethylamino-4, 4-
diphenylbutane
4-Cyano-1-methyl-4-phenyl-piperidine
N,N-Diethyltryptamine
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine
2,5-Dimethoxy-a,4-dimethyl-
phenethylaniine
1-Methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic
acid
2-Methyl-3-morpholino-1
1-diphenylpropanecarboxylic acid
4-Phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl
ester
"Any       preparation     designed     for Note that preparing a It is an offence to sell or
administration by injection which includes" class B drug for injection supply them to another
a Class B drug.                             makes it a Class A drug.   person. The exceptions
                                                                       are temazepam and
                                                                       flunitrazepam; it is
                                                                       illegal to possess either
                                                                       of these drugs without a
                                                                       valid       prescription,
                                                                       making them both in
                                                                       Class B.
B. The US classification system of Drug
   CNS (central nervous system): Relevant for our purposes.

   1.   Stimulant
   2.   Depressant
   3.   No effect
   4.   Complex effect
1. Stimulants: Amphetamines, Caffeine, Nicotine Cocaine

    Excite arousal, increase alertness, elevate mood. Speed up signals to the brain. (Some newer
     drugs (Prozac) work mainly as mood elevators and do not (supposedly) produce the other
     effects).
2. Depressants

        Analgesics: relieve pain (block signals?)

                Narcotics: Opiates and Opioids
                Non-narcotics: Aspirin, etc.
        Sedative Hypnotics: relax, induce sleep

                   Alcohol (ETOH)
                   Anti-anxiety agents, tranquilizers
                   Non-Barbiturates: Qualude, Halcion
                   Long acting Barbiturates: Phenobarbital
                   Short acting Barbiturates: Seconal


3. Anti-Psychotics: Thorazine
4. Anti-Depressants: Prozac, Lithium
5. Hallucinogens
6. Marijuana
7. Inhalants etc.


C. The Legal Classification: Controlled Substances Act 1990 (original 1970)
(The following is only a partial listing. Decisions as to scheduling may also include amount of a
particular substance in a preparation, etc.)

Schedule 1: High Abuse, No Recognized Medical Use, Lack of Safety

            Heroin                                            Marijuana
            LSD                                               Methaqualone
            MDMA


        Schedule 2: High Abuse, Medical Utility, High Dependency Risk

            Opium                                             Coca
            Morphine                                          Cocaine
               Methadone                                      Methamphetamine


           Schedule 3: Lower Abuse, Medical Utility, Moderate Dependency Risk

               Amphetamine                                    Xanax
               Barbiturate                                    Anabolic Steroids
               Valium                                         Codeine


           Schedule 4: Limited Abuse, High Medical Utility, Limited Dependency Risk

               Chloral Hydrate                                Phenobarbital
               Meprobamate
               Paraldehyde


Different Types of Drugs in Bangladesh

    From a long time past, nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, marijuana has been used by the young and old as
      a drug.
    With the passage of time different types of drugs are found in Bangladesh.
There are three types of drugs available in use in Bangladesh-

1. Opium

2. Cannabis

3. Sleeping pill and others.

   1. Opium

           In a legal context, narcotic refers to opium, opium derivatives, and their semi-synthetic
            substitutes.
           Often smoked, sniffed, or injected.
   Typology of Opium: Different types of Drugs which are formed from opium -

           1. (A) Heroin:

                -An illegal, highly addictive drug.

                -Most abused Drug.

                -Processed from morphine.

                -Extracted from the seed pod of certain poppy plants.

           1. (B).Phensidyl:

               -Commonly used in Bangladesh.
         -Cough Syrup

         -Smell less

         -Combination of Codeine Phosphate, Promithizin, Ephedrine Hydrochloride.

         -Started in Bangladesh from 1983.

              Names of Phensidyl in Bangladesh:

               - Dyle, RP, Phensi, Cat, Mondir, Mal, Zinish, Mishuk, Thakur etc.

