chapter 14 Introduction
14.1 The safety and security of the Games Family,
spectators and workforce client groups is a primary focus
– the resulting potential risks2;
– those being exposed to the risk; and
– the mitigation measures that are currently being used,
Transport safety for the ODA during the planning for the Games. There is or are necessary to reduce any residual risk and
a requirement to ensure that all passengers across all impact to a level that is as low as is reasonably
and security modes can travel safely and that they perceive that they practicable.
14.5 The ODA’s Transport team is considering the issue
14.2 An integrated approach to planning and the of safety risk in terms of both ‘societal risk’ and ‘individual
operational delivery of transport safety and security is risk’. Societal risk describes the chance or probability of
critical to the successful execution of these key Games one incident causing harm to a number of people.
operations. Individual risk describes the probability that an individual
will be harmed by a particular event or incident.
Strategic approach to transport safety 14.6 The ODA’s Transport team will adopt appropriate,
14.3 The ODA is committed to ensuring that safety industry-accepted criteria to define the acceptability of
risks are properly managed and that all necessary societal and individual risks. These criteria will be
measures are put in place to prevent significant integrated into the design and implementation of
accidents. In order to reduce the risk of an incident transport operations.
occurring, the strategic approach of ODA’s Transport
team to safety risk management is based on the Delivery of transport during the Games
following principles. 14.7 To ensure that the safety risks associated with
delivering transport during the Games are properly
All existing transport delivery partners have mature and addressed a range of different tools, techniques and
approved safety management arrangements in place and controls will be used. These methods will take the form of
will use existing tools and techniques to ensure significant both qualitative and quantitative assessments, as
hazards and risks are managed so far as reasonably appropriate for the given issue. A number of key plans
practical. The ODA’s Transport team is assuming a and standards are under development, which will
watching brief over safety assurance for the transport provide guidance in the use of such analysis. These
programme. include the:
Obligations – Service Delivery Plans for the Olympic Games and
14.4 In order to discharge its safety obligations the Paralympic Games;
ODA will focus on seeking assurance that the following – Transport Safety Management Plan; and
are assessed, understood and controlled: – Design and Construction Health, Safety and
– the safety hazards1 associated with transport
1 A hazard is defined as something that has the potential to cause harm.
2 A risk is defined as the likelihood or probability of the hazard being realised.
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Transport Safety Management System risks and controls, and to ensure effective communication, 14.16 To support the strategic approach a
14.8 During the Games, operational safety decisions cooperation and coordination. comprehensive plan has been developed. It includes:
will usually be taken by transport operators. However,
where this is not the case, in order to ensure that safety 14.12 This Forum will continue to meet on a regular basis – physical security
is managed in an appropriate manner, a dedicated right up until the Games and will comprise core members – target hardening (security fences, CCTV etc)
Transport Safety Management System is being as well as dedicated specialist working groups as – access control;
developed to support Games-time operational safety appropriate. – people security
decision-making. A best practice framework has been – crime prevention
adopted as the model for the system. 14.13 In addition, the consideration of transport safety – vetting of personnel;
will be an integral part of the operational meetings which – information security
14.9 The system will be supported by a suite of take place between the ODA’s Transport team and its – IT security
documents. The ODA is working with its delivery delivery partners. – protection of documentation;
partners to develop a structured and hierarchical – operational readiness
approach to safety assurance while minimising Security – crowd movement and evacuation
duplication and re-work. Strategic approach to transport security – scenario planning;
14.14 Following discussions with the Olympic Security – capability building
Transport Safety Forum Coordinator and the Olympic Security Directorate (OSD) – finance in place
14.10 An ODA-led Transport Safety Forum has been set it has been agreed that it is fundamental to the process – agreed delivery programmes
up comprising representatives from: of designing a positive Games experience that transport – appropriate technology in place; and
and transport security are developed in an – legacy
– Transport for London; interdependent way, thereby minimising the risk of them – long-term benefit including community engagement.
– Network Rail; compromising one another.
