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OntologDiscussion - Semantic Web Service Ontology Standard

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					            OWL-S:
         Brief Overview

                David Martin
                  SRI International
        Chair, OWL-S Coalition
    Co-chair, Semantic Web Services
         Language Committee

DARPA Distribution Statement “A”: Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited

                                                                                        0
                               What is OWL-S?

 • Ontology Web Language for Services
       • Under development since early 2001


 • An OWL ontology for (formally) describing properties and
    capabilities of Web services

 • Plus a large body of work about using the ontology:
    tools, components, algorithms, extensions

 • An approach that draws on many sources
       • Description logic, AI planning, Workflow, Formal process modeling, Agents, Web
       services, …

 • Ties in with Web services (WSDL, UDDI)
                  http://www.daml.org/services/owl-s
Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005                    1                   David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                               Contributors to OWL-S
                                     (partial list)

BBN: Mark Burstein
CMU: Katia Sycara, Massimo Paolucci, Naveen Srinivasan
De Montfort University: Monika Solanki
Maryland / College Park: Bijan Parsia, Evren Sirin
NIST: Craig Schlenoff
Nokia: Ora Lassila
SRI: David Martin
Stanford KSL: Deb McGuiness
Southampton: Terry Payne
Univ. of Toronto: Sheila McIlraith
USC-ISI: Jerry Hobbs
Yale: Drew McDermott


Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005               2             David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                               High-Level Objectives

• Automation of service use by software agents
      • Ideal: full-fledged use of services never before
          encountered
• Enable reasoning/planning about services
      • e.g., On-the-fly composition
• Build on both Semantic Web and Web services
  Comprehensive framework supporting the entire
  lifecycle of service management tasks
            • Discovery, selection, composition, invocation, monitoring, ..
• Integrated use with information resources
• Ease of use (for users and developers)
• Powerful tools

Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005               3                David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                     Layered Approach to Language Development


 OWL-S: an ontology expressed in OWL and
 related languages

                                                     OWL-S (Services)

                                                   SWRL (Rules)

                                           OWL ([DLP], Light, DL, Full)

                                           RDFS (RDF Schema)

                                RDF (Resource Description Framework)

                               XML (Extensible Markup Language)
Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005                   4             David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                       Upper Ontology of Services




                                        Ontology images compliments of Terry Payne,
                                        University of Southampton



Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005       5                 David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                   Service Profile: “What does it do?”
  High-level characterization/summary of a service
  Used for
     • Populating service registries
               • A service can have many profiles
        • Automated service discovery
        • Service selection (matchmaking)
  One can derive:
    • Service advertisements
    • Service requests



Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005          6             David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                               Service Profile




Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005           7         David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                           Service Profile: Styles of use
  • Class hierarchical yellow pages
        – Implicit capability characterization
        – Arrangement of attributes on class hierarchy
        – Can use multiple inheritance
        – Relies primarily on “non-functional” properties

  • Process summaries for planning purposes
        – More explicit
        – Inputs, outputs, preconditions, effects
        – Less reliance on formal hierarchical organization
        – Summarizes process model specs
        – Relies primarily on functional description




Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005              8                 David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                       Upper Ontology of Services




Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005       9        David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                               Process Model




Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005         10        David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                 Process Model: Model it work?”
                        Service “How does
                               “How does it work?”
 Process
       – Interpretable description of service provider’s behavior
       – Tells service user how and when to interact (read/write messages)
 & Process control
       – Ontology of process state; supports status queries
       – (stubbed out at present)
 • Used for:
       – Service invocation, planning/composition, interoperation, monitoring
 • All processes have
       – Inputs, outputs, preconditions and effects
       – Function/dataflow metaphor; action/process metaphor
 • Composite processes
       – Control flow
       – Data flow
 • “Surface syntax” recently made available



Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005               11                 David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                                     Process of Processes
Input &                                                                                                                                                                                     Output &
                                                           www.acmetravel.com                                                                                                                Effects
Preconditions
                                                            book travel service                                                                                                                   •
                                                                                                                                                               • confirmation no.
                                                                                                                                                               • ...                            •
•                                                                                                                                                                                                 •
    •                                                                                                                                                                                           •
•                                                                                                                                                                                                 •
                                                                                                   • customer name          www.acmecar.com
                                                                                                   • location
                                                                                                                                                     ?
    •                                                                                                                                                                                           •
                                                                                                   • car type                 book car service
                                                                                                   • dates

•                                                                                                  • credit card no.
                                                                                                   • ...
                                                                                                                                                                                                  •
    •                                                                                                                                                                                           •
•                                                                                                                                                              • failure notification
                                                                                                                                                               •…

    •
•
    •
•
    •
•
    •                                                                                                                                                                                             •
•                                                                                                                                                        • confirmation no.
                                                                                                                                                                                        ?       •
    •                                                                                                                                                                                             •
                                                                                                                                                         • ...