               -Used for more sleep.

    1. (c) Alcohol:

        -Scientific name-Ethyl Alcohol.

        -Fermentation or distillation of dead or grape juice.

        - It is found from Drakkhalota trees (Chili, France, Italy, and Australia)

        -Most productive countries-France, Italy, USA,

        Germany, Australia, Chili and Mexico, Hungary.

        Types of Alcohol are:- Bear (3%-8%), Wine, Market Alcohol).

    1. (D) Tidijesic.

    1. (E) Pethidine:

        -An analgesic (a painkiller) but also an anti spasmodic.

        -Gives relax.

        -It is a synthetic version of morphine.

    1. (F) Opium:

        - Papaver Somniferum (Scientific Name)

        -A narcotic formed from the latex.

        -Contains up to 16% morphine.

2. Cannabis

     Known as ganja (from Hindi: ganja)
     Psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa.
     4 percent of the world's adult population use cannabis annually and 0.6 percent daily.
     Specific forms of Cannabis are like;

        A) Ganja / Barbiturates.
             b) Chorosh

             c) Marijuana

             d) Bhang.

   3. Sleeping pill:

           People often hope that sleeping pills increase sleep enough to make them more energetic in the
            day.
          Effects are just the opposite of what people hope.
         The American Cancer Society Study on Sleeping Pill in 1988 and revealed;

              -- 25% increased mortality among those taking sleeping pills nightly

              -- 10-15% increased mortality among those taking sleeping pills occasionally
Effects of Sleeping Pill:

       (i) Creates cancer in people & animals.

       (iii) Significantly the probability of higher mortality

       (iv) More lethal risks of sleeping pills

         -often used in death penalty

         - Allow chloride ions to enter the nerve cells (Barbiturates)

         -new sleeping pill that‟s single dose sometimes can be lethal (Benzodiazepines).

         Sleeping Pill Available in Bangladesh:

                 i) Tranquilizer

                 ii) Seduxene (Diazapam)

                 iii) Enoctine

                 iv) Phenergan

                 v) Stemetil,

                 vi) Laxatine.
Others Drugs Available in Bangladesh:

            Inhalant
            Cigarettes (Sometimes called drugs)
            Hukka
            Jorda.
Yaba: New Crazy Medicine:

    Also called Ya Ba, Yaa baa, Yabba, Ya baa or Yah Bah
    Crazy medicine" in Thailand
    Bhul Bhuliya in India
    Tablets containing a mixture of methamphetamine and caffeine
    Brightly colored in orange or green
    Carrying logos such as "R" or "WY"
    Outlawed by the Thai Government in 1970.
    In 2006-7 Yabba consumption became fashionable for the well-to-do in Bangladesh. e.g-Mr Joynal
     & his girlfriend Nikita (Hotel Purbani).
Effects of Taking Yaba:

                Increased heart beat                            Insomnia
                Dehydration                                     Irritability
                Paranoid feeling                                Hallucinations
                Sweating                                        Depression

                      Causes of Drugs in Bangladesh
     Causes of Availability of Drugs in Bangladesh:
            A substance that alters mood or body function
            Spread within age group of 16 to 25 years
            Directly influences the economic and social aspects
            Theft and illegal sale from the government hospitals.
     Available drugs in Bangladesh:

      Heroin, Phensidyl, Ganja, Alcohol, Beer, Sleeping Pills, Yaba etc.
     Factors of Availability of Drugs in Bangladesh:

         1. Geographical Causes:
             Easy land, sea and air access is becoming a major transit point.
             Central point between the „golden triangle‟ and the „golden crescent‟.
             Surrounded by the major drug producing countries of Asia.
             Drug smugglers in border crossing points.
     Social Causes:

