THE E&P FORUM


            Report No 6.50/238
             September 1996
                   E&P Forum
                   Land Transport Safety Guidelines
                   Report No. 6.50/238
                   September 1996

                   E&P Forum, 25–28 Old Burlington Street, London W1X 1LB
                   Telephone: 44-(0)171-437 6291 Fax: 44-(0)171-434 3721

                   This report has been prepared for the E&P Forum by their Safety, Health and
                   Personnel Competence Committee through their Road Safety Task Force.

                   Mr S. Barber              AIOC, Azerbaijan, Chairman
                   Mr M. Carouso             Western Geophysical
                   Mr N. Cave                Geophysical Safety Resources
                   Mr M. Covil               IAGC
                   Mr R. Finch               Shell
                   Mr J. Godsman             Dowell Schlumberger
                   Mr M. Grépinet            Total
                   Mr J. Hahusseau           Sedco Forex
                   Mr D. Krahn               IADC
                   Mr E. Lebesque            Geo-Train
                   Mr T. Lièvre              Forasol
                   Mr G. Spring              Exploration Logistics
                   Mr R. C Thonger           Geophysical Safety Resources
                   Mrs I. Thomas             E&P Forum

                   The Oil Industry International Exploration & Production Forum is an inter-
  The E&P Forum
                   national association of oil companies and petroleum industry organisa-
                   tions formed in 1974. It was established to represent its members’ inter-
                   ests at the International Maritime Organisation and other specialist agen-
                   cies of the United Nations, and to governmental and other international
                   bodies concerned with regulating the exploration and production of oil
                   and gas. While maintaining this activity, the Forum now concerns itself
                   with all aspects of exploration and production operations, with particular
                   emphasis on safety of personnel and protection of the environment, and
                   seeks to establish industry positions with regard to such matters.

                   At present the Forum has 60 members worldwide, the majority being oil
                   and gas companies operating in 60 different countries, but with a number
                   of national oil industry associations/institutes.

                   Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the infor-
                   mation contained in this publication, neither E&P Forum nor any of its
                   members will assume liability for any use made thereof.

Acknowledgments    Design and layout: Words and Publications, Oxford


INTRODUCTION                                 2   Implementation and Monitoring                 9
                                                   Active Monitoring                           10
BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE LAND                         Reactive Monitoring                         10
TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS                 3     Records                                     10
                                                   Corrective Action                           10
PURPOSE AND SCOPE                            4   Audit and Review                              10
                                                   Management Review                           10
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM                            6
Leadership and Commitment                    6   APPENDICES
Policy and Strategic Objectives              6   1. Land Transport Management System Checklist 11
  Policy Statement                           6   2. Driver Management                          13
  Strategic Objectives                       7   3. Driver Training                            15
Organisation, Resources and Documentation    7   4. Communication and Motivation Methods to
  Organisation                               7      Improve Land Transport Safety              18
  Resources                                  8   5. Risk Evaluation and Management of
  Documentation                              8      Land Transport                             20
Evaluation and Risk Management of                6. Driver’s Handbook                          22
Land Transport                               8
                                                 7. Vehicle Operations                         23
  Recording of Hazards                       9
                                                 8. Care and Maintenance of Vehicles           25
  Risk Reduction Measures                    9
                                                 9. Journey Management Planning                26
Planning                                     9
  Management of Change                       9   10. Emergency Response Plans and Procedures   27
  Contingency and Emergency Planning         9   11. Post-Incident Procedures                  28

                                       The number of serious incidents and fatalities involving motor vehicles
                                       employed in land transport remains stubbornly high, against a general
                                       background of falling lost time injuries. These guidelines are intended to
                                       provide the E&P industry with clear guidance and a shared aim of minimis-
                                       ing vehicle incidents and their associated costs.

                                       Logistics and land transport are multifunctional activities involving person-
                                       nel throughout the E&P industry. All those involved in land transport share
                                       a joint commitment to managing land transport risks in their operation and
                                       to preventing incidents and fatalities, as stated in their HSE policies.
                                       Companies should have in place a management system for land transport
                                       operations based on a full and careful appraisal of the risks, followed by a
                                       clear management strategy to minimise and control those risks to a level
                                       as low as reasonably practicable. Land transport safety management is a
                                       challenge for which there are no easy solutions but which needs to be
                                       actively managed in the same way as other business activities. It requires
                                       commitment from the top, and the attention of competent line managers
                                       to achieve improved performance.

                                       An assessment should be performed of transportation and logistics
                                       issues and the associated risks. Where land transport is provided by a
                                       contractor then the assessment should be conducted before the start of
                                       operations and ideally as part of the pre-contract negotiations. The
                                       assessment should ensure that the responsibilities of the operator, con-
                                       tractor and sub-contractor involved in the operation are clearly defined
                                       and that the management systems of all companies involved in an opera-
                                       tion are integrated to minimise the land transportation risks. The aim
                                       should be to ensure that all vehicle movements are managed through
                                       vehicle selection, provision of vehicles and transport services, equipment
                                       outfit and vehicle allocation, and controlled by clearly identified personnel
                                       with defined responsibilities working to agreed standards.

                                                                BENEFITS OF EFFECTIVE LAND TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

An effective land transport management system should yield benefits
which go well beyond the humane considerations and reduction in the
direct costs that are usually incurred when a land transport related incident

These benefits include, but are not limited to:
q reduction in loss of life and human suffering;
q improvement in health and reduction in related illness;
q reduction in the risks associated with transport operations;
q reduction in the costs related to incidents;
q control and minimisation of damage when an incident occurs;
q clear responsibility for transportation and logistics issues;
q compliance with legal requirements for the operations;
q clear, concise and consistent vehicle operating standards;
q appropriate maintenance schedules and standards;
q lower maintenance costs with fewer breakdowns;
q improved operational procedures, and more efficient transport use;
q employee motivation through training and recognition of their skills;
q reduction in air pollution through better selection and maintenance
   of vehicles; and
q enhancement of company’s image within the local communities and

With an effective system in place all the above-mentioned points can be
positively addressed.


                                       PURPOSE AND SCOPE
                                       The objective of this document is to provide guidance on how to imple-
                                       ment a Land Transport Safety Management System (LTS-MS) for vehicle
                                       operations which is consistent with the E&P Forum Guidelines for the
                                       Development and Application of Health, Safety and Environmental
                                       Management Systems (E&P Forum Report No.6.36/210). Key elements
                                       of the HSE-MS are shown in the table below.

