Fall 08; some dude by Wittgenstein


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									Lecture: 1
I Will Teach Part1: a. b. Part 2: a. b. Advice -Missing exam results in an F (permission is needed) -Attendance is Graded *excused absence policy in syllabus -Text is additional source of information, professor does not test out of the book Grades Labor & Aptitude -Daily labor(attendance, notes, participation) -Aptitude(exams, papers) 1. Exams- Two mandatory exams (midterm and Final) -Complicated multiple choice -(20-33%) of grade 2. Response Papers- *elective -6 page essay 1 week before exam -Questions are thematic thinking -(5-20%) 3. Research term Paper-*elective -12 page, citations -(10-30%) 4. Course Journal- *Mandatory -(20-50%) History and Philosophy Creation of American Government How it Develops Theories about how it works

Course Journal -record of daily course work 1.Attendance 20% 2.Notes 40% - original notes, day of final 3.Participation 15%- Talk in class write it down, hand in 4.Web Activities 15%- Online class Journal 5.Bonus activities -Repair deficient online notes -Type Notes 6.Cover Form 10%

Lecture 2:
Part I: Politics and Political Science Politics- Who gets what and how or - Authoritative Explanation of Values Who What How Rich people Tax Breaks Electing Bush George Bush Presidency Supreme Court Clinton Impeachment Republican Attack Nixon Impeachment Criminal Involvement Mick Jagger Billions Talent *Is this political -This system of capitalism , work for your own money, allows Mick to keep his money Tom Brady 2001 Playoffs Bad Call (fumble) Big Schools Bowl Games BCS *Is this political Answer: Different Senses of “Politics” Basic Definitions 1.Politics as Distribution(more innocent) -Power -Authority -Valuables -Desirables Human choice to allocate something Valuable ex. Using Marketplace vs. Government to distribute property When you distribute something someone wins and someone looses 2.Ulterior Motive Politics(dirty, different) -Normative rather than Descriptive -Says something more Sinister a. You desire X b. You have not Achieved X in a legitimate or proper way ex. Bush vs. Clinton -was Political dirty politics a. There is a right way to achieve X b. You violated this because you had an Ulterior motive

What's Political Science -No such thing Method -No distinct method of inquiry that political science owns Conversation -No conversation that is distinct to political science Political Science- Is a social club  Take some other science and apply it to politics

Broad Things ex. Study whether or not having laws affect civil participation *Our concern is not broad (only concerned with American Government) Part II: Western civilization -Cannot understand America until we understand western Civilization 3 Influences that create western Civilization 1. Rome 2. Greeks 3. Hebrews *Combine to form western Civilization 1. Rome Values: 1. Order 2. hierarchy 3. authority 4. Duty 5. Sport *Defined by military strength, engineering innovations, rigid duties to state and family, strong male leadership -Things they built 1. Concrete 2. Public Aqueducts 3. Infrastructure 4. Impressive Buildings 2. Greeks Greek intellectual culture (Pre-Socrates, Socrates, Plato) -Invented the systematic study of the intelectual endevors 1. History 2. Science 3. Botony *Elite Greeks where intelectuals- invented philosophy, drama, comedy Contrast With Rome Rome conqured the Greeks Rome thought Greeks where child like intelectuals -After The conqured they loved Greek culture -Rome loved theater plays Greeks thought negativly of Romans (thought that Romans could not think intelectualy for themselves) 1. The ideas of the Greeks influence Western Civilization 2. The practices of the Romans Influence western Civilization -Order, Technology, engineering, hierarchy, building, conquest, celebration of genius 3. Hebrews Monotheism -The idea that there is only one god -The idea that people are involved in a (one-on-one) relationship with god Peganism -Not Gods, but superstitious

-Greeks+Romans had gods for everything *Built around 2 concepts Superstition & Destiny Monotheism: 1. There is only one god 2. Who is all knowing personification of all intelligence 3. Portion of which is us (humans) Christianity -The duty is not to Rome but to god