                Poverty                                     Houses near border area
                Lack of Proper Education                    Low parental supervision
                Spots beside lanes/roads                    Social & Cultural Disorganization
                Specific sellers in the locality            Bad Practice of Religion
                Drug smugglers in town                      Imitation & Fashion
Economic Causes:

        Lower cost
        Unemployment problem
        Industrialization
        Unplanned urbanization
        Migration from rural areas to urban centers.
Political and Legal Causes:

        Doctors, teachers, students, service-holders, businessmen etc. are involved more or less in drug
         business with Politicians
        Members of Narcotics Control Department are involved in the drug business
        Police and BDR (takes some percentage of the sale money)
        Personal Benefit of Political Leader leaders/so-called student leaders
        Political instability
        Lack of proper implementation of Law
        Flexibility of Law.




                              Causes of Drug Addiction
 Causes of Drug Addiction are many including:

                Crime
                Unhappiness
                Divorce
                Major sickness/illness
                Death of a loved one

 What are the underlying causes of drug addiction?

 When we take drugs, either for medical purposes or recreation, there is a benefit or reward that
 we are trying to achieve.
 For example pain medication is intended to bring relief to an injured or stressed area of our
 body. The beginning stages of addiction us to crave more and to use more. The unintended
 consequences of that is our need to take more and more of the drug to get the same result.
 Causes of Drug Addiction: In addition the pathways inside the brain to be altered, physical
 changes in the nerve cells are brought on by the drug. These neurons communicate with each
 other releasing neuro-transmitters into the gaps or synapses between the nerve cells. This makes
 some drugs much more addictive than others.
 There are several other factors that contribute to drug addiction. We‟ll go into greater detail on
 another page, but for now the major factors are one‟s genetic makeup, personality and peer
 pressure. Again we‟ll explain these as we go along.

 What Are The Factors?

 Inherited

 We are all a product of our parents. If your parents have addiction struggles, chances are you are
 more susceptible to addiction. That‟s why drug addiction is more common in some families than
 in others. If your parents smoke, chances are good you will smoke. If your parents used alcohol,
 you‟ll probably follow and use that drug in much the same way. If your father was an alcoholic,
 you have a predisposition to addiction that drug.
Causes of Drug Addiction one generation passes it on to the next.

Certain Personality Types

Aside from the inherited factors, some people have a personality that is more likely to become
drug dependent.
       - People are curious, so that alone can lead a person to try a drug.
       - We experiment and see what happens.
       - We are looking to relax and have pleasure.
       - We all want to feel good, and we’re by nature impatient. Drugs give us an instant
         gratification that other things do not, so for that moment or hour of for whatever time
         frame, we feel good.
       - We want what we want.
       - Someone diagnosed with depression, attention deficit disorder, or hyperactivity.
       - Maybe there has been some stress, or anxiety in their life.
       - Whatever the case, these are contributing factors.
Even some common personality characteristics, such as aggression, may be a factor. Children
who do not have confidence, healthy self-esteem may be prone to turning to drugs to fill the
void.
Causes of Drug Addiction: Addiction does cause negative changes in personality that can lead to
an even more destructive behavior.
Social Pressure/Peer Pressure
We‟re all wired to have relationships, and sometimes those relationships cause us to give in to
something we otherwise would avoid in order to maintain the relationship. Social/Peer pressure
is huge and nowhere is this greater than during our teenage years. Kids want to be cool. It begins
as a social action, to take the drugs to be a part of the group, to be accepted. It‟s not just
teenagers, as peer pressure takes so many different forms. There is social etiquette, for example,
to take a drink during a party. “I‟m only a social drinker.” How many times have you heard that?
Some people actually believe that Addiction will help you to be accepted and part of the
'popular' group.
Access/Availability
If you want to get drugs, you won‟t have to look far because they are everywhere. High school
students can tell you this. Causes of Drug Addiction: sadly, people to sell drugs to the most
vulnerable population, children. It‟s not just the stereotypical poor sections of the inner city that
serve as the hotbed for drugs. Drugs are found in shopping malls, rural schools, private school,
on the job in factories, offices and remote job sites.
Race and/or Ethnicity
We include this heading because we want to stress that there is no data to support any claim that
one race of people or any particular cultural group is more prone to drug addiction than another.
Drug addiction is a human problem and crosses all boundaries. Causes of Drug Addiction do not
include race.
Depression/Loneliness
We want to feel good physically and emotionally. Sometimes drugs are the substitution for a
healthy life experience. The person in pain and they want to numb the pain. The drug numbs the
pain and for a moment they don‟t feel as poorly. The person needs to escape the pain of the life
experience, and for a short while, the drug takes them away and they feel “better.”
Severe Anxiety
Sometimes people need some help coping with life. Everyday life becomes a struggle and simple
things become too much to handle. Drugs are used to deal with it. In the case of addiction, we
are not talking about the use of medication, under the care and observation of a doctor. People
who have been clinically diagnosed with anxiety can lead a very good life. We‟re talking here
about people who just need to escape. Their drug of choice facilitates that escape.

