# 8th Grade Science Curriculum Map

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```					                                  8th Grade Science Curriculum Map
Revised August 2008
Unit One             Focus Standards for       Objectives - Main points and     Textbook Pages         Unit Vocabulary -
8th Grade Physical        concepts that should be mastered And                    Students should know
25 Teaching Days     Science.                  by all students.                 Labs or Demos          definition and
example for each
word.
Part 1               Section 9                 Part I: Scientific Method           Chapter 1           Hypothesis
Standards 9.0: a-g   Scientific progress is    1. Know that a hypothesis is a      Pages: Scientific   Variable
made by asking            statement to be tested.             Method 1-15 &       Control (control group)
Investigation and    meaningful questions      2. Understand that all scientists   30-31               Observations
Experimentation      and conducting            use the metric system.              Metric 16 – 23 &    Prediction
careful investigations.   3. Know that the metric system is   28-29               Theory
Scientific Method    9a. Plan and conduct      also called the SI system or SI     Temperature 26      Law
7 Days               an experiment to test     units.                              Graphs 34 – 41      Linear
And                  a hypothesis.             4. Know the basic units of          Lab Safety 43-47    Nonlinear
Metric System        9b. Evaluate the          measure: meter, liter, gram, and    and page 651        Reproducibility
8 Days               accuracy and              Celsius.                                                Evaluate
reproducibility of        5. Know how to read a metric        Scientific Method   Temperature
data.                     ruler.                              Labs                Triple Beam Balance
9c. Distinguish           6. Construction of graphs: bar,     1. Temperature of   Grams
between variable and      line, and pie.                      water lab           Meters
controlled parameters     7. Know independent variable and    2. Spaghetti lab    Liters
in a test.                dependent variable.                                     Centimeters
9d. Linear graphs         8. Distinguish between linear and   Metric Labs         Results
have a constant slope     non-linear relationships.           1. Boy vs. Girl     Conclusions
and use y=kx.                                                 Height Lab          Communicate
9e. Construct graphs                                                              Testable
from data and make                                                                Units of Measure
quantitative                                                                        Scientific Method
relationships between                                                               Data
the variables.                                                                      Calculations
9f. Apply mathematic                                                                Graphs
relationships to                                                                    Kilometer
determine a missing                                                                 Centimeter
quantity such as in the                                                             Millimeter
density and speed                                                                   Liter
formulas.                                                                           Milliliter
9g. Distinguish                                                                     Kilogram
between linear and                                                                  Gram
nonlinear                                                                           Celsius
relationships on a
graph.

Part 2                 8.a Students know         Part II: Density                       Chapters 1 & 11    Mass
Standard 8.0:a-b       density is mass per       1. Know the density formula and        Pages 24-25 &      Volume
Density and Buoyancy   unit of volume.           density triangle.                      424-429            Area (surface area)
10 Days                8b. Calculate the         2. Understand density word                                Displacement
density of objects        problems.                              Density Labs       Graduated Cylinder
Benchmark #1 on        from mass and             3. Compare objects that are very       1. Marble Lab      Over-Flow Cans
Oct 16 & 17            volume: solids and        dense to objects with low density.     2. Density of      Length
liquids and those         4. Know that density never             Water              Cubic
having irregular or       changes for a substance!!! A small     3. Density of      Weight
regular shapes.           piece of wood has the same density     Objects Lab        Heavy
8c. Buoyant force on      as a large piece. Cutting a board in   4. Density of      Light
an object in a fluid is   half does not change its density.      Pennies (pre and   Dense
an upward force equal     5. Density is a physical property      post 1982)         Buoyancy
to the weight of the      of a substance.                                           Buoyant Force
fluid the object has     6. Understand why the buoyant          Demos               Float
displaced.               force is the cause for floating        1. Metal Balls –    Sink
8d. Students know        objects.                               hollow vs. solid.   Gravity
how to predict           7. Compare buoyant force to the        2. Soap bubbles
whether an object will   force of gravity.                      over dry ice.
float or sink.           8. Solids, liquids, and gases have     3. Metal block &
distinct densities.                    foam block.
9. Helium balloons float due to
buoyant force.
10. Predict whether an object will
float or sink based on density.
11. Compare the density of one
object or substance to another.