                                         Key Elements                       Addressing

                                         Leadership and        Top down commitment and company culture,
                                         commitment            essential to the success of the system

                                         Policy and            Corporate intentions, principles of action and
                                         strategic             aspirations with respect to HSE

                                         Organisation,         Organisation of people, resources and
                                         resources and         documentation for sound HSE performance

                                         Evaluation            Identification and evaluation of HSE risks for
                                         and risk              activities, products and services, and
                                         management            development of risk reduction measures

                                         Planning              Planning the conduct of work activities, including
                                                               planning for changes and emergency response

                                         Implementation        Performance and monitoring of activities, and how
                                         and monitoring        corrective action is to be taken when necessary

                                         Auditing and          Periodic assessments of system performance,
                                         reviewing             effectiveness and fundamental suitability

                                       The LTS-MS should include:
                                       q all company and third parties vehicles brought onto company
                                          premises or used for company business activities;
                                       q travel on tarmac roads, graded roads and on other surfaces
                                          encountered off road; and
                                       q transporting personnel or freight, or mobile plant (drilling trucks,
                                          vibrator trucks etc).

                                                                             PURPOSE AND SCOPE

These guidelines have been developed to:
q reduce the number of incidents and fatalities involving land transport;
q be relevant to the transportation activities of the E&P industry
q be sufficiently generic to be adaptable to different companies and their
q recognise, and be applicable to, the role of operators, contractors and
q provide guidance on the development of a shared management
   system to control risks; and
q help management to develop consistent policies and operational

The main text of this document is targeted at senior/middle managers.
The appendices give more detailed and specific guidance for land trans-
port line managers and operators.


                                                 LAND TRANSPORT
                                                 MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
                                                 The following sections of these guidelines will assist the nominated
                                                 responsible managers in developing suitable land transport management
                                                 systems for their operations. The main objective is to ensure that their
                                                 activities are planned, carried out, controlled and directed so that risks
                                                 from transportation are minimised.

                                                 Land transport management will respond to the same fundamental princi-
                                                 ples seen in all other forms of management control.

                                                 The LTS-MS should conform to the national or international legal frame-
                                                 work and take account of corporate transport policies within which compa-
                                                 nies conduct their business. An example Land Transport Management
                                                 System Checklist is given in Appendix 1.

                                                 The senior management of the company should demonstrate their com-
                 Leadership and Commitment
                                                 mitment to managing land transport operations in a safe, healthy and envi-
                                                 ronmentally responsible manner.

                                                 Leadership and commitment is demonstrated when management at all levels:
                                                 q set a good example in terms of their own attitude and driving
                                                 q allocate the necessary resources to land transportation and related
                                                    logistic issues;
                                                 q put land transport safety matters high on the agenda of meetings,
                                                    including board meetings;
                                                 q communicate clearly that land transport safety standards are an
                                                    important company requirement;
                                                 q provide appropriate training and assessment for all drivers involved in
                                                    land transport operations;
                                                 q encourage safety promotions and employees’ suggestions for
                                                    measures to improve safety performance, and commend safe practice;
                                                 q set plans and targets, and measure vehicle safety performance of all
                                                    employees; and
                                                 q insist that transport contractor operations meet required standards.

                                                 There should be a clear definition of delegated responsibility to nominated indi-
                                                 vidual managers down through the management structure of the company.

                                                 Policy Statement
               Policy and Strategic Objectives
                                                 The senior management should make clear in a policy statement their
                                                 commitment and expectations of good HSE management. All vehicle own-
                                                 ers and operators should formulate local land transportation HSE policies
                                                 compatible with the corporate HSE policy to improve the safety of land
                                                 transport operations.

                                                 To operate in a safe, efficient and effective manner to reduce incidents,
                                                 eliminate fatalities and to operate in an environmentally sensitive and
                                                 responsible way, the policy statement should include some or all of the
                                                 following features. It should:
                                                 q be publicly available in appropriate local languages and in a bold, easy
                                                     to read format;

                                                                                  LAND TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

q demonstrate the organisation’s commitment to continuously strive for
    improvement in land transport safety performance by mimimising risk;
q give a clear, concise and motivating message that land transport safety
    is as important as other business objectives and that transport
    incidents are avoidable;
q   promote openness and the participation of all individuals in improving
    safety performance;
q   highlight the importance and relevance of an effective organisation to
    manage transport operations and indicate that line managers are
    responsible for land transport safety at all organisational levels;
q   make a commitment to meet all legislative requirements and apply
    responsible standards and procedures where national regulations do
    not exist;
q   challenge the requirement for land transport and consider alternatives,
    with the aim of minimising exposure to the driving environment; and
q   undertake all transport operations with proper regard for the
    environment and to strive to reduce the consumption of fuel,
    emissions and discharges.

The Land Transport Safety Policy Statement should be:
q handed to each employee by their line manager and the implications of
    the policy fully explained in practical terms;
q displayed on notice boards, transport staff offices, drivers’ meeting
    rooms and other prominent locations;
q given to contractors as part of any tender documentation;
q included in driver’s handbook; and
q discussed and explained on training courses.

The LTS-MS policy statement needs to be regularly reviewed by manage-
ment with emphasis on its intent, scope and adequacy.

Strategic Objectives
The Land Transport HSE policy statement provides the starting point for
establishing strategic land transport objectives.

Such objectives should aim to:
q reduce the number of incidents and fatalities;
q minimise the number of journeys and personnel exposure;
q minimise the total number of kilometres driven;
q establish driver selection, testing and training programmes;
q establish and support safe land transport working procedures and
   practices and to strive for an incident-free activity;
q ensure that the company will employ only transport assets, facilities
   and equipment which conform to acceptable standards and that they
   are maintained in a safe and secure condition; and
q specify the need to develop an emergency response capability in
   cooperation with authorities and emergency services.

                                                                               Organisation, Resources and Documentation
An overall management structure for land transportation and its relation to
the implementation of the transport policy within the organisation should
be in place and made widely available. It should clearly identify those peo-
ple who have an active responsibility for land transport management, and
should state what those responsibilities are. All employees who make use
of, or are affected by land transportation (i.e. everybody) should continu-
ally be made aware of their individual responsibilities.


                                                The structure should describe the relationship between:
                                                q different operations;
                                                q operating units and supporting services;
                                                q operators, contractors and sub-contractors; and
                                                q partners in joint ventures.

                                                Land transport safety is a line management responsibility with safety
                                                advisers/trainers etc. assisting line management in the development,
                                                implementation and maintenance of the programme. The following are
                                                general but fundamental points concerning LTS-MS organisation.
                                                q Management representatives should be assigned responsibility,
                                                   authority and accountability for coordinating implementation and
                                                   maintenance of the LTS-MS.
                                                q All employees involved in land transport should be made aware of their
                                                   individual LTS-MS role, accountabilities and responsibilities.
                                                q The company should ensure that personnel performing specific
                                                   assigned LTS-MS activities and tasks are competent.
                                                q The company should ensure and increase competence through the
                                                   identification of training needs and the provision of appropriate training
                                                   for its personnel, both drivers and supervisors.
                                                q The company should ensure that its contractors operate a land
                                                   transport management system. Contractors should be visited and
                                                   supported at regular intervals during the contract period to assist them
                                                   with the integration of their LTS-MS. Joint reviews at regular intervals
                                                   should occur to ensure LTS-MS objectives are achieved.
                                                q The company should maintain procedures to ensure that its employees
                                                   and those of its contractors, partners and others involved with land
                                                   transport at all levels are aware of the requirements of the LTS-MS
                                                   programme. The focus of communication should be on bridging local
                                                   language and cultural understanding.