                                     Effects of drugs
1. Effects on body
Like all drugs, those used to control nutritional problems can have side effects. This page has
information on those side effects. There are sections on side effects of

    Appetite stimulants
    Steroids
    Drugs for diarrhoea
    Drugs for constipation
   
A. Appetite stimulants
   The side effects of the appetite stimulants megesterol acetate and medroxy progesterone acetate are
   usually very mild and many people do not have any side effects at all. But they can cause

              Feeling and being sick                      Breast tenderness
              Headache                                    Mood changes (rare)
              Ankle swelling from fluid                   Blood clots (this is rare)
                retention (mild)                           Vaginal bleeding
              Abdominal pain                              Impotence in men
          People who are diabetic need to monitor their blood sugar levels more closely when
          taking these drugs. You may need to adjust the dose of your diabetes medication. If
          you are pregnant or thinking about getting pregnant you should not take these drugs.
       B. Steroids
          The most likely side effects when you first start taking steroids are

              Difficulty sleeping
              Indigestion
              High blood sugar levels, especially if you are already diabetic
          There is much more about steroids and their side effects in the Pain Control section of
          Cancer Help UK.

       C. Drugs for diarrhoea
           Side effects of anti-diarrhoea drugs are not common, but they can happen. Tell your
           doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away

                Dry mouth                                  Stomach pain,        discomfort   or
                Dizziness                                   swelling
                Drowsiness                                 Constipation
                Vomiting                                   Fatigue
D. Drugs for constipation
   Different laxatives have different side effects. Bulk forming laxatives can cause wind and swelling
   in the abdomen. They can also block up your bowel. To prevent this you need to drink plenty of
   water.
   Other types of laxatives can cause stomach cramps and wind, and large doses can cause
   diarrhoea. The side effects usually go away once your bowels have opened. But if you continue to
   have cramping or abdominal swelling, or if you develop diarrhoea, let your doctor know
   immediately.

2. Effects of Alcohol
A. Absorption

   Alcohol is primarily absorbed through the stomach and the small intestines. It is considered a food
   because it has calories, but does not need to be digested and proceeds directly into the body through
   the digestive system. After ingestion it is carried through the blood stream and crosses the blood–
   brain barrier, at which time impairment begins. A greater amount of ingestion causes greater
   impairment to the brain, which, in turn, causes a person to have a greater degree of difficulty in
   functioning.
B. Metabolism/Elimination
   The majority of alcohol in the body is eliminated by the liver. Ninety percent is eliminated through
   the body, while ten percent is eliminated (unchanged) through sweat and urine. Before the liver can
   process alcohol, a threshold amount is needed and can occur at the rate of one 12 oz. can of beer, one
   5 oz. glass of wine, or 1 1/2 oz. shot of whiskey per hour.
C. Brief Overview

      Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant.
      Alcohol is among the most abused drugs in our society.
      Alcohol can be as potent as many other illegal drugs.
      Alcohol can cause severe damage to a developing fetus.
      People often do not realize that they are becoming dependent on alcohol.