Lecture 3:
Government in Greece and Rome The Republic -Period of concern 510 BC- 287 BC (Before Rome had kings, Overthrown in 510 BC)  We can not understand America until we understand the western world and how it came to be the way that it is. Res Publica= Republic “Thing” “The Publics” 4. Senate = elders (people around to advise the king) Roman Society  Patricians -Father Of the country -Duty to govern -10% of free population -“Julians”, “Claudians”  Plebeians -Laborers -Shopkeepers -Merchants -Middle-lower class  Slaves -Not like American Slavery -Non-Racial -You could fight for your freedom 5. Roman Culture Patriarchal Society Patrons and Clients -Clients serve Patrons Peter Familia- Power of life and death Daughter- Father Gave away daughter Patron Duties -Food -Money -Character reference (in court) Client Duties -Pamper Patron -Entourage -Vote (For patron) -Dirty Deeds Culture Driven by Social Classes 6.Roman Government Patricians- Duty to Govern 7.The rise of the Plebeians Plebeians- Begin to get power

How ? -Use Strikes -They obtain there own assembly(Union Hall)- Ability to Govern -Access to Senate (Union Hall)- Overtime gets news of Senate

-Right to Appeal- Discipline Appeals 1. First- The want LAW & ORDER 2. Second- The want WRITEN LAW 3. Third- POST THE LAW *Twelve Tables (451 BC) Lex Lotensia (287 BC) – Allowed plebeians to make laws that affected the Patricians Office Of Consul- generals -2 elected annually -Lead army in battle -Symbolized Foreign relations -Could appoint Government Offices -Retired In the Senate -Julius Caesar was a Consul Three Branches Of Government Senate Assembly of Plebeians (Elders) Consul (Executive)

What Happened? Julius Caesar took control of everything Land Reform Incident- Senate beat/ killed Plebeians for trying to take their land Government In Athens Date: 508- 276 BC -Athens was a city not a country- (Greeks never wanted to unite all Greek speakers into one political union) -“Polis” = city state = politics= politician *Direct Democracy -Attempt democracy without politicians -No champagnes, no elections The Assembly- Rocky hillside within the city gates -10,000 men – 15,000 men uncomfortably -Met 40 times a year -Lasted a couple of years -Male Citizens over 18 years of age Drawing Lots for Service -Almost all administrative officials were chosen by lot for one year -Usually selected in groups of 10 to carry out one specific function Ostracism -Once a year they voted on weather or not the needed to -If so write down who you want to banish -Whoever receives the most votes would be banished -eliminates tyrants Courts- 201- 501 BC citizens served as Jurors and Judges +The courts of law where really committees of people -each year 6000 jurors over the age of 30 -Drawn from those that volunteered

-Complicated system of Lots: prevent bribery +Each of the two parties in a lawsuit had to speak and act for himself, or hire a professional -Be very careful as to how you appeal to the elders -There could be no appeal from a committee of people -You where allowed to commit suicide Problems -Mob rule Mob Justice Forms Of Government Vocabulary- 4 basic realms -Extent of Participation -Style of Rule -Constraint upon regimes -Type of Society Extent Of Participation Autocracy -Ruled by single person Many” ex. Dictatorship Adj. Autocratic Style Of Rule Oligarchy -Ruled by Few ex. Rome Oligarchic Democracy -Ruled by “The Democratic

Monarchy -Hereditary Succession Dictatorship -Rule by strongest Constraint upon the Rule Law Constitutional -The regime is limited by laws ex. Constitution Groups

Republic -Democracy through representation Direct Democracy -No political intermediary Nothing Totalitarian -Competitors and law are eliminated -No competition -Dominates: politics, economy, social life

Authoritarian -Not limited by legality -Has to compete with other forces -Has to Compromise

Type of Society Tribal -Opposing forces Patriarchal -Father figure that dominates others Aristocratic -Person has a rank in society, by birth Democratic -No artificial castigation

“Classical Liberalism” -Western -Blend of: 1.Democratic Government 2.Capitalism 3.Individual Rights

Lecture 4:
Part 1: The Mid-Evil Political Order England & the Dark Ages -england is precursor to American government -Framers looked at England as an example for the constitution TIME PERIOD – 400 AD- 1500's- Mid evil political order *Part II- 1600s Beginning of a new age Aristocracy: There are natural elites by birth (bloodlines are ordained) -Mythology has always been present in society Why? Superstition a) Strongest male dominates in a ritual of conflict b) His bloodline is considered sacred Regime Ideology -Every society has an ideology that rationalizes its political system  Communist regimes= Marxism -Ideology that rationalizes Aristocracy: Davine Right *King was gods chosen agent on Earth Great Chain of Being -Everything has a place in nature -God ordained a celestial and natural order of people God put everything in its place 1)God 2)Angels 3)Man 4)Animals 5)Plants 6)Stones Human Chain Monarchy Aristocracy, Nobility Gentry Peasants, Serfs City Drunks Monarchy- Royal blood, King, Queen, Rulers -King -Queen -Prince -Princess Aristocracy- Great peers, Dukes, Barons, Owned Immense lands -Duke -Marquis -Earl

