ECSL Presentation Space Debris Guidelines

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					International Technical Guidelines on Space Debris

Claudio Portelli

_________________________________________________________________________________________ 17TH ECSL SUMMER COURSE ON SPACE LAW AND POLICY– Genova September 11, 2008

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Contents
An Introduction to the Space Debris Problem Organisms and International Organization Technical Documentation on Space Debris Mitigation at UN Level

_________________________________________________________________________________________ 17TH ECSL SUMMER COURSE ON SPACE LAW AND POLICY– Genova September 11, 2008

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Space Debris Problem Introduction

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Space Debris Introduction
What are they? space debris is defined as all man-made objects, including fragments and elements thereof, in Earth orbit or re-entering the atmosphere, that are non-functional. How they are originated ? from satellite and launchers upper stages both during operation and after end of life. Were are they ?
LEO = low earth orbit > they should be de-orbited on earth MEO = medium “ “ > they could stay in their stable orbits GEO = Geosinchronous > re-orbiting necessary at EoL GTO = geo-transfer orbit > very long orbiting period

How much are they? The USA space objects tracked catalogue contained in April 2008, 12800 objects non classified, of which only about the 7% are operative satellites.

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Space Debris Introduction

LEO and GEO populations

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Space Debris Introduction
View in perspective and from the North Pole

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Space Launches from 1957
About 200 new objects per year in average

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Mission Related Objects
In the pictures below, an example of MRO
MRO generation

Jettisoning of a cover lens

During the early decades of the space age, launch vehicle and spacecraft designers permitted the intentional release of numerous mission-related objects into Earth orbit, including, among other things, sensor covers, separation mechanisms and deployment articles.
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Fragmentations

Space Debris by fragmentation

By far the largest percentage of the catalogued space debris population originated from the fragmentation of spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages. The majority of those break-ups were unintentional, many arising from the abandonment of spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages with significant amounts of stored energy.

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Fragmentations
Some accidental collisions have already been identified. Numerous studies indicate that, as the number and mass of space debris increase, the primary source of new space debris is likely to be from collisions.

Space Debris caused by accidental collision (fragmentation)

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Status in April 2008
Total successful space launches: 4.559 Deep Space Spacecrafts and satellite launched: 6.601 Catalogued Objects (launched or produced in space): 32.772 Deep Space Spacecrafts and satellite on space: 3.252 (? 900 active) Launcher Stages in space: 1.788 Space Debris in the catalogue: 7.764 Total catalogued space objects: 12.804 Orbital objects with Ø > 1 cm: ~ 300.000 Orbital objects with Ø > 1 mm: ~ 500.000.000 Re-entered Satellite on Earth: 3.349 Re-entered lancers stages on Earth: 3.469 Re-entered catalogued Space Debris on Earth: 13.150 Total re-entered objects on Earth: 19.968
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Status in April 2008
Space Objects (Apr. 2008)

14%

7%

Operative S/C 18% Calogued Space Debris Abandoned S/C Upper Stages

61%

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Space Population build up

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Scenario Evolution

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Space Debris Damages

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Re-entry on Earth

In 50 years more than 1500 tons have reentered wthout controls

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Organisms and International Organizations

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Organisms working on Space Debris
United Nations Committee for Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS) Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) ESA Space Debris Coordination with National Agencies (ASI, BNSC, CNES e DLR) ECSS e ISO TC/20

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ESA Space Debris Coordination
ESA has established since 1998 a technical coordination between the European space agencies in the frame of a “network of competence” on space debris:
ASI (Italy) BNSC (united kingdom) CNES (France) DLR (Germany) ESA (European space agency)

The main document on space debris is the “European code of conduct for space debris mitigation”, which has been signed by all the NoC space agencies.

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European Code of Conduct for Space Debris Mitigation
Defines the protected regions (GEO e LEO)

Establishes the management rules as per the ECSS:
Dedicated Design Report & Project Review

Establishes the design rules on:
MRO, Fragmentations, Passivation, De/ReOrbiting, Safety/Contaminations at re-entry

Establishes the operative rules for launchers and satellites at end of life:
Passivation and Disposal

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INTER-AGENCY SPACEDEBRIS CO ORDINATION COM MITTEE

IADC
The IADC is the most important body at international level on Space Debris. Members of IADC:
ASI (Italy) BNSC (United Kingdom) CNES (France) CNSA (China) DLR (Germany) ESA (European Space Agency) ISRO (India) JAXA (Japan) NASA (USA) NSAU (Ukraine) ROSAVIAKOSMOS (Russia) It is constituted by 4 working groups WG1: Monitoring WG2: Modelling WG3: Protections WG4: Mitigations