•                                                                                                                                                                                               •
    •                                                                                                                                                                                             •
                                                                • confirmation no.            • confirmation no.       www.acmehotel.com
                                                                                              • dates

•
                                                                • ...
                                                                                                                                                 ?
                                                                                                                                                                                                •
                                                                                              • room type               book hotel service
                                                                                              • credit card no.

    •            • customer name
                                                                                              • ...
                                                                                                                                                                                                  •
                                                                                                                                                                                                •
                                     www.acmeair.com
                 • flight numbers
                                                            ?
    •
                 • dates             book flight service
                 • credit card no.                                                                                                                       • failure notification
                 •                                                                                                                                       •…
                 • ...


                                                                • failure notification
                                                                • errror information
                                                                •…




Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005                                                             12                                                      David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                       Upper Ontology of Services




                                        Ontology images compliments of Terry Payne,
                                        University of Southampton



Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005       13                 David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                    Service Grounding: “How to access it”


   • Implementation specific
   • Message formatting, transport
     mechanisms, protocols, serializations of
     types
   • Service Model + Grounding give everything
     needed for using the service
   • Builds upon WSDL


Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005           14           David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                           OWL-S / WSDL Grounding


                                           OWL-S
                       Process Model          Resources/Concepts


                        Atomic Process             Inputs / Outputs

                               Operation               Message


                                Binding to SOAP, HTTP, etc.

                                            WSDL
Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005                  15                 David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                 OWL-S / WSDL Grounding (cont’d)




Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005     16        David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                               Some Applications of OWL-S
          IBM
            – Provide OWL-S API as part of SNOBASE Semantic Web tool
            – http://www.alphaworks.ibm.com/tech/snobase
            – Use OWL-S for enhanced semantic UDDI
          SAP
            –   Use OWL-S for automatic composition of services to manage border control
          Toshiba
            –   Use OWL-S in publicly available UDDI at NTT (Main Japanese UDDI)
          Fujitsu
            – OWL-S used in Task Computing Project; planned for production in 2005
            – http://www.taskcomputing.org/
          NIST, DCS, TARDEC
            –   Use OWL-S to describe capabilities of Autonomous Vehicles
          MyGrid
            – Use OWL-S to describe Bioinformatics Web services on the Grid
            – http://www.mygrid.org.uk/
          AgentCities
            – OWL-S used for discovery of new agents
            – http://www.agentcities.org/

Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005                     17                   David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                               Some Areas of Work
                                Building on OWL-S
•   Architecture / components
      –   Virtual machine
      –   Libraries
      –   Brokering
      –   Mediation
      –   Ontology management (meta-)services
•   Algorithms / tools
      –   Development
            • Editors, WSDL2OWLS, BPEL2OWLS, BPEL augmentations
      – Discovery & Selection
      – Composition
      – UML-based design/generation
•   Ontology extensions
      •   Security
      •   Policy
      •   Quality of Service
      •   Domain-specific extensions
      •   Semantic Grid applications
      •   Alternate groundings
•   SWSF
Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005                    18                David Martin: OWL-S Overview
                               Summary & Status

• Describes “what it does”, “how it works”, “how to access it”
      – Profile, Process, Grounding subontologies
• Ties in fairly naturally with WSDL, UDDI
• Additional semantics supports
      – Automation of various Web service tasks
      – Varied applications


• W3C member submission
      – http://www.w3.org/Submission/2004/07/
• 1.1 release finalized
• 1.2 release planned this year
• Publications, tools, examples
      – See http;//www.daml.org/services/owl-s/
      – ISWC, WWW, ICSOC conferences (and workshops)
• Additional material (including FLOWS, WSMO, WSDL-S) here:
      – W3C Workshop on Frameworks for Semantics in Web Services
      – http://www.w3.org/2005/01/ws-swsf-cfp.html


Ontolog Forum; Oct. 20, 2005              19            David Martin: OWL-S Overview

				
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