History of Britain Brief Chronology by gqt76194

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									History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006



This is a brief summary of the history of the 'British' Isles more or less as
covered in the historical overview as the first part of the lecture 'Introduction
to Britain', arranged as a chronology, with some of the most important dates,
names and phenomena highlighted in bold type.

1. Topics

In the lecture, the events and developments were grouped under the following
topics. These are given here in roughly chronological order, but some of them
overlap or are contemporaneous.

Prehistory, Celts
Roman conquest and occupation
Anglo-Saxon settlement
      groupings and organization
Christianization:
      1. under Romans ; 2. Celtic church; 3. mission from Rome; 4. Synod of
      Whitby (Streaneshalch)
Danes/Norsemen
Consolidation of England
Anglo-Saxon society
Norman Conquest
      background, events, effects
Development of Scotland & Ireland; relations between them & with England
Wales: development, conquest by Anglo-Normans
Magna Carta, development of English Parliament & government
Relations with France throughout Middle Ages
Feudalism & its decline
Mediæval church & its relations with the Crown
English Reformation
      break with Rome; Edwardian Reformation; Counter-Reformation;
      Elizabethan Settlement
Tudor government
16th-century Scotland (incl. Reformation) & Ireland
Union of the Crowns
Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Commonwealth / Protectorate
Early colonization; growth of commerce (16th-18th centuries)
Restoration
Glorious Revolution, Act of Settlement, Jacobitism, Act of Union
Hanoverians
Enlightenment / Augustan Age
Communications, Agrarian & Industrial (industrious) Revolutions
18th-centuryWars, growth of Empire, Slavery
Development of government (Cabinet, PM); Parties
18th-century Scotland & Ireland
French Wars
Post-war period
Social legislation

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History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
Parliamentary reforms (1832, 1867, 1884); development of Parties
[Growth of Empire
'Irish Question'
'Woman Question'
Industry; trade unions
World War I
Irish independence/partition
Post-war developments, depression
Appeasement, World War II
Welfare state, nationalization
Commonwealth: independence, immigration
International relations, especially Europe
        Marshall plan, NATO, EEC, EU etc.
Thatcherism; New Labour]

Key:
               battle
†               dies/death
               marries
DAVIES          Norman Davies: The Isles,
HT              History Today
RC              Roman Catholic


2. Chronology

500,000 BC   - earliest human bones found in south of main island
250,000      - Old Stone Age (Palæolithic): nomads
50,000       - warmer climate encouraged more immigration
10,000       - end of Ice Ages:
             - hunter-gatherers & fishers (pop. probably < 10,000)
5000         - today's islands separated from continental 'Europe'
?from c.4000 - New Stone Age (Neolithic; from 8000 in Middle East):
             - farming introduced
             - (pop. probably grew to stable c. 150,000)
c.2000       - Stonehenge III (I: c.3000); in use at least –1000 BC
C.1800-C.600 - Bronze Age; much continental trade
? –c.600     - gradual Celtic settlement
             - n.b. Celts tended very strongly to resist developing a writing
             culture – until Christianization
             - (Iron Age)
 th
5 cent.      - Herodotus writes of Nêsoi Kassiterides (Tin Islands)
c. 300       - Pytheas of Massilia circumnavigates the archipelago
             (Pretaniké)
55 & 54      - Julius Caesar's expeditions to Britannia

                - new evidence of Roman troops in Britain before 43: outposts
                to protect trade?
                "By the time Claudius finally made it across the English
                Channel in AD 43, the people of west Sussex and eastern
                Hampshire were no longer Iron Age Britons; they were well on
                the way to becoming Roman." (M. RUSSELL HT August 2005)
AD 43           - Roman invasion under Claudius

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History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
c. 47         - conquest of south & east of 'England' completed
              - Iceni ('E.Anglia') & Regni ('Sussex') = allies
49            - Camulodnum (Colchester): 1st Roman town in Britannia
c.50          - Londinium founded
61            - Romans invade 'Wales', massacre Druids & women of Mon[a]
              (Anglesey);
              - Boudicca (Boadicea) rebels; Camulodnum (Colchester) burnt
              - during period of reconstruction Aquae Sulis (Bath) developed
              as Roman spa: perhaps symbol of reconciliation?
70-84         - conquest of 'Wales' & north completed
83            - Agricola defeats Caledonians at Mons Graupius
c. 122        - Hadrian's Wall started (completed ?c.127): border of
              Empire
c. 142        - Antonine Wall begun
c.158         - serious trouble in north
166           - 1st church built at Glastonbury
from c.180    - constant problems with Picts (& later Scots); H’s Wall
              frequently damaged/destroyed & rebuilt
c.200-400     - Scots from 'Ireland' colonized western Alba/Caledonia (Dal
              Riata/Dalriada: community across today's Irish Sea)
293           - Roman Empire divided into East & West
304           - Martyrdom of St Alban (?209; ? 254)
306           - Constantinus proclaimed Roman Emperor at Eboracum
314-24        - Christianity permitted under Constantinus
              (C. converted 312, Edict of Milan 313)
              - 5 Britons attended Council of Arles 314
from c. 340   - severe stress, harassment by barbarians (Picts, Scots, later also
              Germanic tribes); H’s Wall frequently damaged/destroyed;
              finally (383) not rebuilt
?c.400        - St Ninian (Nynia) took Christianity to Caledonia
410           - Roman legions withdrawn after Goths under Alaric sack
              Rome

DAVIES 101:   - Population of Roman Britannia had been up to c. 4m, twice as
              high as c. 1100)
              - Davies 118: 20-25% of population Romanized; Roman cities
              in Britannia walled unlike early ones in Gaul
              - Romans left little cultural legacy behind apart from ruins,
              roads, a few genes & Christianity (not Roman)
              - n.b. Victorians propagated 'cult' of Romans in connection with
              their own Imperialism, but most aspects of Graeco-Roman
              culture came into the isles later!

