"8th Grade Science Curriculum Map"
8th Grade Science Curriculum Map Revised August 2008 Unit One Focus Standards for Objectives - Main points and Textbook Pages Unit Vocabulary - 8th Grade Physical concepts that should be mastered And Students should know 25 Teaching Days Science. by all students. Labs or Demos definition and example for each word. Part 1 Section 9 Part I: Scientific Method Chapter 1 Hypothesis Standards 9.0: a-g Scientific progress is 1. Know that a hypothesis is a Pages: Scientific Variable made by asking statement to be tested. Method 1-15 & Control (control group) Investigation and meaningful questions 2. Understand that all scientists 30-31 Observations Experimentation and conducting use the metric system. Metric 16 – 23 & Prediction careful investigations. 3. Know that the metric system is 28-29 Theory Scientific Method 9a. Plan and conduct also called the SI system or SI Temperature 26 Law 7 Days an experiment to test units. Graphs 34 – 41 Linear And a hypothesis. 4. Know the basic units of Lab Safety 43-47 Nonlinear Metric System 9b. Evaluate the measure: meter, liter, gram, and and page 651 Reproducibility 8 Days accuracy and Celsius. Evaluate reproducibility of 5. Know how to read a metric Scientific Method Temperature data. ruler. Labs Triple Beam Balance 9c. Distinguish 6. Construction of graphs: bar, 1. Temperature of Grams between variable and line, and pie. water lab Meters controlled parameters 7. Know independent variable and 2. Spaghetti lab Liters in a test. dependent variable. Centimeters 9d. Linear graphs 8. Distinguish between linear and Metric Labs Results have a constant slope non-linear relationships. 1. Boy vs. Girl Conclusions and use y=kx. Height Lab Communicate 9e. Construct graphs Testable from data and make Units of Measure quantitative Scientific Method statements about the Experiment relationships between Data the variables. Calculations 9f. Apply mathematic Graphs relationships to Kilometer determine a missing Centimeter quantity such as in the Millimeter density and speed Liter formulas. Milliliter 9g. Distinguish Kilogram between linear and Gram nonlinear Celsius relationships on a graph. Part 2 8.a Students know Part II: Density Chapters 1 & 11 Mass Standard 8.0:a-b density is mass per 1. Know the density formula and Pages 24-25 & Volume Density and Buoyancy unit of volume. density triangle. 424-429 Area (surface area) 10 Days 8b. Calculate the 2. Understand density word Displacement density of objects problems. Density Labs Graduated Cylinder Benchmark #1 on from mass and 3. Compare objects that are very 1. Marble Lab Over-Flow Cans Oct 16 & 17 volume: solids and dense to objects with low density. 2. Density of Length liquids and those 4. Know that density never Water Cubic having irregular or changes for a substance!!! A small 3. Density of Weight regular shapes. piece of wood has the same density Objects Lab Heavy 8c. Buoyant force on as a large piece. Cutting a board in 4. Density of Light an object in a fluid is half does not change its density. Pennies (pre and Dense an upward force equal 5. Density is a physical property post 1982) Buoyancy to the weight of the of a substance. Buoyant Force fluid the object has 6. Understand why the buoyant Demos Float displaced. force is the cause for floating 1. Metal Balls – Sink 8d. Students know objects. hollow vs. solid. Gravity how to predict 7. Compare buoyant force to the 2. Soap bubbles whether an object will force of gravity. over dry ice. float or sink. 8. Solids, liquids, and gases have 3. Metal block & distinct densities. foam block. 9. Helium balloons float due to buoyant force. 10. Predict whether an object will float or sink based on density. 11. Compare the density of one object or substance to another. Unit two Focus Standards Objectives Textbook Unit Vocabulary 23 Teaching Days And Labs Part 1 1a. Students know 1. Speed is calculated using time Chapters 9 Motion Standards 1.0:a-f position is defined in and distance. Motion & Energy Speed relation to some Pages: Average speed Motion – Speed choice of a standard 2. Explain that scientists can use Motion basics Instantaneous Speed 13 Days reference point and different units for speed, time, and 338-341 Constant Speed set of reference distance. Speed & Velocity Time directions. 342-347 Distance 1.b Students know 3. Know differences between Acceleration Displacement that average speed is speed, velocity, and acceleration. 350-355 Reference Point the total distance Position traveled divided by 4. Speed can be slow or fast! Speed Labs Acceleration the total time elapsed 1. Toy Car Lab Velocity and that the speed of 5. Graphs showing speed vs. time 2. Marble Ramp Average Velocity an object along the and distance vs. time. Lab Vector path traveled can 3. Acceleration Direction vary. Lab (using the long Magnitude 1c. Students can 6. Student should master the use ramp) Friction solve problems of the speed triangle. 4. Walking vs. Inertia involving distance, Running Lab Momentum time, and average speed. 