                                                Management should ensure that adequate resources are made available in
                                                a timely manner to fulfil the strategic objectives set out in the company’s
                                                Land Transport Management plan.

                                                Documentation should be maintained to provide records of the critical
                                                aspects of the land transportation management system. Policies and
                                                responsibilities need to be established for the availability, maintenance and
                                                modification of such documents.

                                                A thorough and comprehensive hazard identification and risk assessment
             Evaluation and Risk Management
                                                of land transport operations should be performed at the earliest opportu-
                            of Land Transport
                                                nity, and at suitable intervals thereafter, by experienced and suitably quali-
                                                fied personnel. Examples of hazards associated with land transport (and
                                                mitigation methods which could be adopted) are given in Appendix 5.

                                                This exercise should cover an assessment of all hazards that could occur
                                                within the land transport of personnel, goods or materials in every aspect
                                                of the planned operation.

                                                The company should maintain procedures to identify potential hazards and
                                                their consequences systematically throughout the total life cycle where
                                                land transport is involved, e.g.:
                                                q planning and sourcing of vehicles;
                                                q routine and non-routine operations;

                                                                                     LAND TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

q incidents and potential emergency situations;
q disposal of vehicles; and
q evaluation of local transport regulations.

Recording of Hazards
The hazards information gained from the risk evaluation should be docu-
mented and incorporated into the LTS-MS, which should demonstrate that:
q all foreseeable hazards associated with land transport have been
q the likelihood and consequences of an incident have been assessed;
q controls to mitigate significant risks are in place; and
q emergency response measures to mitigate incidents are in place.

Risk Reduction Measures
The company should maintain procedures to select, evaluate and imple-
ment measures to reduce risks. Emphasis should be placed on preventa-
tive measures such as enhancing driver performance, security of vehicles
and cargo, and proactive environment protection wherever practicable.
Mitigation measures should include steps to prevent escalation of any
incidents that do occur through effective emergency response.

Effective risk reduction measures and follow-up require visible commit-
ment of management and on-site transport supervisors, as well as the
understanding and ownership of the measures by drivers.

All aspects of land transportation operations, vehicle selection and use should
be planned in line with the policy and strategic objectives of the company.

The plan should especially address the introduction of any new or unusual
techniques, types of transport and type of environment as well as training

A journey management system should be operated to ensure each jour-
ney is necessary, properly organised and supported (See Appendix 9,
Journey Management Planning).

Management of Change
Any changes in the personnel, vehicles, processes and procedures of land
transport in the company have the potential for adverse effects on health,
safety and the environment. All changes should be considered in this light.
Changes which may be critical to the LTS-MS should be reviewed prior to

Contingency and Emergency Planning
The company should maintain procedures to identify foreseeable emer-
gencies, and develop response plans for such situations (See Appendix 10,
Emergency Response Plans and Procedures).

There should be written procedures for all safety critical land transport
                                                                                  Implementation and Monitoring
activities. A monitoring system must be in place to ensure that the man-
agement system is effective, and that procedures are followed.

The land transport activity should be conducted in accordance with the
plans and procedures which have been developed at the transport plan-
ning stage and be consistent with the company’s Land Transport Safety
Policy and related strategic objectives.


                                           Procedures should be in place for both active and reactive monitoring.

                                           Active Monitoring
                                           Active monitoring provides information on the extent to which LTS-MS
                                           requirements are being complied with, and objectives and performance
                                           criteria are being met.

                                           Reactive Monitoring
                                           Reactive monitoring provides information from the investigation of vehicle
                                           incidents (including near misses, ill-health of drivers, vehicle/asset/envir-
                                           onmental damage and safety statistics) that have occurred and provides
                                           insight into the means to prevent similar incidents in the future.

                                           The company should maintain a system of records in order to demon-
                                           strate the extent of compliance with its LTS-MS policy and to document
                                           the extent to which planned objectives and performance criteria have
                                           been met, e.g.:
                                           q reports of inspections, audits, reviews and follow-up actions;
                                           q investigation of incidents and follow-up actions;
                                           q maintenance reports;
                                           q training records; and
                                           q security incidents.

                                           Corrective Action
                                           The company should define who is responsible for initiating corrective
                                           action in the event of non-compliance with specific requirements of the
                                           LTS-MS. Situations of non-compliance may be identified by the monitoring
                                           programme, via communications from employees, contractors, customers,
                                           regulatory authorities, the general public or from incident investigations.

                                           A system of planned and systematic audits of land transport operations
                        Audit and Review
                                           together with management reviews of performance should be estab-
                                           lished and maintained as a normal part of the land transport operations.

                                           The audit plan should identify specific areas to be audited, the frequency
                                           of those audits and the responsibilities for auditing specific
                                           activities/areas. Audit frequency should be determined by the degree of
                                           risk and the results of previous audits and inspections.

                                           Audit protocols should be established which ensure that adequate
                                           resources, personnel requirements and methodologies are in place for
                                           the audit, together with procedures for reporting audit findings and track-
                                           ing the implementation status of audit recommendations.

                                           Management Review
                                           Senior management should carry out a review of the land transport man-
                                           agement system at appropriate intervals to ensure its continuing suitabil-
                                           ity and effectiveness for the ongoing operations.

                                           The review should include audit findings and the status of audit recommen-
                                           dations as well as reports from incident investigations. The review should
                                           consider the continuing suitability of land transport policy and procedures
                                           and should consider any changes in recognising hazards and assessing
                                           risks and changes to the system or procedures since the last review.

                                           The management review should be recorded.

                                                                                                        APPENDIX 1

The purpose of this Appendix is to provide management with a simple
                                                                            Land Transport Management
checklist of the key features of a LTS-MS.
                                                                            System Checklist
q Is there a documented LTS-MS in place?
q Are strategic objectives clearly defined and published?

Responsibility and Accountability
Are responsibilities for land transport management defined for:
q operating (dedicated) vehicles;
q supplying and/or maintaining vehicles;
q driver training and qualifications;
q monitoring drivers’ safety performance;
q monitoring contractor safety performance; and
q line supervisors monitoring the driving performance of subordinates?

Methods of Transportation
q Has the need to use land transport been carefully considered against
  other alternatives?

Vehicle Selection—Fitness for Purpose
q Does the vehicle selection process involve end user departments as
   well as the supplier department?
q Are design and performance features verified against critical
   specifications and regulatory requirements?
q Are specifications for support vehicles in non-transport contracts
   defined and verified by a similar process?