Unit two            Focus Standards          Objectives                             Textbook            Unit Vocabulary
23 Teaching Days                                                                    And
Labs
Part 1              1a. Students know        1. Speed is calculated using time      Chapters 9          Motion
Standards 1.0:a-f   position is defined in   and distance.                          Motion & Energy     Speed
relation to some                                                Pages:              Average speed
Motion – Speed      choice of a standard     2. Explain that scientists can use     Motion basics       Instantaneous Speed
13 Days             reference point and      different units for speed, time, and   338-341             Constant Speed
set of reference         distance.                              Speed & Velocity    Time
directions.                                                     342-347             Distance
1.b Students know        3. Know differences between            Acceleration        Displacement
that average speed is    speed, velocity, and acceleration.     350-355             Reference Point
the total distance                                                                  Position
traveled divided by      4. Speed can be slow or fast!          Speed Labs          Acceleration
the total time elapsed                                          1. Toy Car Lab      Velocity
and that the speed of    5. Graphs showing speed vs. time       2. Marble Ramp      Average Velocity
an object along the      and distance vs. time.                 Lab                 Vector
path traveled can                                               3. Acceleration     Direction
vary.                                                            Lab (using the long    Magnitude
1c. Students can         6. Student should master the use        ramp)                 Friction
solve problems           of the speed triangle.                  4. Walking vs.        Inertia
involving distance,                                              Running Lab           Momentum
time, and average
speed.
1d. Velocity of an
object is described by
specifying both speed
and the direction of
the object.
1e. A change in
velocity may be due
to changes in speed,
direction, or both.
1f. Students know
how to interpret
graphs of position
versus time and
graphs of speed
versus time for
motion in a single
direction.
Part 2              2a. Students know a      1. Students know the four types of      Chapters 10           Force
Standards 2.0 a-g   force has both           friction: static, sliding, rolling, &   Pages                 Push
direction and            fluid.                                  Forces 374-378        Pull
Forces              magnitude.                                                       Friction & Gravity    Net Force
10 Days             2b. Students know        2. The force of gravity.                380-388               Balanced Forces
when an object is                                                Newton’s Laws         Unbalance Forces
Benchmark #2        subject to two or more   3. Elastic Forces compare &             389-399               Newtons (N) as a unit
Nov 20 & 21         forces at once, the      contrast compression vs. tension.                             Gravitational Force
result is the                                              Forces Labs          Electromagnetic Force
cumulative effect of     4. Balanced vs. Unbalanced        1. Rolling vs.       Strong Nuclear Force
all the forces.                                            Sliding Friction     Weak Nuclear Force
2c. Students know        5. How mass can affect the motion 2. Shoe Lab          Elastic
when the forces on an    of an object.                     3. Ramps with        Tension
object are balanced,                                       different surfaces   Compression
the motion of the        6. Forces are measured in units                        Centripetal Force
object does not          called Newtons (N).                                    Buoyant Forces
change.                                                                         Weight
2.d Students know        7. Explain that one Newton (1N)                        Friction
how to identify          can be written as 1 kg - m/s/s.                        Velocity
separately the two or                                                           Mass
more forces that are     8. Definition of a force.                              Spring Scale
acting on a single
static object,
including gravity,
elastic forces due to
tension or
compression in
matter, and friction.

2.e Students know
that when the forces
on an object are
unbalanced, the object
will change its
velocity (that is, it
will speed up, slow
down, or change
direction).
2.f Students know the
greater the mass of an
object, the more force
is needed to achieve
the same rate of
change in motion.
2g. Students know
the role of gravity in
forming and
maintaining the
shapes of planets,
stars, and the solar
system.
