grammar rules Text by psf35982


									58    SECTION 2 Word Groups and the Sentence                                 SECTION 2 Word Groups and the Sentence     59

                    B Punctuation                                          Remember Only direct questions end with a
                    Punctuation is very important. We put punctuation      question mark. This sentence is not direct and so
                    marks in our writing to make it easier to read and     doesn’t need one:
                    understand. Correct punctuation can make all the       I asked what went ‘Ha-ha plonk’.
                    difference to meaning. These two examples have
                    the same words but totally different meaning:
                                                                           Just to confuse you
                    What do you think? I will feed you for nothing!
                                                                           If a questioning sentence is more of an
                    (A good offer.)                                        exclamation than a question, then end it with an
                    What! Do you think I will feed you for nothing!        exclamation mark:
                    (Not such a good offer!)                               Who do you think you are! What about that!

                    Ending a sentence                                     Some other sentence endings are found less
                                                                          ● Direct speech (‘ or ”): When a sentence ends

                                                                            with direct speech (the actual words somebody
                                                                            speaks) then the quotation marks often end the
      Sentences                                                             sentence by coming after the punctuation mark:
     end with a                                                             She said nervously, ‘I’m just a harmless pupil.
     punctuation                                                            Why are you confusing me with all this
        mark.                                                               grammar?’
                                                                            For more about the punctuation of direct speech,
                                                                            see page 66.
                                                                          ● Dash (–) A dash is used when someone is
                          Jack and Emma              . . . are friends!
                                                                            interrupted in mid-sentence either by another
                    Almost all sentences are closed by one of the           speaker or by a sudden thought, event, etc.:
                    following:                                              ‘The cabin’s on fire and the ship’s going to –’
                    ● Full stop (.):                                        Abruptly, the commander’s voice ceased. A
                      This sentence ends with a full stop and here it       deathly silence spread over Mission Control.
                      comes now.                                            Notice that the dash replaces the full stop, which
                    ● Question mark (?):                                    is not needed.
                      What goes ‘Ha-ha plonk’?                            ● Dots (…): Use three dots at the end of a

                    ● Exclamation mark (!):                                 sentence if you wish readers to imagine the rest
                      What a fantastic joke!                                of the action, or to show that time is passing:
                                                                            Between us we swung the body of the murdered
                                                                            crook far out into the river. The evil eyes of an
                                                                            alligator glinted greedily…
                                                                            The posh name for these dots is an ‘ellipsis’.

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