Vehicle Allocation
q Is allocation of vehicles based on transport need, minimising
   unnecessary exposure to traffic hazards?
q Is the use of personally allocated vehicles for social and domestic
   purposes addressed in a policy statement?
q Are vehicle allocations formally reviewed periodically?

Land Transport Contracts
q Does the contractor company have a land transport management
q Is pre-contract assessment made of all contractors’ equipment,
   personnel and safety management?
q Are detailed standards for driver qualifications and experience, driver
   training, vehicle operating procedures and maintenance requirements
   included in tender documentation?
q Are control and review mechanisms included in contracts?
q Do vehicle operating procedures define maximum driving hours, rest
   stops and work cycles?
q Is sub-contracting controlled within the main contract?

Vehicle Support in Contracts
q Are vehicles supporting contractor activities required to meet the same
   standards as those in main transport contracts?
q Is the suitability of vehicles, drivers and management mechanisms
   verified during pre-contract and pre-selection?

Driver Authorisation, Testing and Training
q Is authorisation to drive on company business given in writing to
   employees and visitors?


                                    q Are employees required to drive on company business verified as
                                        meeting company standard?
                                    q Is authorisation to drive company vehicles for leisure purposes established?
                                    q Is a system in place to verify that operator’s and contractor’s
                                        employees meet agreed standards and/or:
                                        • is company verification extended to contractor’s employees;
                                        • does the company have a policy on driving training, which defines
                                          for each job the type of training and refresher frequency; and
                                        • is the training programme properly resourced (no significant backlog)?

                                    Vehicle Operating Standards
                                    Are clear operating standards available to all drivers, covering:
                                    q seat belts;
                                    q other protection for driver and passengers, e.g. roll cages;
                                    q speed limits; and
                                    q tyre pressures and condition?

                                    Do procedures include:
                                    q  journey management;
                                    q  defect reporting;
                                    q  accident reporting; and
                                    q  maintenance schedules?

                                    Vehicle Maintenance Standards
                                    Do vehicle maintenance standards include:
                                    q pre-use inspections;
                                    q routine maintenance frequency (time-/kilometre-based);
                                    q scope of standard maintenance checks;
                                    q criteria for verification of maintenance standards; and
                                    q roadworthiness tests following damage repairs?

                                    Monitoring and Review Mechanisms
                                    Are the following mechanisms for monitoring and review in place:
                                    q driver authorisation and training status;
                                    q vehicle type and equipment standards;
                                    q vehicle allocation;
                                    q audit of driver training;
                                    q progress against safety plans (e.g. number and type of inspections,
                                       audits and training programmes);
                                    q a system to challenge the need for transport and monitor the effects
                                       of change;
                                    q reporting of vehicle defects, unsafe loads and dangerous road conditions;
                                    q a system for obtaining and acting upon information from weather forecasts;
                                    q records of driver attendance levels at safety meetings;
                                    q analysis of results, status and follow-up action of audit programmes,
                                       inspections and safety audits;
                                    q feed-back from supervisors and drivers;
                                    q driver performance assessments of competence (considered most
                                    q staff performance appraisal and absenteeism records;
                                    q shift cycles, duty hours and rest periods;
                                    q vehicle maintenance programmes;
                                    q monitoring fuel consumption of vehicles;
                                    q incident investigation and review;
                                    q reporting of unsafe loads and vehicle defects;
                                    q maintaining company HSE statistical data; and
                                    q monitoring number of accidents, average costs of accidents and total
                                       cost of accidents?

                                                                                                   APPENDIX 2

Driver management is a key part of the land transport management sys-
                                                                               Driver Management
tem. This appendix provides guidance to managers and supervisors to
assist them in the management of all drivers, both professional and non-

Driver Management Procedures
The company should develop procedures for the effective day-to-day man-
agement of drivers. Procedures should be stated clearly, and include:
q selection and recruitment;
q competence assessment and training requirements;
q control of driving and duty hours;
q daily care of vehicles and equipment;
q application of a substance abuse policy;
q disciplinary matters for non-compliance with safety instructions; and
q meetings.

Driver Selection
Driver selection procedures should cover:
q age and experience;
q language (understanding written and verbal instructions);
q personality;
q health;
q driving record and appropriate licences;
q driving skills and knowledge of defensive driving;
q attitude to substance abuse;
q level of general education;
q previous training and qualifications;
q understanding of the highway code and awareness of key land
    transport safety issues; and
q cargo and product knowledge.

Age and Experience
Young or inexperienced drivers are generally more likely to be involved in
serious incidents than older drivers. Companies may have a policy in
respect of driver minimum and maximum age and a specified period of
previous driving experience of similar types and size of vehicles.

A medical examination by an authorised doctor is recommend as a part of
the selection process. Further information on this subject can be obtained
from external medical guidelines (e.g. E&P Forum Health Assessment of
Fitness in the E&P Industry, Report No 6.46/228) or equivalent national

General Education
Drivers need to be literate and numerate in order to follow written work
instructions, read maps and safety bulletins etc. It is recognised, however,
that this requirement cannot always be met. In such circumstances, par-
ticular care will be required during the selection process with respect to
the other qualities required and in the subsequent training programmes
and modes of communication.

Drivers’ Safety Clothing
There is a degree of protection which should be worn by drivers, espe-
cially when carrying out loading and off-loading operations. This can be


                                    supplemented by additional protection for abnormal circumstances as and
                                    when required e.g. when handling hazardous cargo.

                                    Drivers’ Hours
                                    An important factor in vehicle incidents is driver fatigue. Work schedules
                                    should be arranged so that drivers do not exceed specified daily and
                                    weekly periods of duty, which include both driving and other work related

                                                                                                   APPENDIX 3

The extent and nature of training should be sufficient to ensure compli-
                                                                                 Driver Training
ance with the company’s LTS-MS policy and objectives. Such training
should meet or exceed that required by legislation and regulations.
Appropriate records should be maintained. Refresher training should be
scheduled as necessary.

Training Process
Any training undertaken must provide the desired outcomes and enhance
the performance of both the individual and the organisation. Positive atti-
tudes required to achieve safe operating standards are a product of a suc-
cessful safety management system which includes training as one of its

q Identify training needs
In general, training may be required in the following situations:
q where a newly recruited driver is involved;
q where some aspect of driver’s performance (knowledge, skill or
    attitude) does not meet current requirements/standards;
q where aspects of the driver’s job is about to change (such as
    promotion, new duties, new type of vehicle, procedures or
    environment); and
q where refresher training is deemed necessary.

q Define Training Objectives
Once all needs are identified, objectives must be set. These must be clear,
achievable and measurable. Objectives may fall into two categories:
q Individual goals: statements relating to the ability to carry out a
   particular process or task, e.g. ‘at the end of the course the trainee will
   be able to …’ ; and
q Organisational goals: to fit corporate LTS-MS targets, such as a
   reduction in vehicle incidents.

q Implement Training
The training given must be interesting and stimulating and the content
should meet the defined needs.

q Evaluate Training
The effectiveness of the training should be measured against the objec-
tives set.

