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					Photovoltaic Solar
     Energy
Industry & Futures
 Trends to Analyze in This Talk
• Solar Cells
  – Market size
  – Market share
  – Sales
  – Units
  – Power produced
  – Cost per power delivered
                      Agenda
• The Sun
• Solar Cells
    – Background
    – How they work
    – Types
•   Markets
•   Costs
•   Countries
•   Companies
•   Questions
                            Energy from the Sun
• About half the incoming solar energy reaches the Earth's surface.

• The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) (1015 watts) of incoming solar
  radiation at the upper atmosphere. Approximately 30% is reflected back
  to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses.

• Earth's land surface, oceans and atmosphere absorb solar radiation, and
  this raises their temperature. Sunlight absorbed by the oceans and land
  masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of 14 °C.

• By photosynthesis green plants convert solar energy into chemical
  energy, which produces food, wood and the biomass from which fossil
  fuels are derived.




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_energy
   Breakdown of incoming solar energy




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Breakdown_of_the_incoming_solar_energy.svg
                            Energy from the Sun
Yearly Solar fluxes & Human Energy Consumption
• The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceans and land
  masses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) (1018 joules) per year.
  (70% of incoming sunlight)
  (1 Joule = energy required to heat one gram of dry, cool air by 1˚ C)
• Primary energy use (2005) 487 EJ (0.0126%)
• Electricity (2005) 56.7 EJ (0.0015%) Therefore a good target
• 2002, more energy in one hour than the world used in the year.
• Photosynthesis captures approximately 3,000 EJ per year in biomass.
• The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast
  that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all
  of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and
  mined uranium combined.
• As intermittent resources, solar and wind raise issues.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_energy
                          Solar Cells Background
  • 1839 - French physicist A. E. Becquerel first recognized the
    photovoltaic effect.

  • Photo+voltaic = convert light to electricity

  • 1883 - first solar cell built, by Charles Fritts, coated semiconductor
    selenium with an extremely thin layer of gold to form the junctions.

  • 1954 - Bell Laboratories, experimenting with semiconductors,
    accidentally found that silicon doped with certain impurities was very
    sensitive to light. Daryl Chapin, Calvin Fuller and Gerald Pearson,
    invented the first practical device for converting sunlight into useful
    electrical power. Resulted in the production of the first practical solar
    cells with a sunlight energy conversion efficiency of around 6%.

  • 1958 - First spacecraft to use solar panels was US satellite Vanguard 1



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cell
                      PV Solar for Electricity
Photovoltaics

• For the 2 billion people without access to electricity, it would be
  cheaper to install solar panels than to extend the electrical grid.
  (The Fund for Renewable Energy Everywhere)

• Providing power for villages in developing countries is a fast-growing
  market for photovoltaics. The United Nations estimates that more than
  2 million villages worldwide are without electric power for water supply,
  refrigeration, lighting, and other basic needs, and the cost of extending
  the utility grids is prohibitive, $23,000 to $46,000 per kilometer in 1988.

• A one kilowatt PV system* each month:
     –   prevents 150 lbs. of coal from being mined
     –   prevents 300 lbs. of CO2 from entering the atmosphere
     –   keeps 105 gallons of water from being consumed
     –   keeps NO and SO2 from being released into the environment
            * in Colorado, or an equivalent system that produces 150 kWh per month

 http://www.solarenergy.org/resources/energyfacts.html
                            How Solar Cells Work

1. Photons in sunlight hit the
   solar panel and are absorbed
   by semiconducting materials,
   such as silicon.

2. Electrons (negatively charged)
   are knocked loose from their
   atoms, allowing them to flow
   through the material to
   produce electricity.

3. An array of solar cells
   converts solar energy into a
   usable amount of
   direct current (DC) electricity.

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Silicon_Solar_cell_structure_and_mechanism.svg
                          Solar Cells Background
  Three generations of solar cells

  • Solar Cells are classified into three generations which indicates the
    order of which each became important.

  • At present there is concurrent research into all three generations
    while the first generation technologies are most highly represented in
    commercial production, accounting for 89.6% of 2007 production.