D. Short-term Effects

    Reduces sensitivity to pain.
    Affects vision in the following ways: narrows the visual field, reduces resistance to glare,
     interferes with the ability to differentiate intensities of light, and lessens sensitivity to colors.


E. Long-term Effects

     Damage to vital organs; including liver, heart and pancreas.
     Linked to several medical conditions; including gastro intestinal problems, malnutrition, high
       blood pressure, and lower resistance to disease.
F. Effects with other drugs
   1. Alcohol produces a synergistic effect when taken with other central nervous system depressants.
      These include: sedative hypnotics, barbiturates, minor tranquilizers, narcotics, codeine,
      methadone, and some analgesics.


   2. Alcohol can be additive in nature when taken with antipsychotic medications, antihistamines,
      solvents or motion sickness preparations. When used on a daily basis, in conjunction with
      aspirin, it may cause gastro intestinal bleeding. Also, when used with acetaminophen, an increase
      in liver damage could occur.


4. Effects of drugs
A. Method of Administration

   Drugs are administered to or enter the human body in a number of ways, including injection,
   inhalation, and ingestion. The method of administration impacts on how the drug affects the person.
   For example: injection takes the drug directly into the blood stream, providing more immediate
   effects; while ingestion requires the drug to pass through the digestive system, delaying the effects.

B. Factors Affecting Absorption/Metabolism

    Factors that affect absorption/metabolism include physical, emotional and drug-related factors.

   a. Physical Factors
      Physical factors that affect the absorption or metabolism of a drug include:

      a. Person's weight and age – The amount of physical mass a drug must travel through will have
      an outcome on the drug's total effect on the body. Also, the aging process affects the manner in
      which the drug exerts its effects on the body.

      b. Individual biomedical/chemical make-up – Each individual tolerates substances differently.
      For example: a person's physical condition as well as hypersensitivity (allergies) or
      hyposensitivity (need for larger doses to gain the desired effect) will influence the total effect of
      the drug on the individual.

      c. Rate of metabolism – Each drug metabolizes or processes within the body at a different rate.
      The drug remains active in the body until metabolism occurs. For example: certain medications
      require dosages to be taken every four, twelve or twenty-four hours, depending on the duration
      and rate at which the drug is metabolized.

      d. Food – Food in the body slows absorption of the drug into the body by not allowing it to pass
      directly through the digestive process without first being processed by the digestive system. A
      slower process occurs, since the body is digesting food in addition to the substance or drug
      utilized by the person.
    b. Emotional Factors
       The emotional factors that may influence drug absorption and metabolism within the body are:

       a. Emotional state – A person's specific emotional state or degree of psychological comfort or
       discomfort will influence how a drug may affect the individual. For example: if a person began
       using alcohol and was extremely angry or upset, the alcohol could intensify this anger or
       psychological discomfort. On the other hand, if alcohol was being used as part of a celebration,
       the psychological state of pleasure could be enhanced by the use of the drug.
       b. Anticipation/Expectancy – The degree to which a person believes that a given drug will affect
       them, may have an effect on their emotional state. If a person truly believes that by using a
       substance, they will experience a given effect, then their expectations may cause a psychological
       change in the manner in which the drug affects them.


    c. Specific Effects on the Central Nervous System
       Drugs affect the various areas of the brain and change normal brain activity. It is important to
       know what specific functions are located in each of the major brain areas, to better understand
       the effects of drugs and alcohol on behavior and functioning.

A. Hypothalamus

  The hypothalamus regulates homeostasis, the body's system for keeping itself
  balanced. This includes: sleep and wake cycles, hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, blood
  pressure, and temperature. Also, the hypothalamus determines what parts of the body
  are affected by analgesics and regulates hormonal impulses and emotions.