'Ireland'     - Roman fort on east coast: probably trading post!
              - 3rd century: Fionn MacCumhaill (Finn MacCool) Fenian hero
              (Fianna Éireann) "still sleeping in a mountain cave" (cf. Fr.
              Barbarossa), father of Oisín (Ossian)

411-18        - Pelagian controversy rages (human nature = good; will is free)
c.417         - Roman troops return to Britannia, but do not stay


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History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
429          - St Germanus visits Britannia;
             - around this time Christianity in Scotia (Hibernia)
c. 450       - beginning of 'Angle, Saxon & Jute' invasions of Britannia
             (Caledonia less attractive)
             n.b. 'A,S &J' taken from Bede: modern research suggests that
             these were rather post-invasion identities
             n.b. German presence in Roman towns before 400
             - 'Heptarchy': Kent, Essex, Wessex, Merce, Northanhymbre
             (Bernicia & Deira), Sussex, East Anglia [n.b.: 597: 12
             kingdoms; 865: 4!]
             - St Patrick (Patricius/Succatus) begins his Hibernian mission
             - Christianization overcomes Celtic aversion to writing: Éireann
             becomes a repository of Christian culture and subsequently
             plays a large part in the (re-)Christianization of the continent
455          - Vandals sack Rome
476          - Romulus Augustulus deposed by Odoaker
?c.500       -  Mons Badonicus ('Arthur' defeats Saxons?)
c.550        - St David's mission to 'Wales'
560          - Bangor Abbey (Éireann) founded
563          - Columba founds Abbey at Iona
577          - West Saxons advance to Severn, defeat British at Deorham
597          - St Augustine (Augustinus) lands at Kent, founds
             Benedictine monastery at Cantwaraburg (Canterbury);
             - converts King Æthelbert (7th century: progress of
             Christianization; sometimes associated with violent conflicts;
             "mid-Saxon shuffle")
635          - St Aidan founds Lindisfarne monastery
657          - St Hild founds Streaneshalch (Whitby) monastery
c. 660       - Cædmon starts to write
664          - Synod of 'Whitby' (Streaneshalch)
685-88       - Wessex expands under Cædwalla to include 'Kent, Surrey &
             Sussex'
c.700        - Law codes
?c.700       - Beowulf composed
             - Lindisfarne Gospels
731          - Bede completes Historia Ecclestica Gentis Anglorum
c.783        - Offa's Dyke completed: separated Germanics from British
787          - 1st Danish raid
             - 'Norse' explosion: Davies 206: 1. "overpopulation encouraged
             the growth of a violent and divided society"; 2. "it pushed these
             same pirates to seek their fortunes overseas"; 3. "provoked mass
             emigration"; 4. unlike the Anglo-Saxons they now had ocean-
             going ships
             - n.b. Vikings, Danes and Normans were all 'Northmen', but not
             vice versa! ('Dane' cognate with 'thegn', i.e. warrior)
from c.800   - power struggles
             1.: between Danes/Norsemen and Anglo-Saxons
             2. between Anglo-Saxon kingdoms
c.832-60     - union of Picts & Scots to form most of later Scotland
c.840        - Norse found 'Dublin' (Irish Dubh Linn, 'black pool') &
             'Limerick' etc

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History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
                - Norse finally cut off Dalriada from Éire → consolidation of
                Scotia
847             - Kenneth MacAlpin king of Scots & Picts (Alba): dynasty of
                14 kings until 1034
                - destroyed last Pictish kings & imposed Gaelic culture
                - Norse occupied 'Shetland', 'Orkney' & Western Isles for many
                centuries; Lothian inhabited by Angles ('Saxonia' in Gael Latin
                chronicles); Strathclyde remained British
865             - Danish 'Great Army' lands
876             - Danish kingdom of Jorvik
877             - Wessex and Danes partition Mercia;
                - Danes defeat & kill Constantine I of Scots
878             - Ælfred of Wessex defeats Danes;
                - Guthrum is baptized
                - Danelaw (Danelagh): not political unit, but series of discrete
                areas; most definitions are post-Conquest
886             - Ælfred reconquers London
                - London: Wessex; mouth of 'Thames': Danelaw!
DAVIES 222:     Ælfred's achievements: 1. "assembled the scholarly and
                educational infrastructure for maintaining a permanent
                royal-sponsored cultural elite"; 2. "built up a
                comprehensive defence system" (>30 fortified burhs & fleet
                of 60-oar longships); 3. "engineered a complex
                amalgamation of West Saxon institutions with those of the
                overrun kingdom of Mercia. Law codes were integrated,
                territorial shires introduced"; 4. returned London to Mercia
                and otherwise was generous to Mercia, making it dependent
                on Wessex.
c.890           - Anglo-Saxon Chronicle begins
892             - new wave of Danish raids begins
893             - Ælfred builds navy
c. 900          - Alba unified under MacAlpin kings
910-20          - Edward & Æthelflæd reconquer most of Danelaw
916             - Viking attacks on Ireland renewed
918             - Edward of Wessex annexes Mercia

DAVIES 226f.:   "In reality it is doubtful whether any sense of an all-English
                identity could have emerged without the Viking impulse. It took
                the Vikings and the Danes to break the particularisms of the
                previous period, especially in Mercia and Northumbria, and to
                present the one remaining local dynasty, the House of Wessex,
                with a consolidated objective."

937             - Æthelstan defeats alliance of Scots, Norse & Strathclyde
                Britons/Welsh at 'Brunaburh' (= Bromborough/Merseyside?)
959             - Edgar king of Wessex: 1st king of 'Engla land' (but n.b. one
                of Edgar's law codes mentions "all the nation, whether
                Englishmen, Danes, or Britons")
973             - Edgar crowned at Bath, receives submission of British kings
980             - renewed Danish raids


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History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
991          - treaty between England & Normandy: Davies 230: Æthelred was
             "courting one band of barbarians to hold off the rest"
c. 1000      -10% of Engl. pop lived in towns; main towns: Hamwic
             (Southampton), Jorvik/Eoforwic (York), Lundenwic (London):
             trade routes to east & south, but increasingly north and thus
             farther east (Viking routes via Russia to orient);
             - villages beginning to develop: grants of bookland → tenant
             lands grouped around lord's hall
             - "The emergence of the fortified town and its attendant shire
             throughout midland England owes much to the threat posed by
             the Vikings." (P. STAFFORD HT Oct. 1986)
1014         - Brian Boru of Ireland's son Murchad defeats Vikings at
             Clontarf
1016         - Knútr (Canute) king of Denmark & England
             - divides kingdom into 4 earldoms (Northumbria, East Anglia,
             Mercia, Wessex) "reversing the centralizing drive of the West
             Saxon monarchs" (Davies 232)
1034         - Malcolm II †: end of MacAlpin dynasty
             - feud: grandson Duncan I (1034-40), nephew Macbeth (1040-
             57; pilgrimage to Rome 1050; imported first contingent of
             Norman knight to Scotland) & stepson Lulach (1057-8)
1039         - Gruffudd ap Llewelyn gains Gwynedd & Powys
1042         - Harthacnut † without viable heir;
             - Edward the Confessor: raised & educated in Normandy
1063         - Earl Harold Godwinson of Wessex & brother Tostig subdue
             Wales
1064         - Harold pays homage to Duke Willelm II ('the bastard') of
             Normandy
1065         - Northumbria revolts against earl Tostig: expelled with consent
             of Harold; offers services to Willelm of Normandy, then harries
             Wight, Kent, Lincolnshire
             - Westminster Abbey consecrated
1066         - Sept. Harold II Godwinson defeats Harald III Sigurdsson
             (Hardraada/Hardráði) & Tostig at Stamford Bridge;
             - Oct. Willelm defeats Harold at Hastings (Senlac): William I
             of England