– Train Operators; 14.17 The ODA and LOCOG are working in partnership
– BAA; 14.15 The Olympic Security Directorate has developed a with the Olympic Security Directorate to create an
– the Office of Rail Regulation; and high-level, risk assessment approach to analysing overarching transport strategy. The police and security
– the Rail Safety and Standards Board. transport security issues for the Games. This risk-based agencies will be consulted during the development of the
approach will also take account of intelligence, scenario strategy and it will be developed in parallel with the
14.11 The purpose of the Forum is to maximise the testing and a risk-based programme. emerging detail of the transport plans.
understanding of mode and interface-specific hazards,
Chapter 14: Transport safety and security Page 181
14.18 It is recognised that the scale, form and nature of Transport Security Working Group 14.24 These transport security scenarios will test all
security threats will change over time and the plans will 14.21 The Transport Security Working Group (TSWG) elements of transport security, across all modes. The
be flexible to enable an effective response. The Olympic includes representation from LOCOG, the ODA, the content of scenarios will be derived from the risk
Security Directorate will provide updated threat police, the Olympic Security Directorate, the Department register.
assessments that will inform the transport security plans for Transport, TRANSEC, the Home Office, the
and underlying risk assessments. Department for Culture, Media and Sport, and Transport 14.25 The transport security risk register is a key driver in
for London. It has been established to coordinate the the development of the transport security strategy. By
Key elements of the strategy include: approach to transport security. understanding the scale and nature of individual threats it
will be possible to design and then implement
– input of transport security planning into the design of 14.22 A number of initiatives fall within the remit of the proportionate mitigation measures during both the design
infrastructure programmes; Transport Security Working Group including: and operational phases.
– the design of security overlays to be put in place during
the Games; – the development of an overarching transport 14.26 While the results of the work carried out by the
– assessing any additional requirements to maintain the security strategy commensurate with the overall Transport Security Working Group will not be available
security of line of route for both rail and road; security approach laid down by the Olympic for public consultation, the outputs will influence the
– maintaining the security of Games Family vehicles from Security Directorate; design and operation of Games transport services for
kerb to kerb; and – the development of a transport security risk all Games Family, spectator and workforce groups.
– operational training and deployment of staff to register; and
reinforce existing security training programmes. – input into the Olympic Security Directorate’s
programme of security scenarios that are programmed
14.19 Additionally, the lessons learnt from recent and from May 2007 until 2012.
future Olympic Games and Paralympic Games and
similar events will be incorporated into the strategy. 14.23 The transport security risk register will be fed into
the overarching Olympic Security Directorate’s risk
14.20 A stand-alone document with a restricted management process.
circulation will be produced. The strategy document will
be consistent with this and future editions of the
Page 182 Transport Plan for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games – first edition
Transport Coordination, Command, Control 14.31 LOCOG will implement a Main Operations Centre – the ability to adjust over half of London’s 6,000 sets of
and Communication (MOC) to oversee all Games-time activities, including traffic signals through the Urban Traffic Control system;
Introduction transport and transport safety and security. It will act as – an extensive CCTV network;
14.27 The ODA’s Transport team and LOCOG have five the decision-making authority with a remit to respond to – Pinpoint, a mapping system with data overlays of
key objectives, of which three specifically relate to the significant issues requiring an integrated response, for real-time congestion data and network assets;
Coordination, Command, Control and Communication example, where: – the London Traffic Information System, an ‘experience
of Transport (C4). They are to: bank’ which contains knowledge about congestion
– resource-sharing is an issue; events, the extent of disruption and the effectiveness
– provide safe, secure, inclusive, fast, and reliable – the decision affects multiple venues or precincts; of remedial action; and
transport for the Games Family client groups; – there maybe a significant financial impact; or – a network of roadside variable message signs to
– provide frequent, reliable, friendly, inclusive, – a broader policy issue or special sensitivity is involved. directly inform road users in both real time and in
accessible, environmentally friendly and simple advance of network conditions and/or planned
transport for spectators and visitors from around the 14.32 As a key functional area, Transport will be present events.