B. Medulla

  The medulla is responsible for head balance, movement, and assisting the
  hypothalamus in regulating automatic body functions.

C. Cerebral Cortex

  The cerebral cortex contains half of the nervous system's cells, which regulates the
  speed and vomiting reflexes. It is also responsible for language, abstract thinking,
  personality, and interpretation of emotion and sensory information, including
  judgment.

D. Cerebellum

  The cerebellum is responsible for coordination of muscles, maintenance of balance,
  and specific memory and learning system functions that are not to one part of the
  brain.

5. Effect in the brain
  Because serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) and dopamine to flood the brain. Both are
  neurotransmitters which influence the flow of information throughout the brain. Changing the balance
  between the two changes your mood. E gives you a glow of well-being, happiness, empathy,
  euphoria, increases your sensitivity to rhythmic music, and makes you want to dance.

  The latest studies show that Ecstasy use can impair the serotonin system and memory performance.
  Please see our guide - Can Ecstasy Impair Your Memory? - plus safe dancing tips on how to protect
  yourself.
6. Effect on Future Incarnations
 A weak body cannot maintain the higher vibration which accompanies any spiritual growth, and it is
 only through spiritual growth that the present generation can prepare itself for the coming Aquarian
 Age. Since our next embodiments may take place during this Age, it is necessary that we make this
 preparation or we will be unable to compete with beings incarnating on the new higher level, since
 they will have prepared themselves for this coming event. Failure, in this life, could mean that we will
 incarnate in the next as members of a lower race group.

  Many factors are involved in spiritual development. This discourse will be limited to the discussion
 of those whose continued use is detrimental to the upward progress of the individual, namely: alcohol,
 drugs, and tobacco. Their importance lies in the fact that they may impede or even reverse the
 evolution of the individual. Volumes have been written about the effects these substances have upon
 the physical body, and articles appear daily in newspapers and periodicals warning of the problems
 which may result from their continued use. It is the purpose of this writing; however, to point out the
 spiritual implications which must be considered after all aspects of the physical have been studied.



 We learn in the Western Wisdom Teachings that the desire body and the mind are in the early stages
 of evolutionary development. Our growth depends upon the work that we do to gain control of these
 important vehicles. The use of any substance which weakens our control of these bodies prevents us
 from exercising the needed discipline to learn the lessons for which we incarnated at this time --
 lessons which must be learned if we are to continue our upward progress. This means that we must
 put forth every effort to gain control of the desire body and the mind.

7. Long Term Effects of Drugs
 Drugs such as marijuana, heroin, and LSD, used especially by the younger generation to produce a so-
 called "high" or "trip," are by far the most dangerous. To understand why the young person is
 susceptible to the use of these mind-boggling drugs, it is necessary to understand that he recently may
 have acquired the desire body (at about age 14) or the mind body (at about the age 21). This is a time
 for him to determine the limits of his ability and to see how far he can challenge the status quo. Many
 young people are wilting to test the limits of their adaptability. Others desire spiritual revelation,
 which they believe can be induced by the use of drugs. At this critical period in the life of the
 individual, he often lacks the confidence and warmth of an elder companion, one who can guide him
 through this trying time. For too many of today's youth it is a time of trial and error, a period of blind
 growth. Drugs offer a way out, but as time wilt reveal, it wilt be the wrong way. Being hallucinatory,
 they do not bring about the desired results; instead, they put the aspirant in danger of being controlled
 by undesirable spirits, of undermining the physical body, and of exposing himself to extremely
 harmful effects on his spiritual bodies. Any damage to these vehicles may require many lifetimes to
 restore them to the adaptability they originally had. This means a decided setback in evolution. A
 person, therefore, who made much progress in former embodiments, could lose the value of previous
 hard work by seriously affecting the present life instruments.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Stats:
views:140
posted:5/25/2010
language:English
pages:16