             "The tenth and eleventh centuries are rightly regarded as the
             formative period in the structures of English government that
             would endure until almost modern times. Instead of falling
             victim to the power-struggle, as the apparatus of Frankish rule
             had done, these structures supplied the fruits of patronage that
             the Old English establishment competed for. In this light, it may
             be possible to understand the 1066 paradox of substantial
             continuity in machinery, but massive discontinuity of operating
             personnel. The English were used to upheaval at the top, to
             doing new men's bidding. By the time they found out that this
             was not an ordinary upheaval, it was too late." (P. WORMALD HT
             Feb. 1995)




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History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
             - William= great-great-great-grandson of Norse Göngu Hrolf
             (Rollo le Piéton/Rolf Walker)
             - in Normandy Norse had adopted French culturee & language
             - this time Normans imposed their adopted French culture on
             England: all but 2 tenants-in-chief from Normandy; entire ruling
             class of church & State spoke Norman-French
             - DAVIES 238f.: "Normandy was not a dependency of the English
             kings. It was a feudal duchy of France. And despite its
             monarchical status the Normans' Kingdom of England was an
             offshoot of Normandy."
1067         - 1st Welsh Marcher earldom: Hereford
             - Normans in effect divided Wales: Marchia Walliæ & Wallia
             Pura
1067-70      - English rebellions; 'harrying of the north'
1072         - Malcolm III Canmore pays homage to William
1075?        - Gregory VII: Dictatus Papæ (Investiture disput)
1078         - Tower of London begun
1079         - new Winchester Cathedral begun
1086         - Domesday survey
             I: summaries except Essex, Norfolk, Sussex; II: E, N & S in full
             (London & Winchester = Ø)
1090s        - conflicts with Welsh, Scots and own barons
1107         - investiture dispute settled in England (compromise: king gave
             up investiture, retained right to receive homage from bishops for
             estates)
1124         David I of Scotland (–53): brought up at English court as David
             fitzMalcolm; modelled administration on Anglo-Norman lines;
             introduced 1st Scottish coins
1128         - Empress Matilda (daughter of Henry I)  Geoffroy d'Anjou
1139-53      - civil war in England; result: Geoffroy d'Anjou or heir to
             succeed Stephen
1149         - Northumbria ceded to David of Scotland
1152         - Henri d'Anjou  Aliénor d'Aquitaine (divorced wife of Louis
             VII of France)
             - independent Irish metropolitan in Dublin (annoyed Pope)
1154         - Henri/Henry II founds Plantagenêt dynasty in England
             max: England, Cymru/Wales, Éire/Ireland, Normandie,
             Bretagne, Maine, Anjou, Touraine, Poitou, Auitaine, Gascogne,
             Toulouse (>2/3 modern France)
1155         - Papal bull Laudibiliter authorizes Henry II to conquer
             Ireland
1162         - Becket archbishop of Canterbury
1164         - Council & Constitutions of Clarendon;
             - Becket goes into exile
c.1167       - English scholars expelled from Paris & settle at Oxford
1169-72      - Cambro-Norman conquest of Ireland begins
             - Richard de Clare ('Strongbow') restores Diarmaid
             MacMurchada
1170         - Becket murdered
1171         - Diarmaid †, leaving Leinster to Richard de Clare
             - Henry II receives submission of Irish kings at Dublin

                                     7
History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
1173-4       - rebellion of sons against Henry II;
             - William I of Scotland invades northern England; defeated at
             Alnwick
1175         - Treaty of Windsor: Henry II recognizes Ruaidhrí Ua
             Conchubhair as high king of Ireland
1177         - Jehan/John Plantagenêt ('John Lackland') titular Lord of
             Ireland
c.1179       - grand assize introduced
1190         - Jews massacred at York
1190-92      - Richard I ('cœur de lion') on 3rd crusade ('93-'94 imprisoned in
             Germany & ransomed for 150,000 marks – 34 tons of gold)
1192         - Scotland's Church becomes 'Special Daughter of Rome'
             (Glasgow already 1175: reaction to Becket's †)
1199         - establishment of chancery rolls
1203-06      - Phillipe of France conquers Anjou, Maine, Bretagne &
             Normandy
1207         - John refuses to accept Stephen Langton as Archbishop of
             Canterbury
1208-14      - Interdict in England (exceptions: Xmas, Easter, Whit, Corpus
             X, Ascension; last rites)
1209         - William I of Scotland submits to John;
             - after riots at Oxford some students move to Cambridge
1215         - Magna Carta
             " No free man shall be taken or imprisoned, or dispossessed or
             outlawed or exiled or in any way ruined, nor will we go or send
             against him except by the lawful judgement of his peers or by
             the law of the land."
             Legislation that followed in 1970 left only four chapters of Magna Carta
             intact: chapters 1, 13 and 39 of King John’s Charter, and 37 of the 1225
             version. The first Chapter promised freedom for the English Church, and
             Chapter 13 (9 in the 1225 version), guaranteed the City of London its ancient
             liberties and free customs. Chapter 39 (29 in the 1225 Charter) was the key
             provision in Magna Carta, curbing the crown’s power to pursue individuals
             beyond the law. Chapter 37, found only in the 1225 Charter, contained a
             clause important for the perpetuity of Magna Carta’s liberties, ‘and if
             anything contrary to this [charter] is procured from anyone, it shall avail
             nothing and be held for nought’.
             - 1st Barons' War in England;
             - Alexander I of Scotland invades England
1216         - Treaty of Kingston-upon-Thames: John makes peace with
             France & barons
1218         - Jews in England required to wear yellow badges
1221         - Dominican & Franciscan friars in England
1258         - Provisions of Oxford: govt. reforms – king & council of 15 &
             12 barons, justiciar responsible to Parliament;
             - Llewelyn ap Gruffudd proclaims himself Prince of Wales
1259         - Provisions of Westminster: legal measures in the interest of the
             knightly class;
             - Treaty of Paris (Henry III & Louis IX) confirms loss of
             Angevin domains
1264         - Provisions of Oxford annulled (mise of Amiens): 2nd Barons'
             War;
             -  Lewes: Simon de Montfort virtual ruler of England