A practical demonstration of knowledge and ability is an effective way to
assure that the training objectives have been achieved.

Driver-Induction Training
A high percentage of vehicle incidents involve drivers in their first twelve
months with a company. Hence, following selection, the importance of
induction training, supervision by senior drivers, and continuous assess-
ment needs to be stressed.

Newly appointed drivers should attend a driving induction course before
being allowed to drive on company business. The course should be spe-
cific to the job requirement and should include the following topics:
q main features of the LTS-MS, highlighting key policies, rules and
q local culture and attitude to driving;


                                    q   vehicle and driver documentation requirements;
                                    q   local traffic regulations, traffic signs and markings;
                                    q   local incident black spots;
                                    q   the risks of driving and the common causes of incidents;
                                    q   transport incident prevention measures:
                                        • journey management (including maximum driving and duty hours,
                                           formal rest periods);
                                        • defensive driving techniques;
                                        • the effects of medication and substance abuse;
                                        • vehicle design, specification and condition; and
                                        • the benefits of vehicle safety features (including use of seat belts);
                                    q   responsibility for care, cleanliness, inspection and maintenance of
                                        vehicles and associated equipment;
                                    q   product or cargo knowledge (as appropriate);
                                    q   when and where to use Personal Protective Equipment;
                                    q   emergency procedures including product or cargo characteristics; and
                                    q   essential elements of incident reporting.

                                    At the end of induction training each driver should be given written refer-
                                    ence material, which should preferably be in the form of a Driver’s
                                    Handbook, containing information and instructions which will help him to
                                    undertake his duties safely and efficiently (see Appendix 6, Driver’s

                                    Further Driver Training
                                    As soon as practicable, and preferably within three months of being
                                    appointed as a driver working on company business, a further comprehen-
                                    sive driver training course should be attended.

                                    Refresher Training
                                    Following the initial induction and training course, refresher training should
                                    be provided at regular intervals, the actual frequency depending on the cir-
                                    cumstances prevailing within each company. This can take various forms
                                    and could be modularised, but should cover the key training issues facing
                                    the company in the context of the local driving standards and conditions.
                                    One of the main challenges will be to retain the interest of the driver, so
                                    simple repeats of the first course should be avoided. A workshop style for-
                                    mat is an alternative approach, where drivers can become directly involved
                                    in the safety improvement process.

                                    Use of Senior Drivers for Training and Coaching
                                    The use of senior drivers can be an effective method to assist in induc-
                                    tion training of new drivers. Such positions can be used as career devel-
                                    opment opportunities for experienced drivers. Senior drivers need to
                                    demonstrate above average driving skills and be capable of working
                                    effectively in a coaching and monitoring role. As well as evaluating new
                                    recruits and carrying out periodic reviews of existing fleet drivers and
                                    their vehicles, they have a key role to play in the ‘quality control’ aspects
                                    of all driving activities.

                                    Company Licence
                                    Authorisation to drive on company business may be given in writing in the
                                    form of a ‘company licence’ and should be subject to having completed
                                    the required training and/or competence assessment to an acceptable
                                    standard. The driving permit should include:
                                    q driver’s name;
                                    q driver’s photograph;
                                    q employee identification code/number;

                                                                             APPENDIX 3

q company name;
q date of expiry of permit (usually two to three years linked to refresher
   training and satisfactory medical);
q type of vehicle that the driver is eligible to drive;
q signature of driver; and
q signature and date of issuing authority.


                                               APPENDIX 4
     Communication and Motivation Methods to   HSE Committee/Land Transport Safety Committee
               Improve Land Transport Safety   An HSE Committee under the chairmanship of a senior manager can be a
                                               useful channel for communication. Companies operating a fleet of vehi-
                                               cles, particularly in challenging environments, may form a Land Transport
                                               Safety Committee. The chairman should be a member of the related HSE
                                               Committee and have line responsibility for land transport operations. The
                                               HSE/LTS Committee should meet on a regular basis to review:
                                               q all elements of the LTS-MS;
                                               q the implementation of the LTS-MS plan;
                                               q land transport statistical performance data;
                                               q incident reports;
                                               q safety suggestions from the work force;
                                               q safety promotion;
                                               q issues relating to industry committees and government bodies;
                                               q new legislation;
                                               q contractor audit programme and reports/vehicle inspections and
                                                   follow-up as necessary; and
                                               q relevant minutes and action items arising out of other meetings.

                                               Safety Promotion
                                               The effective promotion of safety in the company is essential if positive
                                               attitudes are to be fostered. Promotional campaigns and materials may
                                               include some of the following:
                                               q safety posters displayed in drivers’ mess rooms (posters need to be
                                                    changed regularly if they are to have an impact);
                                               q safety quiz competitions;
                                               q safety notice boards showing number of kilometres driven without
                                               q warning notices of road works and incident black spots; and
                                               q safety theme of the week/month.

                                               Driver Meetings
                                               Regular meetings for drivers should be held to discuss vehicle safety
                                               issues which may cover:
                                               q matters arising from other meetings/committees;
                                               q specific safety concerns of management/awareness programmes;
                                               q driver safety concerns/initiatives;
                                               q current safety performance;
                                               q tachograph infringements;
                                               q unsafe situations at work sites;
                                               q specific hazardous situations on traffic black spots;
                                               q safety issues associated with the vehicles;
                                               q safety promotional activities;
                                               q results of any vehicle incident analysis reports; and
                                               q new legislation.

                                               The results of drivers meetings should be documented. Copies should
                                               also be sent to Safety Committees as appropriate.

                                               Tool Box Meetings
                                               Safety ‘tool box’ meetings, lasting between 5 and 10 minutes, offer a very
                                               effective mode of communication between supervisors and drivers.
                                               Ideally they should be held daily and cover a specific safety point, linked
                                               where appropriate to conditions prevailing on the day (e.g. poor visibility).

                                                                                APPENDIX 4

Tool box meetings can be supported by a weekly one page ‘safety flash’
covering a particular point of concern.

Because of the nature of driving activities, drivers may have little regular
contact with supervisors which can lead to difficulties in maintaining effec-
tive motivation. Supervisors and managers should show a genuine interest
in the welfare of drivers, the tasks they perform and their achievements.
This interest and recognition of skills, knowledge and good performance
will assist in developing a sense of self-esteem and pride in the job.
Whenever possible drivers should be consulted on matters affecting their
job and working environment.

Drivers must be aware that good safety performance is one of the princi-
pal objectives of supervisors and management. The rationale of policies
and procedures and the consequences of not following them should be
clearly communicated.