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cell
                           Solar Cells Background
First Generation – Single Junction Silicon Cells
89.6% of 2007 Production
   45.2% Single Crystal Si
   42.2% Multi-crystal SI                                                           Silicon Cell Average Efficiency

• Large-area, high quality and
  single junction devices.
• High energy and labor inputs which
  limit significant progress in reducing
  production costs.
• Single junction silicon devices are
  approaching theoretical limit efficiency
  of 33%. Achieve cost parity with fossil fuel
  energy generation after a payback period
  of 5–7 years. (3.5 yr in Europe)
• Single crystal silicon - 16-19% efficiency
• Multi-crystal silicon - 14-15% efficiency

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cell and www.epia.org Solar Generation V Report Sept 08
                        Solar Cells Background
 Second Generation – Thin Film Cells
   CdTe 4.7% & CIGS 0.5% of 2007 Production
 •    New materials and processes to improve efficiency and reduce cost.
 •    As manufacturing techniques evolve, production costs will be dominated by
      constituent material requirements, whether this be a silicon substrate, or glass
      cover. Thin film cells use about 1% of the expensive semiconductors compared
      to First Generation cells.
 •    The most successful second generation materials have been cadmium
      telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS), amorphous silicon
      and micromorphous silicon.
 •    Trend toward second gen., but commercialization has proven difficult.
        – 2007 - First Solar produced 200 MW of CdTe solar cells, 5th largest producer in 2007
          and the first to reach top 10 from of second generation technologies alone.
        – 2007 - Wurth Solar commercialized its CIGS technology producing 15 MW.
        – 2007 - Nanosolar commercialized its CIGS technology in 2007 with a production
          .      capacity of 430 MW for 2008 in the USA and Germany.
        – 2008 - Honda began to commercialize their CIGS base solar panel.

 • CdTe – 8 – 11% efficiency (18% demonstrated)
 • CIGS – 7-11% efficiency (20% demonstrated)
 • Payback time < 1 year in Europe
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cell and www.epia.org Solar Generation V Report Sept 08
                        Solar Cells Background
 Third Generation – Multi-junction Cells
 • Third generation technologies aim to enhance poor electrical performance
   of second generation (thin-film technologies) while maintaining very low
   production costs.
 • Current research is targeting conversion efficiencies of 30-60% while
   retaining low cost materials and manufacturing techniques. They can
   exceed the theoretical solar conversion efficiency limit for a single energy
   threshold material, 31% under 1 sun illumination and 40.8% under the
   maximal artificial concentration of sunlight (46,200 suns).
 • Approaches to achieving these high efficiencies including the use of
   multijunction photovoltaic cells, concentration of the incident spectrum,
   the use of thermal generation by UV light to enhance voltage or carrier
   collection, or the use of the infrared spectrum for night-time operation.
 • Typically use fresnel lens (3M) or other concentrators, but cannot use
   diffuse sunlight and require sun tracking hardware
 • Multi-junction cells – 30% efficiency (40-43% demonstrated)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_cell and www.epia.org Solar Generation V Report Sept 08
           Global Cumulative PV Power




http://www.epia.org/fileadmin/EPIA_docs/publications/epia/Global_Market_Outlook_Until_2013.pdf
                      Global Annual PV Market




http://www.epia.org/fileadmin/EPIA_docs/publications/epia/Global_Market_Outlook_Until_2013.pdf
                  Solar Cell Market Estimate




               -- First Generation --             --    Second Generation --   - Third Gen -

SEMI PV Group March 2009 from source Yole Development
        Global Annual PV Market Outlook




http://www.epia.org/fileadmin/EPIA_docs/publications/epia/Global_Market_Outlook_Until_2013.pdf
                                 Solar PV Market Outlook
                                        Annual PV Market Outlook

                          $700                                                       Rest of World

                          $600                                                       South Asia
      Sales in Billions




                          $500                                                       China
                          $400                                                       Central + South
                          $300                                                       America
                                                                                     North America
                          $200                                                       Europe
                          $100
                            $-
                                 2007   2010   2015     2020       2025       2030

by 2030 8.9% of Global Energy, 1,864 GW Production Capacity, 2,646 TWh Electricity
SEMI PV Group March 2009 from source EPIA Solar Generation V Sept 08 www.epia.org
                                Cost Projections
                                                  $/kWh
  “Grid parity’ where PV cost                     $1.35
  are equal to residential
  electricity costs is                            $1.07
  expected to be achieved
  first in southern European                      $0.81
  countries and then to
  move north                                      $0.54