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History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
1265         - de Montfort's parliament;
             - de M. defeated & killed at Evesham; barons defeated at
             Axholme
1267         - Treaty of Montgomery recognizes Llewelyn ap G. as Prince of
             Wales
1276-7       - 1st Anglo-Welsh war
1284         - Prince Edouard/Edward born at Caernarfon: 1st English 'Prince
             of Wales'
1285         - Statute of Merchants: punishment for debtors, to encourage
             foreign merchants (–1863)
1290         - Edward I expels Jews from England
1291-2       - Edward I arbitrates 'Great Cause': 13 'competitors' for
             Scots throne – in favour of John Baliol / Jean de Bailleul
             - Edward asserts overlordship over Scotland
1295         - Model Parliament:
             two knights from each county, two burgesses from each
             borough, and two citizens from each city.
             Par4l. had grown out of Great Council (magnates) & Curia
             Regis (sometimes EIR had summoned knights & burgesses)
             - Franco-Scottish alliance
1296         - Edward I invades Scotland
1297         -  Stirling Bridge
1298         -  Falkirk
1299         - Magna Carta confirmed
1305         - Wallace executed
1306         - Robert de Brus/Bruce murders John Comyn de Badenoch and
             becomes king
1314         -  Bannockburn
1315         - famine in Scotland
             - Edward de Brus invades Ireland (High King –1318)
1320         - Declaration of Arbroath: Scot. Barons to Pope John XXII
             "For so long as there shall remain but one hundred of us alive,
             we will never consent to subject ourselves to the dominion of
             the English."
1321         - Civil war in England
1327         - Edward II deposed & killed
1328         - Treaty of Northampton: England recognizes Robert I
             independent king of Scotland
1330         - Edward III seizes power; dispute over rule in Gascony; EIIIR
             claims Fr. crown; Phillipe IV supported Scots
1337         - Hundred Years War begins
1340         - gold coinage
1346         -  Crécy (Engl.)
1347         - England captures Calais
1348         - Black Death reaches England
             - Order of the Garter
1349         - Black Death reaches Scotland
             - population density → forest clearance, intense farming for
             trade, trade itself: "golden age of bacteria" (HT 2005)
             c. 1/3 of europe's pop. (25m) †; England's pop. c.1400 = ½ x c.
             1300; c.1,000 villages depopulated

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History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
1351         - Statute of Labourers: employers not allowed to raise wages
             above pre-plague levels;
             - Statute of Provisors: Pope not allowed to appoint to English
             benefices
1353         - 1st Statute of Præmunire: appeals to Rome forbidden
1360         - English official language in courts
1366         - Statutes of Kilkenny: assimilation of Anglo-Normans to Irish
             banned (–1613)
1371         - Robert II Stewart
1381         - Peasants' Revolt
             - Wycliffe: Confessio
1388         - 'lords appellant': Merciless Parliament impeaches 5 of Richard
             II's courtiers
1399         - Henry Bolingbroke deposes Richard II → Henry IV
1400         - Owain Glyndŵr begins Welsh war of independence
1401         - Statute de heretico comburendo
             - 1st Lollard martyr burned
1406         - James I of Scotland captured by Engl. (–1424)
1411         - St Andrew's University
1415         - Anglo-French war renewed;  Agincourt (Engl.)
             - Council of Constance condemns Wycliffe of 267 heresies and
             demands that Jan Hus recant; he refuses and is burned at the
             stake
1431         - Jeanne d'Arc burned at Rouen
1449         - French take Rouen
1453         -  Castillon: end of Hundred Years War: Gascony →
             France
             - Sack of Constantinople by the Turks
1455         - Wars of Roses begin in England: long minority of HVIR and
             his weakness as a king had allowed bands of magnates to with
             private armies to dominate large parts of the country
1469         - Norway cedes Orkney & Shetland to Scotland
1474         - Caxton prints 1st English book in Bruges
1476         - William Caxton sets up printing press at Westminster
1485         -  Bosworth; Henry VII Tudor
1486         - Henry VII  Elizabeth of York
1493         - Treaty of Tordesillas: Pope divides World between Spain and
             Portugal for purpose of colonization
1494         - Poyning's Law: enactments of Irish Parliament have to be
             ratified at Westminster (–1782)
1501         - Papal bull orders the burning of any books questioning
             Church’s authority
             - Arthur Tudor Catherine of Aragon
1502         - Arthur †
1503         - Henry Tudor betrothed to Catherine of A.
             -Margaret Tudor James IV of Scotland
1505         - Julius II grants dispensation for Henry Tudor to marry
             brother's widow
1508:        - Chepman & Myllar's printing press, Edinburgh
1509         - Henry VIII accedes &  Catherine of Aragon
             - Colet founds St Paul's School

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History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
1511         - Engl. joins Holy League against France
1512         - England at war with France & Scotland
1513         -  Flodden: end of Scotland as a European power
1514         Peace with France; HVIIIR's sister Mary  Louis XII
1515         - Wolsey appointed Cardinal and Lord Chancellor of England
1516         - Mary Tudor born
1521         - Pope titles HVIIIR "Fidei defensor" for attacking Luther’s
             views of the sacraments
1526         - Tyndale's New Testament (1st printing of NT in English & 1st
             English translation of the scriptures from the Biblical Greek)
1527         - Sack of Rome by German and Spanish Imperial troops
             - Henry decides his marriage is unlawful
1529         - Legatine Court deliberates
             - HVIIIR dismisses Wolsey; T. More → Lord Chancellor (–
             1532)
             - Reformation Parliament (–1536)
             - Peace of Cambrai
1530         - Wolsey †
1531         - Thomas Cromwell → privy councillor
1532         - English clergy submit to HVIIIR
             - More resigns as Chancellor
1533         - HVIIIR’s marriage to Catherine declared void; Anne
             Boleyn crowned Queen; Elizabeth born
1534         - Act of Succession; Act of Supremacy etc.
             - Geraldine revolt in Ireland (–1536)
1535         - "Coverdale Bible" 1st printing of entire Bible in English
             - More and Cardinal Fisher beheaded
1536         - Catherine of Aragon †
             - Act Extinguishing the Authority of the Bishop of Rome
             - dissolution of lesser monasteries
             - Anne Boleyn beheaded; Henry  Jane Seymour
             - Ten Articles (fairly Lutheran)
             - Tyndale executed
             - Pilgrimage of Grace (–37)
             - Wales annexed to England
1537         - Edward Tudor born
             - Matthew Bible; Bishop's Book
1539         - Great Bible;
             - Six Articles (practically Catholic)
             - HVIIIR  and divorces Anne of Cleves, executes Cromwell,
             - HVIIIR  Katherine Howard.
             - greater monasteries dissolved
1541         - John Knox establishes Calvinist Reformation in Scotland
             - HVIIIR assumes titles of King of Ireland and Head of Irish
             Church
1542         - Catherine Howard executed
             - England & Scotland at War:  Solway Moss (Engl.)
1543         - HVIIIR  Catherine Parr
             - King's Book published
             - Alliance between Henry and Charles V (Holy Roman
             Emperor) against Scotland and France