                                             APPENDIX 5
                                             Evaluating the Risks
        Risk Evaluation and Management of
                                             The following hazards should be considered in the risk evaluation. A haz-
                            Land Transport
                                             ard register should be compiled.

                                             q The Driver
                                             Incident investigations indicate that human behaviour is a primary cause in
                                             the majority of vehicle incidents. A number of driver-related hazards exist.
                                             The driver could be:
                                             q untrained for type of vehicle he is required to drive;
                                             q unaware of the risks;
                                             q without defensive driving skills;
                                             q not medically fit (ref. Health Assessment of Fitness to Work in the
                                                 E&P Industry, E&P Forum Report No 6.46/228);
                                             q under the influence of medication or substance abuse;
                                             q suffering from stress;
                                             q lacking in attention;
                                             q fatigued;
                                             q lacking judgement or experience;
                                             q not using safety or protective devices (seat belts etc.);
                                             q lacking in knowledge of cargo or product;
                                             q asleep at the wheel; or
                                             q blinded by glare, obstructions, dirty windscreen.

                                             q The Vehicle
                                             Hazards associated with vehicles include:
                                             q inadequate selection criteria;
                                             q poor design/inadequate specification/unfit for purpose;
                                             q lack of specific safety features (e.g. side and rear guard protection);
                                             q inadequate maintenance.(e.g. defective or worn tyres);
                                             q inadequate procedures for dealing with defects;
                                             q overloading or inappropriate weight distribution; and
                                             q poor housekeeping.

                                             q External Environment
                                             Incident investigations indicate that external factors are a significant cause
                                             of fatal incidents. The specific hazards of regular routes or particular activi-
                                             ties will be known to the drivers and they should be directly involved in the
                                             risk management process. In some cases it may prove necessary to elimi-
                                             nate the use of certain high risk routes.
                                             External hazards may include:
                                             q rapidly expanding vehicle ownership and untrained drivers;
                                             q drivers of third party vehicles;
                                             q cultural norms and lack of safety awareness e.g. unaware
                                             q inadequate vehicle safety legislation and inadequate law enforcement;
                                             q sabotage or hijack of vehicles and cargoes;
                                             q poor design and maintenance of roads;
                                             q hazardous driving features such as steep hills, narrow bridges, hair-pin
                                                 bends, complex road junctions, steep drops and ditches, floods,
                                                 landslides, rock falls and dangerous objects adjacent to the road,
                                                 temporary obstructions such as parked vehicles and road works;
                                             q off-road operations;
                                             q lack of effective traffic control measures;
                                             q little or no segregation of vehicles from pedestrians/livestock/wild

                                                                            APPENDIX 5

q   nature of terrain (e.g. mountains, deserts, swamps);
q   heat, humidity and glare;
q   dust, rain, snow, ice, fog;
q   hours of daylight;
q   insects, wild animals;
q   pollen; and
q   work demands (speed, short cuts, overload).

Risk Assessment
The level of risk associated with each of the identified hazards can be
assessed after the probability of occurrence is determined and the possi-
ble consequences are defined.

Risk Management
A variety of risk reduction measures may be employed, appropriate to the
nature, probability and severity of the LTS-MS. Prevention measures are
designed to prevent the realization of hazards. Such measures include:
q reducing the exposure of drivers and passengers to unnecessary
q reducing fuel consumption and thereby reducing emissions to the
q limiting systems; and
q vehicle data recorders.

These may also include organisational and system measures, such as:
q  intrinsically safer designs;
q  quality assurance, maintenance and inspection procedures;
q  scheduling plans that take account of human factors;
q  clear and well-communicated work instructions, e.g. Driver’s
q use of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) when transporting
   hazardous cargoes; and
q substance abuse programmes.

Measures are also required to mitigate or lessen the adverse effects, in
the event that an incident prevention measure fails. Such measures
include, amongst others:
q air bags;
q safety belts;
q head restraints; and
q roll bars.


                                           APPENDIX 6
                                           Many companies will already have driver handbooks in place. However,
                       Driver’s Handbook
                                           where these are not available the following framework may be consid-
                                           ered. The handbook should be kept in the vehicle cab. Driver handbooks
                                           should be regularly reviewed.

                                           1. Foreword

                                           2. Company Land Transport Safety Policy

                                           3. Emergency Telephone Numbers

                                           4. The Professional Driver
                                              q risks of driving
                                              q common causes of incidents
                                              q vehicle incident prevention measures
                                              q defensive driving and driver’s responsibilities
                                              q company safety rules
                                              q product/cargo information

                                           5. Legal Responsibilities (as applicable)
                                              q driving hours and rest periods
                                              q what to do when an incident occurs
                                              q weight limits
                                              q authorised routes and parking areas

                                           6. Vehicle Cleanliness
                                              q washing vehicles and cab cleanliness and housekeeping
                                              q safe use of cleaning materials

                                           7. Loading and unloading
                                              q instructions on correct loading and unloading
                                              q emergency uplift and cargo handling equipment
                                              q specialist cargo handling
                                              q passenger care

                                           8. Technical
                                              q vehicle operation
                                              q vehicle safety features
                                              q inspection

                                           9. Emergency Response
                                              q incident procedures
                                              q cargo shedding and spill containment
                                              q breakdown procedures
                                              q first aid
                                              q fire fighting

                                                                                                      APPENDIX 7

This appendix provides guidance to managers and supervisors to assist
                                                                                 Vehicle Operations
them in the management of vehicle operations. The management of vehi-
cle operations should take into account the following.
q Vehicle operations should take account of the journey management
q Freight should only be carried on vehicles that are properly designed
    for the purpose.
q Vehicles should not be overloaded.
q Attention should be given to positioning of heavy or dense loads so as
    not to overload or damage any part of the vehicle or to affect its
q Freight should be securely fixed before movement and proper use
    made of pallets and dunnage. All freight vehicles should be equipped
    with securing equipment (including lashings, chains, binders, nets as
    necessary) and there should be clear instructions as to its proper use.
q The vehicle should have adequate locking and security, particularly for
    the transportation of hazardous materials (a safe/secure parking area
    should be provided for overnight stops).
q Drivers should be briefed on the special provisions applicable to the
    load and their understanding of those provisions checked before
    movement. When transporting chemicals or materials of a hazardous
    nature the driver must be competent to handle any incident that may
    occur. The relevant Materials Safety Data Sheets must also be carried
    on the vehicle.
q Potentially reactive chemicals or materials should be segregated so
    that they cannot be brought into contact with each other.
q The company should comply with government or other local
    regulations and restrictions including such aspects as route
    restrictions, requirements for police escort, action in event of
    obstructions, etc. This may be equally applicable to wide/high loads.
q Where journeys by road are part of an international journey which
    may include other transport modes (rail, sea, air) the requirements
    for freight classification packaging and labelling may need to comply
    with the requirements of internationally-based recommendations/
q Audio-visual warning devices for reversing will help avoid third party
    ‘crush’ incidents.
q Carriage of passengers and freight in same vehicle.

