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					  UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM




              Reporting Back of Needs Assessment Results




                            Musiba Mbilima
                           musiba@udsm.ac.tz




Regional Consultation Workshop on Strengthening Voluntary Counselling, Testing
and Antiretroviral Therapy (VCT/ART), within African Universities. African Sky
                Millennium Tower Hotels, Ltd, 25-27 June 2007




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1.0     BACKGROUND INFORMATION


The University of Dar es salaam in Collaboration with the University of Toronto have
organized and co -hosted a Regional Workshop on Strengthening Voluntary Counceling,
Testing and Antiretroviral Therapy (VCT/ART) within African Universities in Dar es
Salaam, Tanzania .The overall goal of this workshop is to develop a strategy for the
expansion of VCT/ART services within African universities using the University of Dar
es Salaam as an example/model, with the following key objectives:
1.      To review the existing status and learn from the best practices of regional
university-based VCT/ART intervention services as one of the key strategies in the
response to the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
2.      To improve the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) capacity of university-based
VCT/ART intervention services in members of the Southern African Regional
Universities Association (SARUA) and Association of African Universities (AAU).
3.      To develop a draft multi-year implementation plan for the expansion of
university-based VCT/ART intervention services using UDSM as an example /model.


The response of African universities to the HIV/AIDS epidemic remains constrained by
limited financial and human resources, negatively affecting the implementation of
planned,    coordinated,   integrated   and   comprehensive   institutional   HIV/AIDS
programmes. The workshop will provide a practical model of how African universities
may expand and implement VCT/ART intervention services at their own institutions. The
rationale is to focus on an implementation plan for the University of Dar es Salaam
during the workshop that is appropriate, well-informed, and in line with national policy
and UDSM’s own HIV/AIDS policy objectives that may serve as a template for other
institutions.




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2.0     INSTITUTIONAL PROFILES
2.1    Background information
Institutional response to VCT/ART intervention initiatives differs across universities. The
difference is attributed by a number of factors including human capacity, funding and
leadership commitment.      Primary information is provided below on participating
institutions response initiatives to HIV/AIDS epidemic and delivery of VCT/ART
intervention services.


2.1.1 University of Zambia (UNZA)
The University of Zambia is located at Great East Road campus, Lusaka, Zambia. The
University started in 1969 and it has approximately 7000 students and approximately
2000 staff. It has a STANDING COMMITTEE ON HIV AND AIDS (VCCA) structure
which is lead by a chairperson.


Institutional HIV/AIDs policy
The University of Zambia recognizes the impact of HIV and AIDS on the UNZA
community, and the need to coordinate all efforts at institutional level to avoid both
duplication and gaps in the total response to the HIV and AIDS pandemic. It is with this
in mind, that the Vice-Chancellor in 2003 appointed a multi-disciplinary Standing
Committee on HIV and AIDS. Among VCCA terms of reference were: To formulate the
HIV and AIDS policy and guidelines for programme implementation at the University of
Zambia.




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Historical context leading to development of HIV/AIDS Policy:
The University of Zambia is committed to maintaining a healthy working and learning
environment by protecting the physical and emotional health and well being of all
students in the learning environment and members of staff in the workplace. UNZA is
committed to being an equal opportunity learning institution and equal opportunity
employer. This entails commitment to providing admission and employment for people
with HIV and AIDS who wish to learn and work. This HIV and AIDS policy is a direct
outgrowth of these commitments.


The spread of HIV is attributed to various factors, amongst which are certain forms of
sexual harassment. UNZA, therefore, will not permit any form of sexual harassment of its
students or members of staff and their dependents. Sexual harassment subverts the
mission of the University and threatens the careers, educational experience, and well
being of students, members of staff and their dependents. UNZA’s Code of Conduct
prohibits sexual harassment as a serious form of misconduct liable to bring the University
into disrepute and stipulates that the first breach of this prohibition, whether by a student
or a member of staff, warrants dismissal.


Stage of development/implementation:
The policy formulation was an excellent example of a wide consultative and participatory
process of the University community, members of staff and students, who participated
enthusiastically and valuable contributions.
Target populations covered by policy
       Students
       Members of staff and their dependents
       The surrounding community
Key objectives of policy:
The main objectives of the HIV and AIDS policy are:
   To establish guidelines for decision-making, coordination, and action on HIV and
    AIDS related matters in the University.




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   To provide a safe learning and working environment that will be stimulating,
    supportive and free from discrimination.
   To guarantee learning and employment by observing the legal rights of persons living
    with HIV and AIDS in the University.
   To encourage sensitivity to and understanding for students, members of staff and their
    dependents infected or affected by HIV and AIDS.
   To provide information, education, counseling, and supportive care services that
    promotes the personal and professional well being of students, members of staff and
    their dependents that are infected or affected by HIV and AIDS.
   To contribute to the community efforts in mitigating the impact of HIV and AIDS.