                                    11
History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
1544         - Council of Trent begins
1546         - Anglo-French peace
             - Cardinal Beaton assassinated;
             - 1st Scottish Church Council
1547         - HVIIIR †
1549         - 1st Book of Common Prayer (Cranmer)
1552         - 2nd Book of Common Prayer
1553         - Edward VI †; Mary I
             - 42 Articles
1554         - Mary I  Philip (later Philip II of Spain);
             - Catholicism restored in England Protestant martyrs
             (Latimer, Ridley & Cranmer)
             - Muscovy Company
1556         - Cranmer burned at the stake
1557         - Anglo-French war
             - Geneva New Testament
1558         - England loses Calais
             - Mary I †; Elizabeth I
             - Mary Stewart  Dauphin
1559         - Act of Supremacy;
             - Act of Uniformity
             - war in Scotland: queen Regent (Marie de Guise) & France
             against England & reformers (–1560)
1560         - Geneva Bible (complete OT & NT) 1st Bible with verse
             divisions
             - Treaty of Berwick: alliance between English & Scottish
             reformers
1561         - Mary Stuart returns to Scotland
1562         - Hawkins sells African slaves in West Indies
1563         - Thirty-Nine Articles
             - John Foxe: Acts & Monuments ("Foxe’s Book of Martyrs")
1565         - Mary Stuart Darnley; Moray's rebellion suppressed
1566         - Tobacco probably introduced to England
             - Rizzio murdered
1567         - Darnley murdered; Mary Stuart  Bothwell
             - Mary Stuart overthrown; James VI
1568         - Mary Stuart seeks exile in England;
             - attempts to colonize Ireland with Protestants (plantation);
             - English College at Douai (to train RC priests)
             - Spanish attack Hawkins at San Juan de Ulloa; English seize
             Spanish treasure
1569         - Northern Rebellion
1570         - Pope excommunicates Elizabeth
1571         - Admonitions to Parliament
1577         - Alliance between England and Netherlands
1580:        - Drake circumnavigates world
             - Levant Company founded
1580s        - RC plots and anti-Catholic reaction
             - Puritans also persecuted



                                    12
History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
1585         - Leicester leads expedition to Netherlands
             (Prot. Engl. & Neth. ↔ RC Spain)
             - Spain seizes Engl. ships; Drake raids Spanish colonies
1586:        - Babington Plot
             - James VI & Elizabeth I conclude league for mutual defence
1587         - Mary Stuart executed
1588         - Spanish Armada
1590         - Presbyterian leaders arrested
             - Trinity College Dublin
1594         - O'Neill's revolt / Tyrone's rebellion in Ulster
             - Bad harvests begin in England
1595:        - Lambeth Articles
             - Ralegh's 1st Eldorado expedition
1598         - France abandons English alliance;
             - Anglo-Dutch alliance against Spain
1600         - East India Company
1601         - Essex's rebellion
             - Poor Law Act
1603         O'Neill's rebellion suppressed
             - Elizabeth I †; James VI proclaimed King of England,
             Scotland, France and Ireland, as James I
1604         Apology of Commons: outlines Parliamentary privileges
             - Hampton Court Conference
             - peace with Spain
1605         - "Gunpowder plot"
1609         - 'flight of the earls' → plantation of Ulster
             - Virginia
             - Parliament rejects proposals for union between England and
             Scotland
1611         - King James Bible
             - English and Scottish Protestant colonists settle in Ulster
1613         - Elizabeth Stuart  Kurfürst von der Pfalz
1617         - 1st transportation of criminals (to Virginia)
             - Ralegh's 2nd Eldorado expedition
1617-29      - Ascendency of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham
1618         - Ralegh executed
1619-22      - Banqueting House: 1st major royal building since HVIIIR
1620         - "Pilgrims" land at 'Plymouth Rock', Massachusetts, in the
             "Mayflower"; found New Plymouth
1624-30      - Anglo-Spanish war
1626-9       - Anglo-French war
1626         - Impeachment of Buckingham
1628         - Petition of Right: forbade taxation without parliamentary
             consent, arbitrary imprisonment, forced billeting & martial law
             - CIR insisted he was confirming old rights, not granting new
             ones
             - Harvey: Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in
             Animalibus
1629         - CIR dissolves Parliament (–1640)
1630         - Large-scale emigration to Massachusetts begins
1630-4       - Ship Money case

                                    13
History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
1633         - CIR crowned in Edinburgh
1637         - Prayer-book riots in Scotland
1637-40      - CIR's government in Scotland breaks down:
             - beginning of Wars of 3 Kingdoms
1638:        - National Covenant in Edinburgh
1639         - Treaty of Berwick ends 1st Bishops War
1640         - Short Parliament;
             - 2nd Bishops War; treaty of Ripon
             - Root and Branch petition: to abolish episcopacy
             - Strafford impeached
1641         - Triennial Act
             - Star Chamber abolished
             - Ship money illegal
             - Grand Remonstrance: Parl. to approve ministers; power of
             Bishops to be curbed
             - Irish rebellion (–1652)
1642         - CIR tries to arrest 5 members
             - Civil War
             - Public theatres closed
1643         - Solemn League and Covenant between Scots & English
             Parliaments
              Edgehill
1645         - Self-Denying Ordinance: no MP or peer to hold Army
             commission (Cromwell reappointed after successes);
             - New Model Army
             - Laud executed; Prayer Book forbidden
1646         - CIR surrenders to Scots
1647         - CIR handed to English; escapes
             - Westminster Assembly drafts Westminster Confession of Faith
             and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms
1648         - Scots invade England; defeated by Cromwell at  Preston
             Pride purges Parl. → Rump
1649         - CIR executed; Commonwealth
             - Scottish Estates declare CIIR
             - Massacres of Drogheda & Wexford
1650         - Scots defeated by Cromwell at  Dunbar
             - adultery = capital offence; fines for swearing
1651         - CIIR crowned at Scone; invades England, defeated at 
             Worcester
             - Navigation Act
1652         - Act of Settlement: Irish leaders & supporters are killed or
             forfeit part of their lands
             - 1st Anglo-Dutch War (–1654)
1653         - Cromwell dismisses Rump
             - Barebones Parl.
             - Instrument of Govt. (Constitution); OC = Lord Protector;
             Council of State
1655         - Rule of the Major Generals
             - Jamaica captured from Spain
1656         - Anglo-Spanish War