1d. Velocity of an object is described by specifying both speed and the direction of the object. 1e. A change in velocity may be due to changes in speed, direction, or both. 1f. Students know how to interpret graphs of position versus time and graphs of speed versus time for motion in a single direction. Part 2 2a. Students know a 1. Students know the four types of Chapters 10 Force Standards 2.0 a-g force has both friction: static, sliding, rolling, & Pages Push direction and fluid. Forces 374-378 Pull Forces magnitude. Friction & Gravity Net Force 10 Days 2b. Students know 2. The force of gravity. 380-388 Balanced Forces when an object is Newton’s Laws Unbalance Forces Benchmark #2 subject to two or more 3. Elastic Forces compare & 389-399 Newtons (N) as a unit Nov 20 & 21 forces at once, the contrast compression vs. tension. Gravitational Force result is the Forces Labs Electromagnetic Force cumulative effect of 4. Balanced vs. Unbalanced 1. Rolling vs. Strong Nuclear Force all the forces. Sliding Friction Weak Nuclear Force 2c. Students know 5. How mass can affect the motion 2. Shoe Lab Elastic when the forces on an of an object. 3. Ramps with Tension object are balanced, different surfaces Compression the motion of the 6. Forces are measured in units Centripetal Force object does not called Newtons (N). Buoyant Forces change. Weight 2.d Students know 7. Explain that one Newton (1N) Friction how to identify can be written as 1 kg - m/s/s. Velocity separately the two or Mass more forces that are 8. Definition of a force. Spring Scale acting on a single static object, including gravity, elastic forces due to tension or compression in matter, and friction. 2.e Students know that when the forces on an object are unbalanced, the object will change its velocity (that is, it will speed up, slow down, or change direction). 2.f Students know the greater the mass of an object, the more force is needed to achieve the same rate of change in motion. 2g. Students know the role of gravity in forming and maintaining the shapes of planets, stars, and the solar system. Unit Three Focus Standards Objectives Textbook Unit Vocabulary 30 Teaching Days And Labs Part 1 3.a Students know the 1. All matter has mass and Chapters: Matter Standards 3.0: a -f structure of the atom volume. Chapter 2 Endothermic and know it is 2. Matter is made of atoms. The Nature of Exothermic States of Matter composed of protons, 3. Matter can change state: solid, Matter Substance Endothermic neutrons and liquid, gas, and plasma. Pages 58 – 65 and Element Exothermic electrons. 4. The substance does not change 69-70 & 74 Protons 15 Days 3b. Students know as it undergoes changes of state. Chapter 3 Neutrons that compounds are 5. Endothermic change is when Solids, liquids and Nucleus formed by combining energy is absorbed by a substance gases Electrons Part 2 two or more different or reaction. Pages 91 – 101 Electron Clouds Elements – Atoms – elements and that 6. Exothermic change is when Chapter 4 Valence Electrons and Compounds compounds have energy is released by a substance Periodic Table Solids 15 Days properties that are or reaction. Pages 126 - 128 Liquids different from their 7. Atoms form molecules and Gases constituent elements. unique compounds. Plasma 3c. Students know 8. Clarify the differences between Chapter 6 Vibrate Benchmark #3 atoms and molecules atom, element, molecule, and Chemical Collide January 22 and 23 form solids by compound. Reactions Independently building up repeating 9. Molecular Motion increases as Pages 220-221 Volume patterns, such as the temperature increases. Mass crystal structure of 10. Distinguish between the Labs: Crystal Lattice NaCl or long-chain differences between physical and 1. Super-Cool Lab Molecules polymers. chemical changes. Compounds 3d. Students know 11. Some solids form repeating Atoms the states of matter patterns called crystal lattice Demos: Melting (solid, liquid, gas) structures whereas others do not an 1. Steam Engine Boiling depend on molecular are called amorphous solids. 2. Hot to cold Condensation motion. 12. Molecules in the gas state water to show Freezing move independently and molecular Vaporization 3.e Students know sometimes collide. movement. Evaporation that in solids the 13. Molecules in the liquid state 3. Metal vs. foam Thermal atoms are closely are in contact with each other and block melting ice. Heat locked in position and slide past each other. Sublimation can only vibrate; in 14. Molecules in the solid state are Density liquids the atoms and tightly packed and vibrate in place. Speed molecules are more 15. Know the parts of an atom and Acceleration loosely connected and the charges of each part. Velocity can collide with and 16. Understand the forces that Friction move past one cause objects to move or remain at Physical Change another; and in gases rest. the atoms and 17. Distinguish between mass and molecules are free to weight. move independently, 18. Know the density formula and colliding frequently. understand that density is a physical property of a substance. 