Unit Three            Focus Standards          Objectives                           Textbook              Unit Vocabulary
30 Teaching Days                                                                    And
Labs
Part 1                3.a Students know the    1. All matter has mass and           Chapters:             Matter
Standards 3.0: a -f   structure of the atom    volume.                              Chapter 2             Endothermic
and know it is           2. Matter is made of atoms.          The Nature of         Exothermic
States of Matter      composed of protons,     3. Matter can change state: solid,   Matter                Substance
Endothermic           neutrons and             liquid, gas, and plasma.             Pages 58 – 65 and     Element
Exothermic            electrons.               4. The substance does not change     69-70 & 74            Protons
15 Days               3b. Students know        as it undergoes changes of state.    Chapter 3             Neutrons
that compounds are       5. Endothermic change is when        Solids, liquids and   Nucleus
formed by combining      energy is absorbed by a substance    gases                 Electrons
Part 2                two or more different    or reaction.                         Pages 91 – 101        Electron Clouds
Elements – Atoms –    elements and that        6. Exothermic change is when         Chapter 4             Valence Electrons
and Compounds         compounds have           energy is released by a substance    Periodic Table        Solids
15 Days               properties that are      or reaction.                         Pages 126 - 128       Liquids
different from their     7. Atoms form molecules and                                Gases
constituent elements.    unique compounds.                                          Plasma
3c. Students know        8. Clarify the differences between     Chapter 6            Vibrate
Benchmark #3        atoms and molecules      atom, element, molecule, and           Chemical             Collide
January 22 and 23   form solids by           compound.                              Reactions            Independently
building up repeating    9. Molecular Motion increases as       Pages 220-221        Volume
patterns, such as the    temperature increases.                                      Mass
crystal structure of     10. Distinguish between the            Labs:                Crystal Lattice
NaCl or long-chain       differences between physical and       1. Super-Cool Lab    Molecules
polymers.                chemical changes.                                           Compounds
3d. Students know        11. Some solids form repeating                              Atoms
the states of matter     patterns called crystal lattice        Demos:               Melting
(solid, liquid, gas)     structures whereas others do not an    1. Steam Engine      Boiling
depend on molecular      are called amorphous solids.           2. Hot to cold       Condensation
motion.                  12. Molecules in the gas state         water to show        Freezing
move independently and                 molecular            Vaporization
3.e Students know        sometimes collide.                     movement.            Evaporation
that in solids the       13. Molecules in the liquid state      3. Metal vs. foam    Thermal
atoms are closely        are in contact with each other and     block melting ice.   Heat
locked in position and   slide past each other.                                      Sublimation
can only vibrate; in     14. Molecules in the solid state are                        Density
liquids the atoms and    tightly packed and vibrate in place.                        Speed
molecules are more       15. Know the parts of an atom and                           Acceleration
loosely connected and    the charges of each part.                                   Velocity
can collide with and     16. Understand the forces that                              Friction
move past one            cause objects to move or remain at                          Physical Change
another; and in gases    rest.
the atoms and            17. Distinguish between mass and
molecules are free to    weight.
move independently,      18. Know the density formula and
colliding frequently.    understand that density is a
physical property of a substance.
3.f Students know
how to use the
periodic table to
identify elements in
simple compounds.
Unit Four            Focus Standards          Objectives                            Textbook              Unit Vocabulary
21 Teaching Days                                                                    And
Labs
7a. Students know        1. Know the general overview of       Chapters 4            Atom
Standards 7.0: a-b   how to identify          periodic table. How is it set up?     Elements &            Electrons
Periodic Table       regions corresponding    2. Regions of the periodic table:     Periodic Table        Energy Level
to metals, nonmetals,    metals, metalloids, and nonmetals.    Pages: 125 - 155      Nucleus
and inert gases.         3. Elements are classified as being                         Protons
Benchmark #4         7.b Students know        a metal, metalloid, or nonmetal.      Labs:                 Atomic Number
March 2 and 3        each element has a       4. Families vs. Periods               1. The ion lab;       Neutrons
specific number of       5. Atomic Number vs. Atomic           soap suds test.       Isotopes
protons in the nucleus   Mass                                                        Mass Number
(the atomic number)      6. Atomic Number is the number                              Atomic Mass Unit
and each isotope of      of protons in each atom for that      Demos:                (AMU)
the element has a        element.                              1. Place pure         Atomic Mass
different specific       7. Atomic mass is the number of       sodium into water.    Periodic Table
number of neutrons in    protons plus the number of            2. Show clips of      Period
the nucleus.             neutrons for an atom.                 the elements From     Group
7.c Students know        8. Electrons are negative and have    family one reacting   Chemical Symbol
substances can be        virtually no mass; 1/1820 of a        in water.             Alkali Metals
classified by their      proton or neutron.                                          Alkaline Earth Metals
properties, including    9. AMU stands for atomic mass                               Transition Metals
their melting            unit; one proton equals 1 amu as                            Halogens
temperature, density,    does a neutron.                                             Semimetals
hardness, and thermal    10. Atomic Number (number of                                Metalloids
conductivity.            protons) never changes; it                                  Semiconductor
identifies the element!!                                    Properties
11. Atomic Mass can vary due to                          Metals
isotopes.                                                Malleable
Isotopes are atoms of an element                         Thermal Conductivity
that have a different number of                          Electrical Conductivity
neutrons.                                                Reactivity
11. Note that the element’s name                         Corrosion
may have letters that do not match                       Nonmetals
the chemical symbol because of                           Metalloids
Latin name origins.                                      Density
12. Metals can melt!                                     Hardness
13. The nonmetal gases can                               Conductivity
become a liquid or solid if                              Thermal
temperature or other conditions                          Melting
(pressure) are right.                                    Classification
14. Ions form when atoms or                              Elements
molecules loose or gain electrons.                       Molecules
15. Ions are often in water and                          Compounds
create what is called hard water.                        Physical Properties
16. Ions can be negative (anions)                        Chemical Properties
or positive (cations).