                                    14
History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
1657          - Humble Petition & Advice: (constitutional proposal: OC
              rejected title "king"; given right to choose successor, nominate
              an "Other House"; powers of Council of State curbed)
1658          OC †; Rump recalled; Commonwealth re-established
1660          - Monck restores Long Parl.
              - CIIR: Declaration of Breda
              - Restoration
              - Convention Parl.; Act of Indemnity & Oblivion; Navigation
              Act
1661-5        - "Clarendon Code"
              -   1661 Corporation Act: dissenters excluded from municipal office
                  (→1828)
              -   1662 Act of Uniformity: revised Prayer Book & liturgy = compulsory
                  (c. 2000 clergy resigned livings)
              -   1664 Conventicle Act: conventicles of >5 not of one household forbidden
                  (renewed 1670)
              -   1665 Five Mile Act: nonconformist ministers to take oath of non-
                  resistance or not go within 5 miles of former livings or corporate towns;
                  not to teach in schools (→1812)
              also:
              -   1673 Test Act: nonconformists excluded from civil & military office
                  →1829

1662         - Royal Society
             - Dunkirk sold to France
1665         - Plague
             - 2nd Anglo-Dutch war (–1667)
1666         - Great Fire of London
c. 1667-c.74 - "Cabal"
1668         Triple Alliance (Engl., Netherl., Sweden) against France
1670         - Secret Treaty of Dover between CIIR &Louis XIV to restore
             Roman Catholicism to England
1672         CIIR: Declaration of Indulgence
             - 3rd Anglo-Dutch war (–1674)
1673         - Test Act: nonconformists excluded from civil & military office
             (–1829
1675         - Wren starts St Pauls
1678         - 'Popish Plot' (fictitious assassination plot)
1679         - Habeas Corpus
             - Exclusion crisis (–1681)
             - Covenanters defeated at  Bothwell Bridge
1681-85      CIIR rules without Parl.
1683         - Rye House Plot (assassination conspiracy)
1685         - Monmouth's Rebellion (Judge Jeffries)
1686         - 'Godden vs. Hales': confirmed King's 'right' to dispense with
             Test Act (Hales = Catholic army officer; Hales = his servant)
1687         - JIIR: 1st Declaration of Indulgence
             - Newton: Principia
1688         - JIIR: 2nd Declaration of Indulgence; 7 bishops imprisoned
             'Glorious Revolution'
1689         - Declaration of Rights
             - Bill of Rights;
             - Toleration Act

                                           15
History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
             - Scottish Royalists defeated  Killiecrankie; JIIR besieges
             [London]Derry
             - Grand Alliance (Austria, Netherlands, Spain, various German states)
             against France: War of the League of Augsburg/Pfälzer
             Erbfolgekrieg (–1697)
1690         -  the Boyne
1691         - Treaty of Limerick
1692         - National Debt
1694         - Triennial Act
             - Bank of England: only joint-stock bank in Engl. & Wales –
             1826; privatized 1946
1695         - Bank of Scotland
             - Darién enterprise (–1699)
             - Licensing Act ('62 etc.) expires
1697         - Treaty of Ryswick
1698         - Savery: 1st steam engine
1701         - Act of Settlement: Hanoverian succession;
             - Louis XIV recognizes Old Pretender as king
             - Tull: seed drill
from c. 1700 Agrarian Revoltion
1702         - War of the Spanish Succession (–1714)
1703         - Methuen treaty (Engl. & Portugal)
1704         -  Blenheim (Blindheim); Gibraltar
             - Newton: Opticks
1707         - Act of Union
1708         - Last royal veto of a bill (to reorganize Scottish militia)
1709         - Darby: coke-smelting of iron at Coalbrookdale
1711         - Act of Occasional Conformity (–1719)
             - South Sea Company
1712         - Newcomen: steam engine
1713         - Treaties of Utrecht: Hudson Bay, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland;
             Gibraltar, Minorca
1715         - 1st Jacobite rebellion
1716         - Septennial Act
1717         - Sinking fund
             - GIR dismisses Townshend; Walpole resigns
             - Triple Alliance (GB, F, NL; 1718: + A) against Spain
1719         - Occasional Conformity & Schism Acts repealed
1720         - South Sea Bubble bursts
1721         - Walpole returns to office
1728         - Irish Catholics lose vote
1731         - Tull: Horse-Houghing [Hoeing] Husbandry
1733         - John Kay: flying shuttle
1736         - Porteous riots
1736         - Witchcraft abolished as a crime (last execution 1712)
1739         - War of Jenkins' Ear
1740         - War of the Austrian Succession (–1748)
1742         - Walpole resigns
1744         - Broad-bottomed administration
1745         - 2nd Jacobite rebellion
1746         -  Culloden

                                        16
History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
1751         - Clive takes Arcot
1752         - Gregorian calendar
1753         - Hardwicke's Marriage Act
1755         - French expelled from Nova Scotia
1756         - Pitt the Elder PM
             - 7 Years War (–1763)
             - 'Black Hole of Calcutta'
1757         -  Plassey
1758         - Blackstone: Commentaries
1759         - Wedgwood: Burslem pottery
1760         - Conquest of Canada complete
             - Carron ironworks
from c. 1760 Industrial Revolution
1761         - Bridgewater canal
1763         - Treaty of Paris: GB = leading world power
             (Quebec, Cape Breton Island, Grenada, St Vincent, Dominica,
             Tobago, Senegal, Florida, Minorca from France; Spain: Havana
             from GB, Louisiana west of Miss. from France)
1765         - Stamp Act (America)
             - Hargreaves: spinning jenny
1766         - Declaratory Act: GB has the right to tax colonies
1767         - Townshend duties (America: lead, glass, paper, painters'
             colours, tea; –1770 except tea)
1768         - Royal Academy; Encyclopædia Britannica
1769         - Cook: steam engine pat.
             - Arkwright: water frame pat.: strong yarn for warp; jenny
             produced weaker yarn for weft
             - Wedgwood: Etruria works
1772         - Warren Hastings 1st Gov. Gen. of Bengal
1773         - Regulating Act: tried to subject EIC appointment of Gov.
             Gen. to govt. control
             - Boston Tea Party
1774         - Priestley: oxygen
1776         - America: Declaration of Independence
             - A. Smith: The Wealth of Nations
1779         - Samuel Crompton: spinning mule
             - Abraham Darby III: Coalbrookdale Bridge
1780         - Gordon Riots
1781         -  Yorktown
1782         - Poyning's Law (1494) repealed
1783         - Pitt the Younger PM
             - Treaty of Paris (USA – GB)
             - Bank of Ireland
1784         - 1st India Act: dual control EIC/Govt. ( further Acts limited
             EIC –1858)
1785         - Daily Universal Register (from 1788 = the Times)
1788         - W. Hastings impeached (acquitted 1795);
             - regency crisis
1791         - Constitutional Act: Upper & Lower Canada
1793         - GB joins war against France
             1802 - Treaty of Amiens