3.f Students know how to use the periodic table to identify elements in simple compounds. Unit Four Focus Standards Objectives Textbook Unit Vocabulary 21 Teaching Days And Labs 7a. Students know 1. Know the general overview of Chapters 4 Atom Standards 7.0: a-b how to identify periodic table. How is it set up? Elements & Electrons Periodic Table regions corresponding 2. Regions of the periodic table: Periodic Table Energy Level to metals, nonmetals, metals, metalloids, and nonmetals. Pages: 125 - 155 Nucleus and inert gases. 3. Elements are classified as being Protons Benchmark #4 7.b Students know a metal, metalloid, or nonmetal. Labs: Atomic Number March 2 and 3 each element has a 4. Families vs. Periods 1. The ion lab; Neutrons specific number of 5. Atomic Number vs. Atomic soap suds test. Isotopes protons in the nucleus Mass Mass Number (the atomic number) 6. Atomic Number is the number Atomic Mass Unit and each isotope of of protons in each atom for that Demos: (AMU) the element has a element. 1. Place pure Atomic Mass different specific 7. Atomic mass is the number of sodium into water. Periodic Table number of neutrons in protons plus the number of 2. Show clips of Period the nucleus. neutrons for an atom. the elements From Group 7.c Students know 8. Electrons are negative and have family one reacting Chemical Symbol substances can be virtually no mass; 1/1820 of a in water. Alkali Metals classified by their proton or neutron. Alkaline Earth Metals properties, including 9. AMU stands for atomic mass Transition Metals their melting unit; one proton equals 1 amu as Halogens temperature, density, does a neutron. Semimetals hardness, and thermal 10. Atomic Number (number of Metalloids conductivity. protons) never changes; it Semiconductor identifies the element!! Properties 11. Atomic Mass can vary due to Metals isotopes. Malleable Isotopes are atoms of an element Thermal Conductivity that have a different number of Electrical Conductivity neutrons. Reactivity 11. Note that the element’s name Corrosion may have letters that do not match Nonmetals the chemical symbol because of Metalloids Latin name origins. Density 12. Metals can melt! Hardness 13. The nonmetal gases can Conductivity become a liquid or solid if Thermal temperature or other conditions Melting (pressure) are right. Classification 14. Ions form when atoms or Elements molecules loose or gain electrons. Molecules 15. Ions are often in water and Compounds create what is called hard water. Physical Properties 16. Ions can be negative (anions) Chemical Properties or positive (cations). Unit Five Focus Standards Objectives Textbook Unit Vocabulary 28 Teaching Days And Physical Property 5a. Students know 1. The mass of the reactants Labs Chemical Property Part 1 reactant atoms and always equals the mass of the Reactant Standards 5.0 a-e molecules interact to products. Chapter 6 Product Chemical Reactions form products with 2. Atoms bond together to form page 208 Yield Sign different chemical molecules (compounds). Chemical Precipitate properties. 3. Go over the four key clues to Reactions Endothermic Reaction 5.b Students know the chemical reactions. Exothermic Reaction idea of atoms explains 4. All chemical reactions must be Labs Chemical Equation the conservation of balanced. The four clues to Law of Conservation of matter: In chemical chemical reactions. Mass reactions the number 5. Remind students of the (Conservation of of atoms stays the differences between molecules Matter) same no matter how (O2) and compounds (H2O). Chemical Bonding they are arranged, so 6. Substances can undergo Chemical Bond their total mass stays physical changes go from solid, Molecule the same. liquid, and into a gas but are still Compound 5c. Students know the same substance. Chemical Reaction chemical reactions 7. Understand the differences Polymer usually liberate heat between acids, bases, and neutral Freezing or absorb heat. substances. Boiling 5.d Students know 8. Know how to read a pH scale. Condensation physical processes 9. When an acid and a base are Evaporation including freezing and mixed together the solution Change of State boiling, in which a becomes more neutral (less acidic material changes form and less basic) and a salt forms. Chapter 7 with no chemical 10. Define polymer and explain page 250 Acid reaction. that DNA is a natural polymer. Acids and Bases Base 5.e Students know 11. Organic chemistry is the study Pages 268 - 279 Neutral how to determine of carbon (C) compounds. pH whether a solution is 12. The main elements in organic Litmus Paper Salt acidic, basic, or molecules are C, H, O, N, P, and S. Page 270 Indicator neutral. Molecules made of these elements Litmus Paper Part 2 would likely be found in living pH Scale Standards 6.0 a-c 6a. Students know organisms. Page 277 Chemistry of Living that carbon, because 13. Go over the molecules in Systems of its ability to living things such as: fats, Lab combine in many carbohydrates, proteins, salts, and pH Lab ways with itself and water. Some are very small other elements, has a whereas others are quite large. central role in the 14. The sun is a star. Earth's chemistry of living closest star at 93 million miles organisms. away. Organic Compounds 6.b Students know 15. Our solar system has "9" Chapter 8 Hydrocarbon that living organisms planets that orbit the sun. Page 286 Lipids are made of molecules 16. Explain differences between Carbon Carbohydrates consisting largely of day and year. Chemistry Proteins carbon, hydrogen, 17. The cause for the seasons on Read Pages Nucleic Acid nitrogen, oxygen, Earth. 