Carriage of Passengers and Freight in Care Vehicles
Passengers and freight should be carried in separate compartments; there
should be a means of securing freight to the vehicle, i.e. securely attach-
ing boxes to the vehicle. Conversion of a vehicle designed to carry freight
to passenger carrying should include safe means of boarding and should
comply with local regulations. All fuel containers should be correctly and
clearly labelled, and should not be carried inside passenger compartments.

Vehicle cleanliness both in the cab and outside are an important part of vehi-
cle safety. Procedures regarding the cleaning of vehicles externally and
internally should be documented and form part of the driver’s handbook.


                                    Passenger Compartments
                                    All seating should be securely fixed; passengers should be seated whilst
                                    travelling. The maximum passenger load should be indicated on the vehi-
                                    cle. There should be means for the driver to observe passengers carried in
                                    the rear of the vehicle. On trucks, buggies and semi-trailers converted to
                                    passenger carrying service, fixed sides should be fitted to the passenger
                                    space at least to the height of seated passengers. For off road, rough road
                                    and all uses with significant risk of roll over, all occupants should have roll
                                    bar protection. The occupants of light commercial vehicles should be pro-
                                    tected by a steel body shell if roll bar protection is not provided. Sideways
                                    facing seats should be avoided where possible.

                                    Seat Belts
                                    The use of seat belts by all occupants of cars, vans and goods vehicles
                                    should be mandatory. Belts should be of the lap/sash configuration incor-
                                    porating automatic retraction and deceleration activated emergency lock-
                                    ing mechanisms—often referred to as ‘inertia reels’. Where there are
                                    more than two seats in a row, lap belts are acceptable for centre seat pas-
                                    sengers. For vehicles used in off road operations, consideration may need
                                    to be given to the use of four point harnesses. Where a vehicle has rear
                                    seats, except for buses, these seats should be fitted with seat belts. On
                                    buses, seat belts should be worn by the driver and front seat passengers
                                    and, as a minimum, by all passengers seated in front of an open space,
                                    e.g. on a rear seat facing the aisle or on a seat adjacent to the doorway.

                                    Speed Limits
                                    Speed limits set for premises and road systems should be seen to be
                                    enforced by line management. Speed limits where defined shall be promi-
                                    nently displayed in all vehicles. Speed limiting rules for vehicles on public
                                    roads should be set with caution. Enforcing compliance with a limit which
                                    is significantly lower than the limit set by traffic authorities or lower than
                                    local norms may increase vehicle hazards due to overtaking.

                                    Tyre Pressures and Condition
                                    Tyres are an important safety feature requiring careful selection, and oper-
                                    ators should be guided by manufacturers’ recommendations. The condi-
                                    tion of tyres has a significant effect on vehicle steering, road holding, fuel
                                    consumption and braking performance. Tyres need to be maintained at the
                                    correct operating pressure. The tyre pressures recommended should be
                                    displayed on vehicles and drivers should be given the means to check
                                    them. Drivers should be responsible for checking tyre condition on a regu-
                                    lar basis, and reporting any deficiencies.

                                    Electronic Tachographs (Vehicle Data Recorders)
                                    Electronic tachographs/vehicle data recorders are an effective way of mon-
                                    itoring: driving hours; duty hours; rest periods; acceleration and braking
                                    rates; speeds and unscheduled stops.

                                                                                                                APPENDIX 8

                                                                                 Care and Maintenance of Vehicles
Supervisors and drivers should ensure that all vehicles are roadworthy and
correctly fitted with the appropriate safety equipment before a journey
commences. Care of the vehicle should be the responsibility of the driver.
Both driver and supervisor have the following responsibilities in respect of
vehicle care:
q daily and weekly inspections of the vehicle on the basis of checklists
   (tyres, fluids, brakes, steering, batteries, lights etc.);
q ensuring defects that have an immediate effect on safety are reported
   and that they have been repaired before the vehicle is put back into
q ensuring that non-critical defects are attended to in a timely manner;
q ensuring that servicing and maintenance are carried out as scheduled.

Drivers should be seen as professionals and be expected to take full
responsibility for safety and the safety status of the vehicle. This responsi-
bility can be enhanced by linking drivers to specific vehicles.

In order to ensure that proper levels of safety are maintained, all vehicles
should be subject to a regular road worthiness inspection, the frequency
of which should be determined on the basis of local regulations, manufac-
turer’s recommendations, vehicle age, distances travelled and operating

Management should therefore ensure road worthiness of all vehicles by
implementation of an effective maintenance programme which should
q setting of appropriate maintenance standards;
q establishment of schedules for inspection and testing;
q ensuring check-lists cover all safety related items;
q availability of appropriately qualified and equipped staff with efficient
    working facilities to adequately inspect and maintain vehicles;
q an adequate supply of spare parts;
q an effective system for drivers to report defects;
q a procedure for vehicles to be taken out of service until critical defects
    are rectified;
q ready access for drivers to maintenance, inspection and current defect
    status reports; and
q special detailed inspection and repair procedures for vehicles involved
    in incidents.


                                          APPENDIX 9
                                          Journey Management Objectives
            Journey Management Planning
                                          q to assure the health and safety of all travellers and reduce risk
                                          q to challenge the need for unnecessary journeys and to undertake only
                                             the minimum number of journeys necessary;
                                          q to maximise the efficiency of each journey;
                                          q to avoid or minimise the effect of all identified hazards likely to be
                                          q to be able to recover in a timely manner from any incident;
                                          q to monitor journey performance; and
                                          q to ensure that drivers are fully aware of journey plans and any hazards.

                                          Journey Planning
                                          Once the need for a journey has been established then aspects of journey
                                          management should be introduced which will assist in reducing the risk of
                                          an incident. Systems need to be in place for:
                                          q selecting appropriate vehicle for the task—maximise payload carried to
                                              minimise number of journeys;
                                          q establishing and controlling maximum speeds;
                                          q controlling duty hours and rest periods;
                                          q establishing standard journey times;
                                          q implementing optimum time for travel and driver shift patterns;
                                          q route identification and planning, avoiding high risk areas where
                                              possible (poor road surface, delay situations, urban congestion);
                                          q setting designated routes for certain categories of vehicles (height,
                                              width, length, weight, cargo);
                                          q provision of auxiliary equipment, e.g. tow chains, shovels, ice chains,
                                              survival kits, extra wheels, extra fuel, vehicle parts (lamps, fuses, filters,
                                              fan belts, radios, emergency flares, emergency locator beacons);
                                          q checking survival kit contents, e.g. to verify that they are the correct
                                              type for the season and sufficient for the number of travellers;
                                          q checking that sufficient fuel is provided for the journey, allowing for
                                              detours or long stretches of slow speeds and that fuel is available en
                                          q checking that correct maps and, where appropriate, compasses or
                                              Global Satellite Positioning System (GPS) units are carried;
                                          q the provision of communication systems in the vehicle (e.g. mobile
                                              phones or radios etc.);
                                          q establishing agreed stopover points en route and reporting status back
                                              to base at regular intervals;
                                          q authorising and recording deviations from the planned route;
                                          q designating contact points for advising base, both en route and at end
                                              of journey;
                                          q recording the journey details, times, locations to be visited and number
                                              of people travelling;
                                          q the driver to maintain a log of the journey details;
                                          q emergency response and provision of resources for search and rescue;
                                          q recording of travellers with special skills e.g. first aid, survival training,
                                              recovery training;
                                          q awareness of special health hazards associated with the region where
                                              vehicles will transit;
                                          q avoiding roadworks; and
                                          q implementing changes due to weather conditions.