                                                  $0.27
                                                  $0.13 ---




www.epia.org EPIA Solar Generation V Report Sept 08
    Cumulative installed solar electric
            power by 2007
•   1st Germany    3.8 GW
•   2nd Japan      1.9 GW
•   3rd US           814 MW
•   4th Spain        632 MW
           World's largest photovoltaic (PV)
           power plants (12 MW or larger)
   Name of PV power plant                    Country         DC     GW·h                Notes
                                                            Peak    /year
                                                           Power
                                                           (MW)
 Olmedilla Photovoltaic Park                 Spain          60       85     Completed September 2008
 Puertollano Photovoltaic Park               Spain          50              2008
 Moura photovoltaic power station            Portugal       46       93     Completed December 2008
 Waldpolenz Solar Park                       Germany        40       40     550,000 First Solar thin-film CdTe
                                                                            modules. Completed Dec 2008
 Arnedo Solar Plant                          Spain          34              Completed October 2008
 Merida/Don Alvaro Solar Park                Spain          30              Completed September 2008
 17 more                                     Spain         Avg 20
 2 more                                      Korea         Avg 20
 Koethen                                     Germany       14.75     13     200,000 First Solar thin-film CdTe
                                                                            modules. Completed Dec 2008
 Nellis Solar Power Plant                    USA           14.02     30     70,000 solar panels
 Planta Solar de Salamanca                   Spain          13.8     n.a.   70,000 Kyocera panels
 6 more Spain, 1 US, 1 Germany                             Avg 12
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photovoltaic_power_stations
     Large systems in planning or under
                construction
         Name of Plant                  Country          DC    GW·h                         Notes
                                                        Peak   /year
                                                       Power
                                                       (MW)



 Rancho Cielo Solar Farm              USA             600              Thin film silicon from Signet Solar**

 Topaz Solar Farm                     USA             550      1,100   Thin film silicon from OptiSolar **

 High Plains Ranch                    USA             250      550     Monocrystaline silicon from SunPower with
                                                                       tracking **
 Mildura Solar concentrator power     Australia       154      270     Heliostat concentrator using GaAs cells from
 station                                                               Spectrolab**
 KCRD Solar Farm                      USA             80               Scheduled to be completed in 2012 **

 DeSoto County, Florida               USA             25               To be constructed by SunPower for FPL Energy,
                                                                       completion date 2009.*
 Davidson County solar farm           USA             21.5             36 individual structures**

 Cádiz solar power plant              Spain           20.1     36      *

 Kennedy Space Center, Florida        USA             10               To be constructed by SunPower for FPL Energy,
                                                                       completion date 2010.**

                  * Under construction; ** Proposed
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photovoltaic_power_stations
                                                    Spain
    • Blessed with almost year-round sunshine, Spain's socialist
      government is trying to capitalize on this natural resource.

    • In an effort to encourage private individuals and companies to install
      solar power, Spain introduced subsidies of €0.42 per kilowatt per
      hour ($0.57/KWhr) (‘feed-in’ tariff and off-grid subsidies)

    • But the Spanish government is considering reducing this subsidy in
      September, a move which is likely to face opposition from within the
      solar energy industry.

    • 2007: 26,800 employees in Spanish solar companies




http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/jul/09/solarpower.renewableenergy 9 July 2008
www.epia.org Solar Generation V Report Sep 2008
                          Olmedilla Solar Park




         60 MWp photovoltaic park installed by Nobesol with modules from Silikin
http://www.siliken.com/clientes_proyectos/instalaciones/ficha?contentId=572
                                             Germany
     • 10,000 companies, including installers work in solar PV

     • 80 companies are cell and module makers

     • 42,000 employees

     • Sales were $5.7 B including $2.5 B in exports

     The ‘feed-in’ tariff
     • 2008 German utilities pay $0.47 to $0.68/kWh depending on type
       and size of system for new solar systems