294 - 299 Deoxyribonucleic Acid phosphorus, and 18. Explain why the moon has and (DNA) sulfur. different phases. Remember 317 - 323 6c. Students know moons are planetary satellites. that living organisms 19. Explain comets and asteroids. Lab have many different 20. Inner planets vs. outer planets. DNA Isolation kinds of molecules, 21. Light year unit of measure is Rotation including small ones, for distance in space not time. Revolution such as water and salt, 22. Shapes and size of galaxies. Seasons and very large ones, 23. Our solar system is in the Gravity - Mass & such as carbohydrates, Milky Way Galaxy. Weight fats, proteins, and 24. Stars are the only objects that Star DNA. produce light. Moons and planets Solar System Moon reflect light. Chapter 12, 13, Satellite 4a. Students know 14, & 15. Astronomical Unit galaxies are clusters Page 465 Galaxy Part 3 of billions of stars and Seasons Elliptical Standards 4.0 a-e may have different Page 468 - 471 Spiral Earth in the Solar shapes. Gravity Gravity System 4.b Students know Page 475 Orbit that the Sun is one of Moon Phases Inner Planets many stars in the Page 480 Outer Planets Milky Way galaxy Satellite and Comet and that stars may Astronomical Unit Asteroid differ in size , Page 543 Light Year temperature, color. Sun HR Diagram Benchmark #5 4c. Students know Page 545 - 550 April 20 and 21 how to use Inner Planets astronomical units Page 552 - 561 and light years as Outer Planets measures of distances Page 562 - 569 between the Sun, Comets & stars, and Earth. Asteroids 4d. Students know Page 573 - 575 that stars are the Light Year source of light for all Page 602 bright objects in outer HR Diagram space and that the Page 604 & 630 Moon and planets Star Life-cycle shine by reflected Page 610 - 613 sunlight, not by their Galaxies own light. Page 617 -619 4e. Students know the appearance, general Demos and composition, relative Activities position and size, and 1. Use scale motion of objects in models of solar the solar system, system. including planets, 2. Students record planetary satellites, nightly moon comets, and asteroids. phases for one month. 3. Students make poster or brochure for a planet. State Test All Standards will be Objectives - Step #1 Review all Textbook Pages: Meter Preparation Period reviewed in past objectives for each of the five Review the Liter preparation of the units. textbook as needed. Gram The time frame here state test. Review all key concepts with Check past units Hypothesis will be from after students. Begin with metric for textbook pages. Density benchmark five until system and continue through the Volume the science test day. solar system. Displacement All students should The essentials include: Mass study at home each 1. Know what an atom is and its Speed night to be best parts. Distance prepared for the test. 2. Practice density and speed Time Classroom time will problems. Reference point focus on key concepts 3. Go over the energy changes Periodic Table needed for success on needed as a substance undergoes Elements the state test. changes of state. Atoms 4. Define compound. Nucleus 5. Practice using the periodic Electrons table. Know the main sections on Protons the periodic table. Neutrons 6. Know pH; understand acids Molecules from bases and the use of litmus Compounds paper. Reactions 7. Organic chemistry - know the Balanced Equations key elements: C, H, O, N, P, & S. pH Scale 8. Solar System…Sun (stars), Acids inner vs. outer planets, moons, Bases seasons on Earth, rotation vs. Organic Chemistry revolution. Polymer 9. Distinguish among comets, Solar system asteroids, and meteorites. Moon Phases Comet Asteroid Unit Six Focus Standards: Objectives: Textbook Pages: Unit Vocabulary: Teaching Days Many of the standards Provide opportunities for Vocabulary used in The time period here covered during the hands-on projects. Toothpick Bridges unit six will reinforce begins after the state five previous units Note: Projects may change Pages: 450 - 457 those terms learned in test in science. Note: will be addressed depending on budget, time, or previous units. Some teachers may again within these individual class needs. Roller-coasters change or expand special projects. Pages: 381 - 399 topics in unit six as 1. Toothpick Bridges each class may have Bottle Rockets different needs. 2. Roller-coasters Pages: 502 - 509 3. Bottle Rockets