Unit Five            Focus Standards          Objectives                           Textbook            Unit Vocabulary
28 Teaching Days                                                                   And                 Physical Property
5a. Students know        1. The mass of the reactants         Labs                Chemical Property
Part 1               reactant atoms and       always equals the mass of the                            Reactant
Standards 5.0 a-e    molecules interact to    products.                            Chapter 6           Product
Chemical Reactions   form products with       2. Atoms bond together to form       page 208            Yield Sign
different chemical       molecules (compounds).               Chemical            Precipitate
properties.              3. Go over the four key clues to     Reactions           Endothermic Reaction
5.b Students know the    chemical reactions.                                      Exothermic Reaction
idea of atoms explains   4. All chemical reactions must be    Labs                Chemical Equation
the conservation of      balanced.                            The four clues to   Law of Conservation of
matter: In chemical                                             chemical reactions.   Mass
reactions the number     5. Remind students of the                                    (Conservation of
of atoms stays the       differences between molecules                                Matter)
same no matter how       (O2) and compounds (H2O).                                    Chemical Bonding
they are arranged, so    6. Substances can undergo                                    Chemical Bond
their total mass stays   physical changes go from solid,                              Molecule
the same.                liquid, and into a gas but are still                         Compound
5c. Students know        the same substance.                                          Chemical Reaction
chemical reactions       7. Understand the differences                                Polymer
usually liberate heat    between acids, bases, and neutral                            Freezing
or absorb heat.          substances.                                                  Boiling
5.d Students know        8. Know how to read a pH scale.                              Condensation
physical processes       9. When an acid and a base are                               Evaporation
including freezing and   mixed together the solution                                  Change of State
boiling, in which a      becomes more neutral (less acidic
material changes form    and less basic) and a salt forms.      Chapter 7
with no chemical         10. Define polymer and explain         page 250              Acid
reaction.                that DNA is a natural polymer.         Acids and Bases       Base
5.e Students know        11. Organic chemistry is the study     Pages 268 - 279       Neutral
how to determine         of carbon (C) compounds.                                     pH
whether a solution is    12. The main elements in organic       Litmus Paper          Salt
acidic, basic, or        molecules are C, H, O, N, P, and S.    Page 270              Indicator
neutral.                 Molecules made of these elements                             Litmus Paper
Part 2                                         would likely be found in living        pH Scale
Standards 6.0 a-c     6a. Students know        organisms.                             Page 277
Chemistry of Living   that carbon, because     13. Go over the molecules in
Systems               of its ability to        living things such as: fats,           Lab
combine in many          carbohydrates, proteins, salts, and    pH Lab
ways with itself and     water. Some are very small
other elements, has a    whereas others are quite large.
central role in the      14. The sun is a star. Earth's
chemistry of living        closest star at 93 million miles
organisms.                 away.                                                    Organic Compounds
6.b Students know          15. Our solar system has "9"           Chapter 8         Hydrocarbon
that living organisms      planets that orbit the sun.            Page 286          Lipids
are made of molecules      16. Explain differences between        Carbon            Carbohydrates
consisting largely of      day and year.                          Chemistry         Proteins
carbon, hydrogen,          17. The cause for the seasons on       Read Pages        Nucleic Acid
nitrogen, oxygen,          Earth.                                 294 - 299         Deoxyribonucleic Acid
phosphorus, and            18. Explain why the moon has           and               (DNA)
sulfur.                    different phases. Remember             317 - 323
6c. Students know          moons are planetary satellites.