                                    17
History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
1793             - Irish receive more civil rights
1795             - Seditious Meetings & Treasonable Practices Acts
                 - Speenhamland System
                 - Wolf Tone leaves Ireland
1796             - Jenner: cowpox vaccination
1797             - Nore & Spithead mutinies
                 - Trinidad
1798             - Irish rebellion
                 - Malthus: Essay on the Principle of Population
1799             - 1st Combination Act
                 - Income Tax
                 - R. Owen: New Lanark
1800             - 2nd Combination Act; Census Act;
1801             - Union with Ireland
1802             - West India Docks
                 - Royal Military College
                 - Edinburgh Rev.
                 - Cobbett: Political Register
1803             - Caledonian Canal begun
                 - Napoleonic wars begin
                 1805 - Trafalgar
                 1806 - continental system (=> Anglo-American War '12)
                 1808 - Peninsular War (–1813)
                 1815 - Waterloo

1805             - Grand Junction Canal completed
1806             - East India Docks
                 - GB takes Cape of Good Hope
1807             - Slave trade abolished

Post-war
ideas of Fr. Rev.; mutinies 1797;
social conflicts increased by demobilization & economic slump
Luddism from 1811, renewed from 1816
Combination Acts 1799/1800 repealed 1824 (they had forbidden employers'
       combinations too, but never used in that way)
Corn Laws 1815 (all imports prohibited when price below 80/- per quarter)
Income tax (1799) abolished 1816: tax burden on consumers
1819 Peterloo (50-80,000 present; † 11; hundreds injured)
Six Acts: forbidding meetings >50; making prosecution easier & quicker;
     tightening libel; making newspapers more expensive; tightening
     regulations on possession & use of arms

Social Legislation
dogma of economic liberalism + heavy taxation of wars had led to unashamed
     exploitation
1795 Speenhamland System
1802: no night work for children, daywork limited to 12 hrs (exclusive of
     meals; cotton mills only); regulated accommodation & clothing; provided
     for basic schooling


                                             18
History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
1819: no children under 9; under 18 limited to 12 hrs. (exclusive of meals;
     cotton mills only)
1833: breakthrough: 48-hr week aged 9-13; 68-hr week under 18; no under-9s
     in most textile mills
     (men's working hours regulated 1908: 8 hrs/day in mines)
1834 new Poor Law: workhouses
1842: women & under-10s not underground in mines
1850: inspection of mines; 1851 training for inspectors; later safety regulations
     introduced
1844, 1847: 10-hr day for women & under-18s;
1853: textile factories open 12 hrs/day; gradually extended to other industries

Railway Age/2nd Ind. Rev

Politics/Parliamentary Reform
1830 140/658 seats = rotten boroughs
1829 Catholic Emancipation
Reform 1832 (WIVR overcame Lords' resistance): disenfranchised rotten
      boroughs, redistributed seats; increased electorate by 50% in Engl. &
      Wales, mainly in towns: prosperous middle class (c. 20% English adult
      males); Scotl. & Irel. got a few more seats each & electorate slightly
      extended.
1834 Peel, Tamworth Manifesto: 'Conservative'
      (Whigs gradually evolved into Liberals)
Chartism (1838-48):
      1. annual parliaments (/); 2. universal male suffrage (1918); 3. the ballot (1872); 4. no
      property qualifications for members of Parliament (?); 5. payment of members (1911);
      6. equal electoral districts (1885/1948)
Corn Laws repealed 1846 (Peel's Tory govt. forced by public pressure →
     cheaper food
 nd
2 Reform1867: new Conservative govt. took through Whig project: reduced
     property qualification for voters, doubled electorate to about 2m
 rd
3 Reform 1884 Gladstone (W) extended household franchise to counties 3m
     → 5m

[This is where I stopped the lecture. What follows is a draught of what I would
      have carried on with, if I had had time:]

Empire
India: -Expansion partly by conquest, partly by annexation when princes
      died without heirs (native principalities survived until 1947)
      - superstructure (roads, canals, railways, hospitals, schools)
      - but destroyed native textile manufacture by competition & allowed
      native irrigation systems to decay through suppressing social structures
      - 'Mutiny' '57 => crown colony '58
      (Crimean War)
Africa:
      - Exploration 1780-1880 (Mungo Park, David Livingstone, Richard
      Burton)
      - Partition: Belgium claimed Congo => scramble
      Berlin Conference 1884-5


                                              19
History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
     - Cecil Rhodes aimed to have British rule from Cape of good Hope to
     Cairo
Boer Wars 1. 1880-1; 2. 1899-1902
     - provoked by British
     - Boers used guerrilla tactics, British retaliated with scorched-earth
     policy & concentration camps for women and children
     - 500,000 British troops beat 90,000 Boers
NZ: -Treaty of Waitangi 1840 (to pre-empt French!; enforced 1980s!)
WI: - fairly depressed time

Irish Question
a) Coercion Acts to keep order ('33, '47, '71, '81, '82, '87)
      terrorism: Phoenix Park murders '82
b) concessionary legislation, especially Land Acts
      ('70, '81, '85, '91, '03: fair rent, fixed tenure, free sale)
CofE disestablished '69
Irish Home Rule Party, Parnell
Gladstone's 1st H-R bill '86

Economics
Great Exhibition 1851: workshop of the world
      - 45% of world industrial production 1845; 1880: 30%
        1881: 44% workforce in industry or industry-related occupations
          (USA: 26%; Ger: 36)
        1881: 13% in agriculture
          (USA: 52; Ger: 43%)
     - causes: technical advances; labour scarcity in Napoleonic wars;
     "response to efficient artisan production in other parts of the world"
     (France & India)
     - n.b. since 1680 had a flexible capital market: investment
     - protection of trade by the Royal Navy
     - living standards often lower than those of workers in colonies!
     - UK forced free trade on other, weaker countries
     (A.C.Bayley 2004:173ff.)
Trade Unions:
     - Combination Acts repealed 1824-5
       - R. Owen Grand National Consolidated Trades Union 1833
       - struggle (Tolpuddle Martyrs '34)
     - 1872 TU Act
Economic competition: Germany, USA

Woman Question
M. Wollstonecraft 1792 A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
J.S. Mill 1867 debate on female suffrage; '69 The Subjection of Women
Eleanor Marx-Aveling 1881: The Woman Question
VR antifeminist!
F. Nightingale, M. Seacole, G. Eliot
Married Women's Property Acts (1870: keep earnings; 1882: keep property)
1903 Emmeline Pankhurst: 'Women's Social & Political Union' → suffragettes