Key goals and/or policy statements:
The following values guided the conception of the policy:
HIV and AIDS concern the entire UNZA community; an appropriate response to the
pandemic can be achieved only by ensuring emphasis of HIV and AIDS in the various
programmes and activities of the University.


All the stakeholders should be involved in defining and implementing the response to
HIV and AIDS at the University; Students, members of staff and their dependents who
are living with HIV and AIDS will not be discriminated against in accessing education
and/or employment at the University; Students, members of staff and their dependents
have the right to dignity, respect, autonomy and privacy concerning their HIV and AIDS
status; HIV and AIDS can affect anyone; the policy should in no way perpetuate
stereotypes of HIV and AIDS as belonging to any sex, age, ethnic group, sexual
preference, student or member of staff, but it should recognize specific vulnerabilities and
risk factors such as cases of sexual harassment; Appropriate strategies for prevention,
health promotion and caring for and the treatment of students, members of staff and their
dependents living with HIV and AIDS are essential.




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Additional details:
The UNZA HIV and AIDS policy addresses the following components:
      Obligations of the University Council
      Responsibility of UNZA Central Administration
      Rights of members of staff
      Rights of students
      Responsibilities of members of staff and students
      Teaching and research
      Information, education and communication
      Counselling and supportive care
      Community engagement




3.1.2 Mzumbe University(MU)
The University of Mzumbe is situated in Morogoro region Tanzania. It is a public
university established in 1997. It has approximately 3700 students and approximately 200
administrative and 150 teaching staff. The University has Coordinating body on
HIV/AIDS work on campus known as MZUMBE UNIVESRITY TECHNICAL AIDS –
SUB COMMITTEE AND UNIVERSITY HEALTH CENTRE. The total staff size of the
coordinating structure is 13.


Institutional HIV/AIDS policy
Historical context leading to development of HIV/AIDS policy
Tanzania development Vision 2025, national strategy for growth and reduction of
poverty (NSGRP) and higher education sub- master plan (2003-20180) all articulate the
agenda for human capital development and point the facts to which HIV and AIDS is
going to impact on various sector and even reverse the already had worn gains. Within
the context of the above mentioned documents, Mzumbe University is formulating its
institutional policy on HIV/AIDS that supports the NSGRP, the national policy on
HIV/AIDS and Ministry of Higher education science and technology sectoral plan as well
as ILO code of practice on HIV/AIDS and world of work.


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Rationale of the policy
The main thrust for having university policy on HIV/AIDS arises out of the fact that for
all practical purposes the HIV/AIDS brings negative impact to the University community
and its surrounding areas. As such the university and individuals cannot continue to
conduct themselves as if the problem does not exist. The development of the policy has
therefore focused on strengthening capacity for the University to respond to HIV/AIDS
epidemic. The policy will provide guidelines and decision commitment of university in
breaking the silence and starting to act. The policy will also legitimacy for actions taken
in the process of AIDS control and prevention.


Stage of development/implementation
The policy is in the draft stage.
Target population covered by policy
University students, workers and the neighboring community.


Key objectives of the policy
The overall goal:
To provide legal, legitimate and technical guidance that will support and coordinate a
systematic HIV/AIDS response programming at the University thereby reducing the
threat of HIV/AIDS and ,to mitigate the adverse impact of AIDS at the University
community.


Overall Objective
To guide the university programming efforts that intends to reduce the threat of the
spread of HIV/AIDS at Mzumbe University, to mitigate the impact of AIDS through
programme planning and capacity development and to manage the impact of the
epidemic in a way that reflect the ethical.social,knowledge,transimission and production
that commensurate with Mzumbe University Mission.




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Policy Statements
Mzumbe University shall be an institution that intends to coordinate HIV/AIDS
programming through effective participation and involvement of all staff, students and
partners.


2.1.3 University of Porthacourt
The University of Portharourt is located in Porthacourt, Nigeria. It is a public university
established in 1975. It has approximately 50,000(10,000 full time students) students and
approximately 1500 administrative and teaching staff. The University has Coordinating
body on HIV/AIDS work on campus known as University of Harcourt, HIV/AIDS
committee. The total staff size of the coordinating structure is 8.


Institutional HIV/AIDS policy


Historical context leading to development of HIV/AIDS Policy: The University policy
was developed in 2004 following a six-month period of facts-finding and advocacy. At
that time Nigeria’s HIV sero-prevalence was 5.0%. But with a population of over 100
million the sheer size of the numbers of persons living with HIV placed the country as the
fourth worldwide. Meanwhile the rate of infection was highest among people aged 20-24
years at 5.6%, followed by those aged 25-29 years at 5.4%. Clearly reflective of the age
group found in the University. In addition, Rivers State where the University is located
ranked 8th out of 36 States and the Federal Capital Territory with a crude prevalence of
6.6%. Also at this time plans were far underway towards the hosting of the All Nigerian
University Games at University of Port Harcourt; an event which would bring over 6,000
other students across the nation to one location over a period of two weeks. This provided
the right impetus for the development of a HIV/AIDS Policy.