that living organisms      19. Explain comets and asteroids.      Lab
have many different        20. Inner planets vs. outer planets.   DNA Isolation
kinds of molecules,        21. Light year unit of measure is                        Rotation
including small ones,      for distance in space not time.                          Revolution
such as water and salt,    22. Shapes and size of galaxies.                         Seasons
and very large ones,       23. Our solar system is in the                           Gravity - Mass &
such as carbohydrates,     Milky Way Galaxy.                                        Weight
fats, proteins, and        24. Stars are the only objects that                      Star
DNA.                       produce light. Moons and planets       Solar System      Moon
reflect light.                         Chapter 12, 13,   Satellite
4a. Students know                                                 14, & 15.         Astronomical Unit
galaxies are clusters                                             Page 465          Galaxy
Part 3               of billions of stars and                                          Seasons           Elliptical
Standards 4.0 a-e    may have different                                                Page 468 - 471    Spiral
Earth in the Solar   shapes.                                                           Gravity           Gravity
System               4.b Students know                                                 Page 475          Orbit
that the Sun is one of                                            Moon Phases       Inner Planets
many stars in the                                                 Page 480          Outer Planets
Milky Way galaxy                                                  Satellite and     Comet
and that stars may                                                Astronomical Unit Asteroid
differ in size ,          Page 543             Light Year
temperature, color.       Sun                  HR Diagram
Benchmark #5      4c. Students know         Page 545 - 550
April 20 and 21   how to use                Inner Planets
astronomical units        Page 552 - 561
and light years as        Outer Planets
measures of distances     Page 562 - 569
between the Sun,          Comets &
stars, and Earth.         Asteroids
4d. Students know         Page 573 - 575
that stars are the        Light Year
source of light for all   Page 602
bright objects in outer   HR Diagram
space and that the        Page 604 & 630
Moon and planets          Star Life-cycle
shine by reflected        Page 610 - 613
sunlight, not by their    Galaxies
own light.                Page 617 -619
4e. Students know the
appearance, general       Demos and
composition, relative     Activities
position and size, and    1. Use scale
motion of objects in      models of solar
the solar system,         system.
including planets,        2. Students record
planetary satellites,     nightly moon
comets, and asteroids.    phases for one
month.
3. Students make
poster or brochure
for a planet.
State Test               All Standards will be   Objectives - Step #1 Review all        Textbook Pages:       Meter
Preparation Period       reviewed in             past objectives for each of the five   Review the            Liter
preparation of the      units.                                 textbook as needed.   Gram
The time frame here      state test.             Review all key concepts with           Check past units      Hypothesis
will be from after                               students. Begin with metric            for textbook pages.   Density
benchmark five until                             system and continue through the                              Volume
the science test day.                            solar system.                                                Displacement
All students should                                     The essentials include:                               Mass
study at home each                               1. Know what an atom is and its                              Speed
night to be best                                 parts.                                                       Distance
prepared for the test.                            2. Practice density and speed                               Time
Classroom time will                              problems.                                                    Reference point
focus on key concepts                            3. Go over the energy changes                                Periodic Table
needed for success on                            needed as a substance undergoes                              Elements
the state test.                                  changes of state.                                            Atoms
4. Define compound.                                          Nucleus
5. Practice using the periodic                               Electrons
table. Know the main sections on                             Protons
the periodic table.                                          Neutrons
6. Know pH; understand acids                                 Molecules
from bases and the use of litmus                             Compounds
paper.                                                       Reactions
7. Organic chemistry - know the                              Balanced Equations
key elements: C, H, O, N, P, & S.                            pH Scale
8. Solar System…Sun (stars),                                 Acids
inner vs. outer planets, moons,                              Bases
seasons on Earth, rotation vs.                               Organic Chemistry
revolution.                                                  Polymer
9. Distinguish among comets,                                 Solar system
asteroids, and meteorites.                                   Moon Phases
Comet
Asteroid

Unit Six                 Focus Standards:        Objectives:                     Textbook Pages:   Unit Vocabulary:
Teaching Days           Many of the standards   Provide opportunities for                         Vocabulary used in
The time period here     covered during the      hands-on projects.              Toothpick Bridges unit six will reinforce
begins after the state   five previous units     Note: Projects may change       Pages: 450 - 457  those terms learned in
test in science. Note:   will be addressed       depending on budget, time, or                     previous units.
Some teachers may        again within these      individual class needs.         Roller-coasters
change or expand         special projects.                                       Pages: 381 - 399
topics in unit six as                            1. Toothpick Bridges
each class may have                                                              Bottle Rockets
different needs.                                 2. Roller-coasters              Pages: 502 - 509

3. Bottle Rockets

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