Religious crisis:
18C Methodist Revival → evangelicalism

                                           20
History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
Oxford Movement: conflict
C. Lyell: Principles of Geology 1830; Higher Criticism (D. Strauß, E. Renan,
      G. Eliot; C. Darwin: Origin of Species 1859)
=> relaxation of inner-church conflict in the face of growing agnosticism (T.
      Huxley) & atheism

in sum: general air of crisis & conflict after 1870

Turn of the century
Golden Age passed
      - increase in social tension & conflict
         (also racism)
      - growth of socialist movements: SDF 1881; ILP '93; LRC '00
      - 1906: 26 MPs → Labour Party
      - by this time industrial & trade interests → Con. P., Liberals gradually
      declining
mention Victoria(n age) here
Indian Empire 1876
1870 Education Act: universal elementary education Engl. & Wales (18/19C
      education more widespread in Scotland!); school boards; compulsory
      1880; free 1891 (secondary remained voluntary & private)
      - 1918 compulsory to 14
State welfare (pensions, health insurance, education): UK behind Germany &
      some of its own colonies/dominions!

WW I
Entente Cordiale 1904; Anglo-Russian Entente '07
UK entered to defend Belgium
Results for UK:
     - German territories in Africa (Tanganyika)
     - Iraq, Palestine, Transjordan
     - Indian provinces given self-govt. (restricted franchise); Amritsar gave
     INC a boost
     - social legislation (e.g. slum clearance)
     - female suffrage (≥30; ≥21: 1928); 1st woman MP Constance Gore-Booth,
      Countess Markiewicz (→Dáil Éireann with 72 others)

Ireland
Home Rule Act 1914 (Passed under terms of Parl. Act 1911); effect postponed
      until after war
Easter Rising 1916 (German help sought; 15 leaders executed)
1919 Dáil Éireann (Assembly of Ireland); 1920 Govt. of Ireland Act => civil
      war / Anglo-Irish war, Black & Tans etc.
1922 Irish Free State (64:57; self-governing dominion within empire) &
      Northern Ireland (part of UK);
      - Eamon De Valera & othersdid not accept this: civil war continued
      - founded Fianna Fáil (soldiers of destiny); won election 1932;
left Commonwealth 1937: Éire


Depression

                                          21
History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
inflation & unemployment after WW I
General Strike 1926 => Trade Disputes & Trade Union Act 1927 (1st anti-
       union legislation since 1824!)
1st Labour Govt. 1924 (minority, short); again 1929
       all attempts at more equitable social policy were defeated by the slump;
       Cabinet resigned '31: 'National' (coalition) govt. with Cons. majority

Munich, WW II; Coalition
UK not involved in Spanish war, but many Britons fought on the Republican
       side.
Appeasement (British fascists, support for Hitler in high places)
1938 Neville Chamberlain: "Czechoslovakia is a small country in central
       Europe about which we know very little"; "Peace in our time"
3rd Sept 1939 decl. war
1940 Churchill PM ('39 1st Ld Adm.)
Phoney war; Dunkirk 6/40; Battle of Britain 7-10/40
Battle of the Atlantic '39-'43
North Africa, Middle East;
Japan conquered HK & Singapore '41; many prisoners
Italian campaign '43
D-Day etc.

Welfare state
Beveridge Report (economist, Liberal MP) 1942: comprehensive system of
      social insurance for all
Education Act 1944: free education to 15 for all
Cons. lost '45 election → Labour (C. Attlee)
rationing introduced '46–'54; general austerity programme
NHS 1948: all treatment free on delivery without discrimination
      - prescription charges '51 to pay for Korean war: Bevan & Wilson
      resigned => election → Cons. (Churchill)
nationalization:
      - 1946: B of E, radio, aviation, coal
      - 1947: electricity, railways, road transport
      - 1948: gas
      - 1949: steel
      - 1953 road transport & steel reprivatized


Commonwealth: independence; immigration
Imperial Conference 1926: autonomous equal partners
Statute of Westminster 1931: 'British [–'46] Commonwealth of Nations'; UK
      Parl. no longer to legislate for a dominion without its consent, Crown to
      annul dominion Act
      - Aus, NZ, Can, SA (left 1961, rejoined 1994)
Ottawa Conference 1932: Imperial preference
1935 all Indian provinces got full representative, elected govts. (30m voters);
      viceroy retained veto, but agreed not to use it
      - Independence (partition) 1947
Mau-Mau rebellion '52-'56 ('60?)
      "Mau Mau supporters killed at least 2000 African civilians and inflicted some 200

                                           22
History of Britain: Brief Chronology
J. Fanning, IfAA, Summer Semester 2006
     casualties on the army and police. In all, 32 white settlers died in the rebellion. For their
     part, the British hanged more than 1000 Kikuyu, detained at least 150,000 and,
     according to official figures, killed around 12,000 in combat, though the real figure, in
     David Anderson’s view, is ‘likely to have been more than 20,000’. In addition, Caroline
     Elkins claims, up to 100,000 died in the detention camps." (Bernard Porter, LRB March
     2005)
progress of independence (numbers of those in Commonwealth: a few left!):
     1940s: 3; 1950s: 2; 1960s: 20; 1970s; 12; 1980s: 6; 1990s: 4;
     14 dependent territories
'Windrush' 1948; increasing immigration esp. '60s (Uganda, Amin)
     Oakland p.47 recent figures on ethnic minorities

International relations
Churchill 1946: U.S.E., implicitly not including UK
1940s UK involved in Marshall Plan, GATT, Hague Congress, Council of
      Europe, NATO
1950s not involved in ECSC or EEC, but WEU (Commonwealth; sovereignty)
Cold War: Berlin, Korea
1960 EFTA (A, DK, N, P, S, CH, GB)
1961 applied to join EEC; French veto '63 (Polaris affair)
2nd appl. & veto 1967
Joined 1973 (Heath); confirmed 1975 (Wilson2)
(more on 7th June)

Northern Ireland
trad. working class mainly RC, bourgeoisie mainly Prot.; Prot. areas favoured
       with subsidies etc.
latge '60s Civil Right Movement → extreme Unionist reaction
1969 army
1970 IRA armed conflict
1972 direct rule (Stormont suspended)

Thatcher (1979-90) & Major ('90-'97)
1970s fierce prolonged labour disputes; 1979 strikes brought down Callaghan
      Govt.
MT: economic (neo-)liberalism, monetarism (slow, steady growth in money
      supply => growth in economy; proved wrong by developments in '80s),
      privatization, nationalism (anti-Europe),
      "There is no thing as society; there are only individuals"
Falklands War 1982

New Labour
won 1997 election by giving up any remaining commitment to socialist ideals,
     accepted and continued privatization




                                              23

								
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