                                                                                                            APPENDIX 10

The roles and responsibilities of employees dealing with emergencies
                                                                                Emergency Response Plans and Procedures
should be documented. To assess the effectiveness of response plans,
procedures should be established to test emergency plans by scenario
drills and other suitable means, at appropriate intervals, and to revise them
as necessary in the light of the experience gained. Procedures should also
be in place for the periodic assessment of emergency equipment needs
and the maintenance of such equipment in a ready state.

Emergency plans should be based on risk assessments and could include:
q driver lost in hostile environment;
q vehicle stolen or sabotaged;
q vehicle off the road;
q overturned vehicle;
q vehicle fire/explosion in various situations (urban, isolated);
q single/multi fatality collisions;
q loss of cargo/load;
q leaking hazardous cargo;
q cargo or product fire;
q tyre fire;
q hazardous chemical incident;
q pollution (water, land, air); and
q trailer incidents (detachment, cargo loss).

Responses should be documented for each event where a significant risk
has been assessed.

Roles and responsibilities of the company, contractors, vehicle recovery
specialists, authorities and emergency services will vary from country to
country. In all cases, however, effective working relationships and chan-
nels of communication need to be developed.

Every vehicle should carry instructions for emergency services or other
third parties to alert the vehicle owners in an emergency, which can be
used 24 hours each day. Effective communication is vital in dealing with
an off-site emergency such as a traffic incident. Consideration should be
given to fitting mobile radios or telephones, and where vehicles are oper-
ating in remote areas, consideration should be given to fitting GPS (Global
satellite positioning systems).

In some operations it is impractical to have a single telephone point of call
and in such cases it is important that multiple contact numbers are clearly
differentiated from one another, e.g. by providing a map showing the
areas in which the number applies.

Procedures dealing with medical emergencies should be developed.
Incidents involving injury to people usually occur away from the depot or
operating location. The provision of medical response should be identified.


                                            APPENDIX 11
                                            Post-incident procedures fall into four phases:
                 Post-Incident Procedures
                                            q initial incident report;
                                            q making the scene safe;
                                            q treatment of injured; and
                                            q vehicle recovery.

                                            Initial incident report
                                            The initial incident report should contain the following information:
                                            q location, cause, time, urgency, anyone injured;
                                            q details of vehicle, damage and its situation;
                                            q description of terrain, how far from road and route in;
                                            q weather conditions;
                                            q how many people available to assist;
                                            q whether radio contact possible with location; and
                                            q any additional support required for personnel at the scene.

                                            Making the scene safe
                                            The following issues need to be considered:
                                            q additional hazards, e.g. traffic, terrain, weather, time of day;
                                            q hazard warning signs, traffic control (positioning of other vehicles);
                                            q initial radio alert, location/time and preliminary assessment;
                                            q use of bystanders or uninjured;
                                            q maintenance of access for emergency services (crowd control);
                                            q fire fighting, e.g. correct extinguisher application to vehicle fire and
                                               running fires;
                                            q fire prevention, e.g. isolate ignition/master switches, batteries, fuel spills;
                                            q dangerous cargo, e.g. fuel, chemicals, explosives;
                                            q unstable vehicles—if a hazard, make safe using material to hand;
                                            q location and condition of injured;
                                            q control and use of bystanders; and
                                            q second radio alert—details of injured and support needed.

                                            Treatment of Injured
                                            The following issues should be considered:
                                            q safety of self and injured—remove danger;
                                            q leave injured in place unless under threat;
                                            q identify injured with life threatening conditions and treat (airways, heart
                                               stoppage, major bleeding);
                                            q stabilise vehicle to prevent further injury from vehicle movement;
                                            q if access to injured is difficult, move vehicle carefully, otherwise gain
                                               access through windscreen or windows;
                                            q be prepared for spinal injuries and, where required, fit cervical collars;
                                            q never leave the unconscious unattended;
                                            q leave the minor injured or secondary minor injuries to last—reassure;
                                            q record vital signs; and
                                            q ensure that everyone is accounted for.

                                            Suitable personnel should be trained in advanced procedures for the main-
                                            tenance of life, how to take charge in a medical emergency, and record
                                            vital signs and patient history until superior medical support arrives.

                                            Vehicle Recovery
                                            Vehicle recovery is hazardous and should only be undertaken by a trained
                                            specialist using equipment dedicated for recovery purposes.

                                                                               APPENDIX 11

Recovery Scene Assessment
Time spent on assessment is never wasted and the recovery team should con-
q whether the route in is suitable as the way out;
q soil type, e.g. whether hard, soft, wet, muddy etc.;
q condition of incident vehicle, e.g. whether on wheels/tracks, rolled over;
q damage to incident vehicle, e.g. brakes locked or free, gear seized;
q position of incident vehicle in relation to terrain;
q danger from incident vehicle, e.g. hydraulic/air pressure;
q danger from cargo or spillages;
q obstacles, natural or otherwise; and
q natural features of vehicles to be used to advantage.

The Recovery Plan
When planning recovery operations, consideration should be given to:
q the pull to overcome, mass, incline, soil resistance and damage, and
   application of safety factor;
q ensure that the equipment applying the pull is adequate and meets
   safety requirements;
q the route out: this may not be straight and more than one recovery rig
   may be required; an assessment of where to anchor the recovery rig
   should also be made; and
q the type of recovery rig available, its advantages and disadvantages.

The Recovery Operation
A safe and effective recovery will involve the following procedures:
q attachment of recovery rig to the incident vehicle’s strong points;
q laying out the rig, using mechanical advantage;
q testing each element for security;
q prestressing of rig for safety check;
q clearing area of unnecessary personnel;
q confirming with recovery crew that the command signals are understood;
q commencement of recovery, monitoring for safety;
q when incident vehicle is on firm ground make secure—recover and
   stow equipment;
q check incident vehicle for damage, and prepare for towing; and
q leave incident area safe and clear of debris.


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