Web site to get the technical guidelines on Space Debris: http://www.iadc-online.org

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INTER-AGENCY SPACEDEBRIS CO ORDINATION COM MITTEE

IADC

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INTER-AGENCY SPACEDEBRIS CO ORDINATION COM MITTEE

IADC

Document list in the public access of the IADC web site: • IADC-02-01 IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines rev.1 Sett.2007 • IADC-97-04 IADC Recommendation Re-orbit Procedure for GEO Preservation Rev.0 Dic 1997 • IADC-04-03 Protection Manual Rev. 3.3 Apr 2004 • All IADC presentations made at the STSC UN - COPUOS

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INTER-AGENCY SPACEDEBRIS CO ORDINATION COM MITTEE

IADC
IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines 1. Scope 2. Application 3.Terms and definitions 4. General Guidance 5. Mitigation Measures
5.1 Limit Debris Released During Normal Operations 5.2 Minimize Potential for On-Orbit BreakUps 5.3 Post Mission Disposal 5.4 Prevention of On-Orbit Collisions

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United Nations Committee for Peaceful Uses of Outer Space

UN-COPUOS web site UNOOSA

Report STSC - A/AC.105/C.1/L.284
Space debris mitigation guidelines of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space

http://www.unoosa.org/pdf/limited/c1/AC105_C1_L284E.pdf

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Documents hierarchy

Level-3: How should be done

• Supporting Technical Documentation (ISO) • Applicable Documentation (European Code of Conduct)

Level-2 What should be done

• IADC and UN mitigation guidelines already established • National laws should be set up as soon as possible All should understand that space debris must be minimised already now

Level-1 Basic Principles

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Technical Documentation on Space Debris Mitigation at UN Level

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International Technical Guidelines on Space Debris
• The item on space debris was included on the agenda of the STSC in 1994 (resolution 48/39 of the General Assembly, 10 December 1993). • Work plan adopted in 1995 • 1996 measurements of space debris, understanding of data and effects of this environment on space systems • 1997 modeling of space debris environment and risk assessment • 1998 space debris mitigation measures • Technical Report on Space Debris (A/AC.105/720) • Drafted by a group of experts from the Member States • issued at the end of the work plan in 1999 • Space debris item is not yet an item on the agenda of the Legal Subcommittee

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International Technical Guidelines on Space Debris

Technical Report on Space Debris (A/AC.105/720) Content:
Ground-based measurements radars and telescopes Space-based measurements retrieved surfaces and impact detectors Cataloguing and data bases Effects on the operation of space systems Modeling of the space debris environment Space debris risk assessments Space debris mitigation measures mission-related debris, break-ups end of life operations protection shielding collision avoidance
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International Technical Guidelines on Space Debris

In 2001 the IADC was encouraged to present its proposals on space debris mitigation In 2003 the document “IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines” was presented by the IADC acting chairman at the 40th session of the STSC IADC document was reviewed by UN-COPUOS Member States At the 41st session in February 2004 25 comments were issued by UN-COPUOS Member States Space Debris working group was established by UN-COPUOS STSC (see UN GA Resolution [A/RES/58/89, i 20])

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International Technical Guidelines on Space Debris
UN-COPUOS SDWG: Objectives To review comments from member States on the IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines To prepare a high level document (Principles) entitled UN-COPUOS Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines Participants Open to all Member States on a voluntary basis 14 Countries participated to the meetings Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, Russian Federation, UK and USA Observer ESA Chairman C. Portelli (Italy)

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International Technical Guidelines on Space Debris Status
A first draft proposal, prepared by the space debris working group, was presented to the UN-COPUOS in June 2005 In February 2006 the STSC space debris working group agreed by consensus, on 28 February 2006, its document which is contained in A/AC.105/c.1/l.284. This document was translated in all UN official languages and sent to member states to secure national consensus The proposal was submitted to the STSC and accepted with a minor comment on February 2007 by the STSC The UN COPUOS committee, in June 2007, endorsed the space debris mitigation guidelines. In its report A/62/20 the UNCOPUOS committee has included the “space debris mitigation guidelines” (document L.284) as an annex as well as a dedicated paragraph on space debris The UN GA in November 2007, also endorsed the space debris mitigation guidelines (see document A/RES/62/217 dated 10/01/08)
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International Technical Guidelines on Space Debris SUMMARY TABLE OF HISTORICAL STEPS AT UN LEVEL
1998 1999 2000 Feb. 2004 Feb. 2006 Feb. 2006-2007 Feb. 2007 10/Jan/08 STSC introduce a new agenda item space debris (5 years work plan) Technical report on space debris issued IADC presents to the UN-COPUOS its proposal on space debris mitigation STSC establishes a Space Debris Working Group (SDWG), to consider the 25 comments received from Member States the SDWG agreed a document National consensus get by all 67 UN-COPUOS Member States the COPUOS committee endorsed the UN “Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines” (UN-SDMG) UN General Assembly endorsed the UN-SDMG with resolution A/RES/62/217
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_________________________________________________________________________________________ 17TH ECSL SUMMER COURSE ON SPACE LAW AND POLICY– Genova September 11, 2008