-Count -Barons Gentry- Middle class, Lower inheritance, Less land -Knights -Esquire -Gentleman- *Gentleman doesn't get hands dirty Peasants- Laborers, Craftsman, Farmers -Yeoman farmer- Work their land -Husbandmen-Less land -Cottagers- Rent land Drunks- City scum, No job, No home *Theoretically a number could be assigned to every person according to their rank in society. Religion and Society -Bibles are not in English -Literacy rates are low -Church does all reading and social gathering -The church is the creature of the state on 2 levels Local Level -Local creature of Baron or Lord National Level -Creature of Monarchy  -Established Church of England  -King appoints Bishops *Land Lord- Gave jobs, and Protection *Servants owed- Servitude, fighting Absolute Monarchy Government as a Personification -King is Country, government is King -You fight for King like Country ==Subjects not Citizens -No citizens -Parent child relationship between King and Subject No Branches Of Government Power over Statues -Overtime kings found this a special kind of decree -Known as a statue *Important pronouncements needed the signature of King and Nobility -This meeting of signing was called parliament Judicial Function -Kings agents adjudicated violations -Cabinets where the highest form of court

*King was only the strongest Aristocrat Caveat -Proved king is not really absolute -He had to live in a strategic environment ( can't piss off too many people) -Nobility had power -Aristocracy had power Part II: The Dawn of the Enlightenment The Birth of Rights Issac Newton- If the world could be understood by laws. Why not Politics? Niccolo Machiavelli- The skillful should rule Martin Luther- Reformation, Literacy, English Bibles, No pope Thomas Hobbes- Support Monarchy but... -Society was a Legal/Social contract -He believed some things are unalienable Rights -But he supported a monarchy John Lock- Reforms Hobbes concept -He supported Hobbes except -The king is subject to be overthrown -King can be removed through revolution if he violates peoples unalienable rights Protestant Reformation -English Bibles -Presbyters- Local church committee taking control -Puritans-Want to break from the church -Radical Quakers- Religious inspiration is in the soul Rise of Parliament -In mid evil period king would call in Nobility to parliament on big issues of 3 kinds 1. Taxes- Peerage would be paying money so they would be involved 2. War- Peerage where affinities 3. Local Interests It Becomes Tradition -Before a law is passed parliament must approve -As more parliaments are called it grows Finally Parliament becomes permanent and king must get its approval on all decisions Rise of the Gentry -By the time parliament is permanent it is composed of 2 things House of Lords- Highest Aristocrats House of Commons- the Gentry -The Gentry rose to power because: -New radical intellectual ideas -Finance Capitalism -Use of banks, Stocks, Trading, Insurance *Before there was only buying and selling -Lead to a different economic structure

-Industrialization (1700s) -Manufacturing -Urbanization -Corporations 1.) More ways to get rich 2.) You don't have to be the first born baron to be rich -*Violates the Chain of Being*-

English Revolution -Goes through immense cultural transformation 1600's -Civil war breaks out 1642 -Beheading of king in 1649 -Then turmoil over what government should rule -Try no Monarchy? Didn't Work -Limited Monarchy In 1688 they form a Constitutional Monarchy -Bring back the king a. King is subject to law b. Parliament names the King c. English people have basic rights that cannot be infringed upon by the king Kings Powers -Commander in chief -Absolute veto -Power to “Prorogue”- forbid parliament to meet -Spoils and patronage English Bill of Rights -Can't tax people without parliament -No detentions of citizen without cause -No military in private homes -Limitations on martial law -King cannot suspend law -No excessive bails England as First Modern Society 2 Party System Social Mobility- classes shift people change Aristocrats- Tory Party- old, inheritance Peasants, Gentry- Whig Party- New way of money The English revolution was a middle class revolution Whigs Tories 1. New Financial system 1. Liked old 2. people vote 2. Chain of being Progressive 3. Land is power