Stage of development/implementation: The Policy has been developed and was
launched by the Former First Lady, Late Mrs. Stella Obasanjo at the opening of the
Nigerian University Games in November 2004.




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Target populations covered by policy: Full-time and part-time students (undergraduate
and postgraduate; and academic and non-academic staff
Key objectives of policy: To identify individuals who are positive with HIV through
voluntary counseling and testing; and to initiate treatment, care and support programmes
that are appropriate to the needs of persons who are positive.




Key goals and/or policy statements: The overarching goal of the policy is to contribute
to the national HIV/AIDS strategy embedded in the National HIV/AIDS Emergency
Action Plan of 2002, which were to remove barriers to community action against
HIV/AIDS; prevent spread among high-risk groups; and provide care and support for
persons living with the virus.


2.1.4 University of Namibia (UNAM)
The University of Namibia is located at Mandume Ndemufayo Avenue, Windhoek,
Republic of Namibia. It is a parastatal /semi-autonomous university established in 1992.
It has 10,000 students and 840 staff. The University has Coordinating body on HIV/AIDS
work: HIV/AIDS unit. The total staff size of the coordinating structure is 6.


Institutional HIV/AIDS policy
Historical context leading to development of HIV/AIDS Policy:
The Labour Act (1992) advices all institutions, companies and organizations to have a
Policy guiding HIV and AIDS provisions and procedures.             University of Namibia
Management has also deemed it necessary to develop a Policy tailor-made for the
situation of the University.
Stage of development/implementation:
There is some progress, but there is room for improvement.
Target populations covered by policy: Students, Administrative Staff, Academic Staff,
Auxiliary Services Staff.




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Key objectives of policy:
To stipulate the University of Namibia’s position regarding HIV and AIDS.
     To create awareness among the University community regarding HIV and AIDS.
     To pronounce the rights and responsibilities of staff and students infected and
      affected by HIV and AIDS.
     To pronounce the responsibilities of students and staff regarding HIV and AIDS.


Key goals and/or policy statements:
No employee or candidate for employment, of the University of Namibia, will be
required to undergo an HIV test, or be required to disclose their HIV status.
No discrimination will be tolerated toward any person on the basis of their HIV status.


Additional details:
The HIV/ AIDS Policy of the University of Namibia is currently under review to
accommodate current issues. While that is the case, very few staff members are actually
aware of the content of the policy.


2.1.5 University of Botswana (UB)
The University of Botswana is located in Gaborone Botswana. It is a public university
established in 1982. It has 16,238 students by March 2007 and 2366 staff. The University
has Coordinating body on HIV/AIDS work on campus known as HIV/AIDS committee
and AIDS coordinators office. The total staff size of the coordinating structure is 27.


Institutional HIV/AIDS policy
Historical context leading to development of HIV/AIDS Policy:
The University needed to have a statement of commitment in relation to HIV and AIDS.
Botswana is one of the countries that are hard-hit by the epidemic.




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Stage of development/implementation:
Policy was adopted by Senate in November 2002.
Target populations covered by policy:
Students and staff


Key objectives of policy:
   a. To provide education, information and training in HIV/AIDS prevention and to
        reduce the rate of new infections by promoting behaviour change.
   b.   To provide care and support to staff and students affected and/infected with HIV
        so as to alleviate fear, stigma, and discrimination surrounding HIV and AIDS.
   c. To safeguard the rights of employees and students who are affected and/or living
        with HIV and AIDS.
   d. To promote and support research and community outreach on HIV/AIDS
        prevention, care and support.
   e. To promote the health, social and spiritual welfare of the University community.


Key goals and/or policy statements:
   1.   Rights and responsibilities of affected and /or infected staff and students.
   2.   Education and awareness.
   3.   Counselling, care and support services for staff and students.
   4.   Integration of HIV/AIDS issues into teaching, research and service activities.




2.1.6 Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
The Sokoine University of Agriculture is located in Morogoro region Tanzania. It is a
public university established in 1984. It has approximately 2865 students and
approximately 1,065 administrative and teaching staff. Staff dependants and neighboring
communities 16,200. The University has Coordinating body on HIV/AIDS work on
campus known as HIV/AIDS Technical committee. The total staff size of the
coordinating structure is 9.