     • Utilities pass cost to consumers – Germany average is $1.65/month


www.epia.org Solar Generation V Report Sep 2008
                       Waldpolenz Solar Park
 • The Waldpolenz Solar Park is built on a surface area equivalent to 200
   soccer fields, the solar park will be capable of feeding 40 megawatts into
   the power grid when fully operational in 2009.
 • In the start-up phase, the 130-million-euro ($201 million) plant it will have a
   capacity of 24 megawatts, according to the Juwi group, which operates the
   installation.
 • The facility, located east of Leipzig, uses state-of-the-art, thin-film
   technology. Some 550,000 thin-film modules will be used, of which
   350,000 have already been installed. The direct current produced in the
   PV solar modules will be converted into alternating current and fed
   completely into the power grid.
 • After just a year the solar power station will have produced the energy
   needed to build it, according to the Juwi group.




http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,3430319,00.html
                       Waldpolenz Solar Park




http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,2144,3430319,00.html
                      Waldpolenz Solar Park




http://lumbergusa.com/main/Bild/sp_pv_07/Brandis-Waldpolenz-Fotomont.jpg
                                       United States
    • 2007 - PV production grew in all areas of US market

    • US leads development of thin-film technology accounting for nearly
      half the global production

    • 2007 – about 50,000 employees

    • CA dominates with 60% of installed capacity

    • Various state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and Federal
      Investment Tax Credits (ITC) are incentives.

    • Solar America Initiative making progress on goal to bring PV costs
      to grid parity by 2015



www.epia.org Solar Generation V Report Sep 2008
         Renewable Energy Consumption
          in the US Energy Supply, 2007




http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/trends/highlight1.html
                                           Chart Data
   Figure 1.1 The Role of Renewable Energy Consumption in the Nation's
      Energy Supply, 2007 (Quadrillion Btu)

                                                                          Consumption   Share
  Total US                                                                  101.545
    Coal                                                                    22.776      22%
    Natural Gas                                                             23.637      23%
    Petroleum                                                               39.773      39%
    Nuclear Electric Power                                                   8.415       8%
    Renewable Energy:                                                        6.813       7%
      Of which:
      Hydroelectric                                                          2.446      36%
      Geothermal Energy                                                      0.349       5%
      Biomass                                                                3.596      53%
      Solar Energy                                                           0.081       1%
      Wind Energy                                                            0.341       5%

http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables/page/trends/figure1_1.xls
                          US Solar Industry Data
Solar energy represents less than 1% of the U.S. energy mix. However, as a result of
growing awareness about reliable, off-the-shelf technology, concerns about rising costs,
energy security and supplies, and new state and federal incentives, deployment of solar
energy has exploded since 2005.
•     Size of U.S. Market
      2008 - U.S. had about 8,800 megawatts (MW) of installed solar capacity.
      1,100 MW of photovoltaics (PV),
         418 MW of utility-scale concentrating solar power,
        485 MWTh (megawatts thermal equivalent) of solar water heating systems
       7,000 MWTh of solar pool heating systems.

•     Ranking of U.S. Market: Cumulative installed solar electric power by 2007.
      1st Germany 3.8 GW, 2nd Japan 1.9 GW, 3rd US 814 MW, 4th Spain 632 MW

•     Growth of U.S. Market 2008 - more than 18,000 individual PV systems were
      installed. Totaled 342 MW: 292 MW was grid-connected.

•     Growth of U.S. Manufacturing 2008 domestic PV cell manufacturing capacity
      grew 65 percent to 685 MW and production grew 53 percent to 414 MW. (Results
      preliminary) (Source: Greentech Media Research and the Prometheus Institute)

    www.seia.org/cs/about_solar_energy/industry_data and www.epia.org Solar Generation V Report Sep 2008
                   Nellis AFB Solar panels