International Technical Guidelines on Space Debris
Main characteristics of the UN – SDMG document
Objectives concise document containing high level qualitative guidelines and making reference to the IADC Mitigation Guidelines Applicability (1/2) The implementation of space debris mitigation remains voluntary and should be carried out through national mechanisms

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International Technical Guidelines on Space Debris

Applicability (2/2)
newly designed space systems

where possible, to existing one

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International Technical Guidelines on Space Debris UN-SDMG document - Constraints (established to get the maximum consensus):
use of the technical content of the IADC Mitigation Guidelines as the basis (a linked is made to the IADC mitigation guidelines) not be more technically stringent than the IADC Mitigation Guidelines not be legally binding under international law recognize that exceptions may be justified be a living document, updated on a regular basis in accordance with national and international practices and with research and technology developments take into consideration the United Nations Treaties and Principles on outer space
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International Technical Guidelines on Space Debris
Contents of UN-SDMG document ( A/AC.105/C.1/L.284) Seven guidelines • • • • • • • Limit debris released during normal operations Minimise potential for break-ups during operational phases Limit the probability of accidental collision in orbit Avoid intentional destruction and other harmful activities Minimize potential for post-mission break-ups resulting from stored energy Limit the long-term presence of spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages in LEO after the end of their mission Limit the long-term interference of spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages with GEO region after the end of their mission

Each one has its own recommended practices description and a related rationale/justification

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International Technical Guidelines on Space Debris

First Guideline
1. Limit debris released during normal operations
Space systems should be designed not to release debris during normal operations. If this is not feasible, the effect of any release of debris on the outer space environment should be minimized.

NO MRO generation

Dedicated design efforts, prompted by the recognition of the threat posed by such objects, have proved effective in reducing this source of space debris.

Correct deployment of a cover lens
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International Technical Guidelines on Space Debris

Second, Forth and Fifth Guidelines
2. Minimize potential for break-ups during operational phases 4. Avoid intentional destruction and other harmful activities 5. Minimize potential for post-mission break-ups resulting from stored energy
The most effective mitigation measures have been the passivation of spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages at the end of their mission. Passivation requires the removal of all forms of stored energy, including residual propellants and compressed fluids and the discharge of electrical storage devices.

PASSIVATION by depletion burns at EoL
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_________________________________________________________________________________________ 17TH ECSL SUMMER COURSE ON SPACE LAW AND POLICY– Genova September 11, 2008

International Technical Guidelines on Space Debris

Third Guideline
3. Limit the probability of accidental collision in orbit
This is the most difficult operational practices which requires:
Knowledge of ephemerides of all potentially critical SD object that could impact the operators spacecraft Determination of the potentially critical object and related collision time Support from ground telescope and radars to confirm the necessity of a collision avoidance maneuver Change of operational satellite service status Collision avoidance maneuvers (double firing) to avoid impact Re-establishment of nominal service status Continuous check

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International Technical Guidelines on Space Debris

The last 2 guidelines introduce the concept of Protected Regions
Regions of high population density/collision risk 6. Limit the long-term presence of spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages in LEO after the end of their mission Regions of unique characteristic (geosynchronous) 7. Limit the long-term interference of spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages with GEO region after the end of their mission

Up to 2000 km altitude for 25 years max from EOL

(+/- 15° )

GEO LEO
GEO altitude +/- 230 km

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GEO Disposal
EOL first disposal firing EOL second disposal firing

EOL graveyard orbit

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Summary on technical mitigation space debris
UN: A/AC.105/C.1/L.284 UN Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines Nov.2007 Europe: European Code of Conduct for Space Debris Mitigation, ver. 2.0 del 14/9/2007 IADC: IADC-02-01 IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines, Sett.2007 ISO: ISO TC20/SC 14 N 24113 “Space Systems-Space debris Mitigation” (Draft of April 2008 )

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