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Institutional HIV/AIDS policy
Historical context leading to development of HIV/AIDS Policy:
      SUA COUNCIL DIRECTIVE
      SUA     CORPORATE         STRATEGIC        PLAN     WHEREBY         HIV/AIDS      IS
       MAINSTREAMED IN ALL SUA ACTIVITIES


Stage of development/implementation:
      CONTROLLING HIV/AIDS IS IN SUA PLANS.
      TERMS OF REFERENCE TO DEVELOP THE POLICY HAVE BEEN
       DEVELOPED.


Target populations covered by policy: staff, students and the surrounding community
OVER 16,000 PEOPLE


Key objectives of policy: TO BE DEVELOPED


Key goals and/or policy statements: TO BE DEVELOPED


Additional details: NONE


2.1.7 Hubert Kairuki Memorial University(HKMU)
The Hubert Kairuki Memorial University is located in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It is a
private university established in 1997 with approximately 452 students and 75 staff. The
University has a Coordinating body on HIV/AIDS work on campus known as HKMU
HIV/ AIDS COMMITTEE. The total staff size of the coordinating structure is 9.


Institutional HIV/AIDS policy
Findings indicated that the university has a draft institutional HIV/AIDS policy in place.




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2.1.8 University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM)
The University of Dar es Salaam is located in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. It is a public
university established in 1970. It has approximately 20,000 students and 2500 staff. The
University has Coordinating body on HIV/AIDS work on campus known as
UNIVESRITY OF DAR ES SALAAM TECHNICAL AIDS –SUB COMMITTEE. The
total staff size of the coordinating structure is 14.


Institutional HIV/AIDS policy
Historical context leading to development of HIV/AIDS Policy:
In December 1999 the Government of United Republic of Tanzania declared HIV/AIDS
a national threat and has since been at the forefront of the national response to the
pandemic. The University of Dar-es-Salaam’s response to HIV/AIDS started way back in
1992 by establishing a work-site Female Volunteer Peer Educators’ Programme. In 1994,
a Health Education Unit was established with the aim of providing preventive health
education on non-infectious and infectious diseases, including HIV/AIDS to the
University Community. In addition, Student Peer Educators were trained in youth
reproductive health issues, including HIV/AIDS. To date, there are a range of different
responses or interventions that the University of Dar-es-Salaam has undertaken to address
HIV/AIDS in varying depth and scope. The development of UDSM’s HIV/AIDS policy
constitutes systematic and comprehensive framework of action to guide the various
responses that address prevention, treatment, care and social support specifically at the
University of Dar es Salaam.


Stage of development/implementation:
The policy is in implementation stage.
Target populations covered by policy: Staff, students and the surrounding community
that is around 30,000 people.




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Key objectives of policy:
The UDSM HIV/AIDS Policy aims at preventing the spread of HIV infection, providing
equal access to treatment, care and support services to people living with or affected by
HIV/AIDS, generating and disseminating HIV/AIDS knowledge, and providing a strong
and committed leadership in response to the pandemic at the UDSM and the wider
society.


Key Objectives
1. To promote a sustained programme on HIV/AIDS and other STIs that provides current
and accurate information to the UDSM community and its neighborhood.


2. To promote confidential and voluntary counseling and testing for HIV to members of
the UDSM community and its neighborhood.
3. To provide care, antiretroviral treatment and psychosocial support to UDSM
community members living with HIV/AIDS.
4. To promote multi-disciplinary research on biomedical, social-behavioral, legal, ethical
and social service delivery aspects of HIV/AIDS.


Key policy statements:

1. The UDSM shall ensure the provision of a comprehensive and coordinated
HIV/AIDS/STIs programme that provides current and accurate information on all aspects
of transmission and prevention to the UDSM community and its neighborhood.


2. The University shall promote and encourage informed consent for individual testing,
accompanied by confidential and voluntary counseling so that members of UDSM
community become aware of their HIV sero status to enable them make informed
decisions.




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3. The University shall strengthen provision of treatment for HIV/AIDS associated
opportunistic diseases and provide ARV drugs to members of the UDSM community
living with HIV/AIDS according to existing national treatment guidelines.


4. UDSM shall take measures to ensure that there is no stigma and discrimination in the
provision of treatment, care and support for people living with HIV/AIDS.

5. The University shall not require applicants for University admission to undergo HIV
testing or reveal their HIV status before admission. During the course of study and unless
medically indicated, HIV/AIDS is not a reason to terminate student registration.


6. UDSM shall ensure that no UDSM employee or applicant for employment shall be
required by the University to undergo an HIV test or disclose his/her HIV sero status.




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CONCLUSIONS


 All eight institutions surveyed have established structures to manage and coordinate
  the HIV/AIDS epidemic response initiatives.
 Out of eight universities surveyed, four have institutional HIV/AIDS policies in place,
  which demonstrates institutions commitment to the HIV/AIDS epidemic response.
  The remaining four institutions surveyed have draft policies at different stages in the
  development process.




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