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nellis_AFB_Solar_panels.jpg
                    GM installs world's biggest
                      rooftop solar panels
• The largest rooftop solar power station in the world is being built in Spain.
  With a capacity of 12 MW of power, the station is made up of 85,000
  lightweight panels covering an area of two million SqFt.
• Manufactured in rolls, rather like carpet, the photovoltaic panels are to be
  installed on the roof of a General Motors car factory in Zaragoza, Spain.
• General Motors, which plans to install solar panels at another 11 plants
  across Europe, unveiled the €50M ($68M) project yesterday. The power
  station should be producing energy by September.
• The panels will produce an expected annual output of 15.1 million kilowatt
  hours (kWh) - enough to meet the needs of 4,600 households with an
  average consumption of 3,300kWh, or power a third of the GM factory. The
  solar energy produced should cut CO2 emissions by 6,700 tons a year.
• Energy Conversion Devices who makes the panels, said it would be the
  largest rooftop solar array in the world.


 http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/jul/09/solarpower.renewableenergy 9 July 2008
                   GM installs world's biggest
                     rooftop solar panels




http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/jul/09/solarpower.renewableenergy 9 July 2008
                                                  Japan

    • 2002 - Basic Act on Energy Policy to secure stable energy supply,
      environmental suitability and use of market mechanisms

    • By 2006, installed 1.2 GW for 350,000 homes

    • 2008 – New research initiative to improve yields from 10-15% to
      40% and reduce cost from $0.48/kWh to $0.073/kWh




www.epia.org Solar Generation V Report Sep 2008
                                                  China

    • 2007
    • National Renewable Energy targets
           – 10% by 2010 (300 MW)
           – 15% by 2020 (1.8 GW)
    • Supplies 1,130 tons of polysilicon from 6 companies
    • Supplies 21,400 tons of silicon ingot from 70 companies
    • Number 1 PV panel producer – 1.1 GW
    • 50 PV panel companies including Suntech, Yingli, Hebei
      Jingao, Jiansu Linyang, and Nangjing CEEG
    • 82,800 employees (6 times that of 2005)



www.epia.org Solar Generation V Report Sep 2008
         Top 10 PV Cell Producers
Until recently BP Solar was
dominant supplier.

New Top 10 produce
53% of world total

Q-Cells, SolarWorld - Germany

Sharp, Kyocera, Sharp, Sanyo –
Japan

Suntech, Yingli, JA Solar – China

Motech - Taiwan
                                            BP Solar
•   BP Solar to supply PV power systems for Wal-Mart in CA 22 April 2009

•   Under a power purchase agreement (PPA), BP will finance, install and maintain
    the systems and Wal-Mart will have immediate access to clean electricity with no
    up front capital cost to the retailer.

•   Will initially build 10 to 20 rooftop systems at Wal-Mart locations in California, and
    would work with the retailer to evaluate the potential for additional projects.
    Expects to complete the first set, 10 MW of installed solar power, within about 18
    months.

•   2008 BP completed 4.1 MW solar systems for 7 Wal-Marts & Sam’s Clubs in CA.
•   Since 1998, BP guarantees its modules for 25 years.

•   BP Solar, part of BP Alternative Energy, is a global company with about 2000
    employees. With over 35 years of experience and installations in most countries,
    BP Solar is one of the world's leading solar companies.
•   BP is one of the world’s largest energy companies, in more than 100 countries
    and over 96,000 employees.

http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=9025044&contentId=7046577
 BP axes 620 jobs from solar business
    • 01 April, 2009 - BP to axe 620 jobs from its solar power business
      – more than a quarter of that workforce – in a move it said was
      part of the long-term strategy to "reduce the cost of solar power to
      that of conventional electricity.“

    • Two cell manufacture and module assembly plants near Madrid, will
      be shut with the loss of 480 posts while module assembly will also
      be phased out at its Frederick facility in Maryland, US, with a further
      140 redundancies.

    • BP blamed the cutbacks on the credit crunch and lower-cost
      competition saying its global manufacturing capacity would still
      increase during this year and next via a series of strategic alliances
      with other companies.




http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/apr/01/bp-solar
                                        Q Cells SE
    • 1999 founded, 2001 began with the production of silicon solar cells
      with 19 employees.

    • By 2009, 2,600 employees (2007, 1700 employees)

    • Now the largest solar cell manufacturer in the world. (since 2007)

    • Continue to expand production in Bitterfeld-Wolfen, Germany and
      start construction of new Malaysian production facility.