Lecture: 5
Part I: England Fumbles her Colonies The Significance of England England in early 1700s -Permanent Parliament -Central role of the house of commons -Party press (whigs, Tories) -”The rights of an Englishman” -Voting -40 Shilling franchise- only people that had property yielding 40 shillings a year could vote -1722- 330,000 males vote (1/5 of adult males) *England is the Modern Government Social Culture Transformation Change didn't just happen Radical Ideas- inalienable liberty, the origins of society Religious reformation- Democratizing religion Finance Capitalism-Created ability for middle class rank to become rich and powerful Social Mobility- The classes of people shift up or down the social ladder *Gaining power- Whigs *Loosing power- Tory =Political parties born from social mobility Power sharing- based on social classes Monarchy-Royal governance Aristocracy- House of lords Gentry- house of commons Power in society= Power in government English Colonies The New World- very important for Europe resources could Alter National Power 2 Ways to exploit the new World 1. Extraction- take the resources to your country 2. Colonization- Send people to live and expand your boarders, economy, tax revenue -Culture plant seeds of people Colonizations -Sent poor asserters -Sent Paupers -Sent laborers that could not find work in england ( too much labor in england) Mercantilism America is going to supply agricultural products to make English ports richer -Commercial trading network -Merchant marine superiority on the high seas

*London becomes center for trade goods England Needs 1. More cash crops to sell in markets 2. More agricultural products because of lack of land in England Set up a mercantile regime -Puts restrictions on American trade: -Shipping act- (1600s)- must trade with British ships -Navigation Act- Must sail to English ports As a result America Had no: Banks Arms industry Manufacturing Benine Neglect *England left America alone except for above -George III tries to change Benine Neglect Colonies of mid-late 1700s Population -Grew exponentially -4 million by 1776 Internal Reproduction -Woman married in rural areas ages 23-24 and could expect 7-8 children -Broader Immigration Economy Income Distribution -More flat or equal than England -There are gentrified Americans though *eg. Plantation owners Agrarian Society -You grow your crops and eat what you grow “Subsistence Plus” -You sell extra at marketplace -No money in colonies (not a liquid economy) -Has no financial institutions Regional Differences Deep South -Single crop plantation -Slavery Upper South -Single crop plantation (Tobacco) -Slavery Rural Middle -Diversified crops -Little slaves New England -Port towns

-Very little slavery (house slaves) The Great Quandary Begins England and the French Indian War -Lays the ground work for independence France tries challenging claims to English territories (Ohio and Mississippi rivers, and Ohio country) France and Indians vs. English Point: England wins and kicks France out of North America (1760) -Colonists prosper from war -Feeling good towards mother country Psychology: Felt like partners with England Truth: Americans where thought of as Provincial -Americans thought to be lesser Englishman After the war England's empire becomes HUGE -Strongest empire on earth -Close to that of Rome's Brittan's Political Problems -Staggering National debt and it needs a bigger colonial police -“Tax and Spending” problem  George III ascends to the throne at age 23 The Solutions of George III Reasoning- The point of the war was to expand into those areas Taxes caused the biggest uproar Stamp Act -Caused all major problems -Stamps where on any type of paper NEW- direct tax instead of indirect you couldn't avoid it Caused Boycott -Of all British goods (buying or selling) -Hurt British capitalists IT WORKED-stamp act repealed Ben Franklin in London Renowned all over the world *In London trying to work out the stamp act crisis Theory: The Golden Egg (America is your future)- it will become more powerful than England -Wants indirect taxes not direct England listens The Townsend Duties & Declaratory Acts -Tax all things Americans try to sell to england -Expand list of goods on the navigation acts *It doesn't work Americans revolt -They impose boycott  “Boston Massacre”  Final straw- Boston tea Party

Franklin now becomes an American -Not and Englishman Reason: British scold him because his ideas didn't work he realized he was being criticized for being an American Marshall Law and Bloodshed -Parliament passes the Intolerable acts- puts Boston under martial law America Becomes Independent “Extra legal assemblies”- meet in bars or taverns *committees of correspondence -America organizing itself Pamphleteering -Write down “Declaration of rights” -Look at John Locke -Organize and police the boycotts Continental congress -The first government -Representatives from committees around the colonies It works Local rule They want a relationship with England like Scotland has After Bloodshed Declaration of Independence -Symbolic document -Original purpose to get loans from France -England thinks its terrorism -The world sees a police problem Pick Jefferson to write- Lawyer, Colorful Writer, Poetic, and Elegant

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