    • Alongside the monocrystalline and polycrystalline (90% of business)
      core business, we use a wide range of technologies to develop and
      produce thin-film modules. (thin-film - 25% share of smaller market)

    • 2008 Sales $1.69 B                  2007 Sales $1.16 B profitable

    • QCE: Frankfurt exchange

http://www.q-cells.com/en and http://www.google.com/finance?q=FRA%3AQCE
                                          Sharp Solar
   • Subsidiary of Sharp Electronics, Osaka, Japan
   • Produces silicon solar cells and thin film, leveraging silicon knowledge
     from LCD manufacturing
   • 2008, capacity will reach 1.6 million square meters of thin-film modules,
     as we simultaneously build the world's largest thin film manufacturing
     complex, capable of 10 million square meters per year. And this
     gigawatt-scale factory is only the first to come. Katsuga City, Nara and
     Sakai City, Osaka, Japan
   • Thin film efficiency 9%, expecting 10% from GW factory line.
   • Sharp powers more homes and businesses than any other solar mfg in
     the world. First mfgr to reach 2 GW cumulative production since mass
     production start in 1963
   • Memphis, TN – 100 MW manufacturing facility

http://solar.sharpusa.com/solar/solar_thin_film/1,,3-6,00.html and http://www.sharpusa.com/files/sol_dow_ThinFilm_101408.pdf
                               SunTech Power
• BEIJING, Jan 12, 2009 (Xinhua via COMTEX)

• China’s solar product maker SunTech Power Holdings Co., Ltd.
  (STP.NYSE) recently laid off 800 workers or 10 percent of its total
  employees and postponed its previous plan on recruiting 2,000 people,
  said Shi Zhengrong, chairman and CEO.

• SunTech delayed plan to expand production capacity to 1.5 GW in 2009,
  which requires 2,000 more employees.

• Plants in Wuxi and other areas are in normal operation with more than
  50% capacity running, compared with 85% prior to financial meltdown.

• SunTech has received more than 800 MW of orders in 2009 including
  650 MW from Europe. 2008 overall orders of 500 MW.




http://www.tradingmarkets.com/.site/news/Stock%20News/2119252/
                              SunTech Power
• Sales $1.9B 2008, 1.3B 2007 profitable
• Employees: 6784
• STP:NYSE
• Wuxi, China
• Worlds largest silicon cell maker
• Average conversion efficiency rates of their monocrystalline and
  multicrystalline silicon PV cells 16.4% and 14.9% respectively
• 10 May 2009 announces plan to build manufacturing plant in US, now
  shopping states for incentives




http://www.google.com/finance?q=NYSE:STP
                                     Kyocera Solar

   • US Solar Division – Scottsdale, AZ

   • Subsidiary of Kyocera, Kyoto, Japan (KYO:NYSE) $13B 2008

   • 2008 broke ground for new plant in Tianjin City, China to expand
     there from 60 MW to 240 MW by 2011. First one in China ‘03

   • 2012 total production capacity to be 650 MW from Japan, Mexico,
     the Czech Republic and Tianjin.

   • Technology built on knowledge of fine ceramics, with metals,
     plastics, and electronics developed for copiers and printers




http://www.kyocerasolar.com/about/
                           First Solar
 • TEMPE, Ariz.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Feb. 24, 2009-- First Solar, Inc.
   (Nasdaq: FSLR) today announced it reduced its manufacturing cost for
   solar modules in the fourth quarter to 98 cents per watt, breaking the $1
   per watt price barrier.
 • 2004 Began full commercial operation. Manufacturing capacity has
   grown to more than 500 MW in 2008 and will double in 2009 to more
   than 1 GW, the equivalent of an average-sized nuclear power plant.
 • Escalating volumes accompanied by a rapid reduction in manufacturing
   costs. Manufacturing costs have declined from over $3 per watt to less
   than $1 per watt. Further significant cost reductions are possible.
 • First Solar has industry’s first and only comprehensive pre-funded, end-
   of-life module collection and recycling program, recycling more than
   90% of each collected module into new products. (A serious issue due
   to Cadmium-Telluride)
 • High throughput, automated lines that integrate each production step,
   from CdTe semiconductor deposition to final assembly and test, in one
   continuous process. This advanced manufacturing process transforms a
   piece of glass into a complete solar module in less than 2.5 hours.
www.firstsolar.com/
                        First Solar

   •    Sales $1.2B 2008, $504M 2007, profitable
   •    Employees: 3524
   •    Tempe, AZ
   •    FSLR:NASDAQ




finance.google.com
                     Motech Industries
    • Modern Technology for a Sustainable World

    • Founded 1981, Motech Solar started 1997

    • 2003 Publicly trades 6244: Taiwan Exchange

    • 2008 8th largest manufacturer 272 MW crystalline and multi-crystal
      silicon solar cells

    • Plants in Tianan,Taiwan and Kunshan, China

    • 2008 Sales $691M, profitable

    • 1,331 employees


www.motech.com.tw
    Shell dumps wind, solar and hydro
        power in favor of biofuels
  • Shell will no longer invest in renewable technologies such as wind,
    solar and hydro power because they are not economic, the Anglo-
    Dutch oil company said today. 17 Mar 09

  • Sold US operations to SolarWorld - Germany




http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2009/mar/17/royaldutchshell-energy
                                 SolarWorld AG
  • SWV: Frankfurt exchange

  • 1,825 employees

  • Bonn, Germany with production in Freiborg and Sweden

  • 2006 acquired assets from Shell Solar which had been largest US solar
    products maker (fka Arco Solar and Siemens Solar)
     – Camarillo, CA and Vancouver, WA

  • 2007 acquired Komatsu silicon wafer production facility Hillsboro, OR

  • Single and multi-crystalline silicon cells


http://www.google.com/finance?q=FRA:SWV
                                      Sun Power
    • Founded 1985, purchased by Cypress Semiconductor in 2004, spun
      out in 2008. SPWRA and SPWRB NASDAQ

    • HQs in San Jose and Geneva, Switzerland

    • 12 polysilicon solar cell line in Philippines with capacity 314 MW/yr

    • Expansion plan for 1 GW capacity by 2010

    • High efficiency cells: 21-23%
       – PG&E plans 250 MW facility in CA by 2012
       – FPL DeSoto Cty 35 MW facility due to open 2009
       – Nellis 14 MW facility on line

    • Sales: $1.4B for 2008, $775M for 2007 profitable

    • Employees: 5,400

http://us.sunpowercorp.com/utility/
      SunPower Solar Cell




http://us.sunpowercorp.com/utility/why-sunpower/best-technology/
              Energy Conversion Devices /
                 United Solar Ovonics
   • ENER:NASDAQ
   • Rochester Hills, MI
   • Amorphous silicon thin film process
     on stainless steel
   • Over 20 years, manufacturing
     capacity increased from 500 KW to
     25 MW/yr
   • Now 3 miles/day
   • Sales $255M for 2008, $114M for
     2007, slight profit 2008
   • Employees: 1090
http://www.uni-solar.com
    Ovonics Roll-roll Process




http://www.uni-solar.com/uploadedFiles/Uni-SolarTechnologyandManufacturingProcessAppendix.pdf
                                                       Silikin
    • Since 2001, SILIKEN has obtained a significant share on the Spanish
      PV market and has installed more than 160 MW of solar PV energy,
      = 240 GWh, the electricity consumption of more than 63,595 homes.
    • Number of employees: Currently 700 people.
      Valencia, Tenerife and Albacete, Spain and San Diego, CA
    • Sales: €152 million ($207 million) in 2007.
    • Peak power manufactured: has become one of the main
      manufacturers of PV modules, supplying 92 MW to the market in ‘08.




http://www.siliken.com/quienes/historia?languageId=1
                   Some Questions
• Will ‘peak minerals’ (rising cost due to limits in availability) limit
  growth of thin film and third generation solar cells?

• Will demand growth in China and India limit growth in US?

• How about the impact of other national / regional subsidies?

• How will financial meltdown impact solar cell business?

• What competing technologies would upset the solar industry?

• How will cost and efficiency of 2nd and 3rd generation solar cells
  impact the businesses built on 1st generation technology?

				
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