UK and overseas; and in the Main Operations Centre. It will be responsible for
– keep London and the rest of the UK moving during the ensuring that: 14.35 It is planned that two existing facilities,
Games and thus make it a positive experience to host CentreComm and MetroComm are relocated alongside
the Games. – Games-wide coordination and consistency is the London Traffic Control Centre in a co-located control
maintained; centre. CentreComm is the bus system control centre
14.28 Accordingly, the ODA’s Transport team and LOCOG – the Transport team is supported ‘on the kerb’; and MetroComm is part of the Metropolitan Police’s
are developing a carefully considered C4 structure that – action is taken quickly to resolve any issues that are Operational Command Unit tasked with enforcing bus
will be put in place during the Games to help achieve escalated; and corridors and managing pinch points around London.
these objectives. – an effective communication channel exists between the This relocation would have happened regardless of
Main Operations Centre and the Olympic Transport the Games and represents an exponential step
14.29 The Transport C4 structure will be developed to Operations Centre (OTOC). forward in the management and policing of London’s
integrate the overall command and control structure for transport systems.
the Games. It will bring together the key transport and Transport Control Centres
security delivery agencies into a holistic, cohesive and 14.33 As previously noted, ‘Keep London and the rest of Olympic Transport Operations Centre
flexible vehicle with the tools necessary to effect the UK moving’ is a key objective for both the ODA’s 14.36 The role of the Olympic Transport Operations
successful operations. Transport team and Transport for London. The challenge Centre is to ensure a seamless integration of London’s
will be to minimise the impact of Olympic Games and transport and security agencies with transport
Main Operations Centre (MOC) Paralympic Games vehicle movements on daily London operations for the Games. Therefore, it is proposed that
14.30 A fundamental principle of C4 across the Games is traffic thereby allowing London to continue to function the Olympic Transport Operations Centre will be
to devolve decision making to the lowest level as far as is as normal during the Games. established adjacent to the London Traffic Control
practicable, within agreed levels of authority. This Centre. This will integrate Games transport with the
approach will allow the relevant operational teams to London Traffic Control Centre established centre for management of road and
react in a timely fashion to any situation. By adopting this 14.34 The London Traffic Control Centre is the central transport operations throughout London.
approach it will often be possible to achieve a resolution operations hub for traffic management in London. It
before the situation escalates into an incident which may constantly monitors traffic and coordinates responses to
then require input from a higher authority. congestion. A number of tools are utilised by the London
Traffic Control Centre, which allows preventative
measures to be taken and facilitates speedy responses
to any traffic issues that occur. These tools include:
Chapter 14: Transport safety and security Page 183
14.37 While the London Traffic Control Centre will Olympic Route Network Security Venue security
continue its core road management tasks with an 14.39 The Olympic Route Network (ORN), while part of 14.43 A secure perimeter will be established around all
additional focus on maintaining a free flow of traffic on the public highway, will be subject to enhanced levels of venues. Passage through the perimeter will be strictly
the Olympic Route Network, the Olympic Transport supervision through patrols by authorised personnel and controlled and monitored. Any person wishing to
Operations Centre will address systematic issues and by remote surveillance, for example from the London access the venue must possess either a valid Games
act as the centre for coordination of all transport Traffic Control Centre. Identity and Accreditation Card or a valid event ticket.
activities during the Games. This will enable an They will also pass through a Pedestrian Screening Area
inclusive, multi-modal operation to take place with 14.40 The drivers of Games Family vehicles will be (PSA) similar in design and operation to airport security
representation from London 2012, Transport for London, instructed to use the ORN, only deviating from it under passenger checks.
Network Rail, London Underground, Docklands Light certain prescribed conditions. An example of which may
Railway, Train Operating Companies, London Buses, be to avoid unexpected congestion, or to follow a 14.44 A Traffic Controlled Zone will be established within
coach operators, the Highways Agency, and the contingency route because of an incident that is blocking the secure perimeter, into which only official Games
emergency services. the preferred route. vehicles will be allowed to enter. Vehicle Permit
Checkpoints (VPC) will be established at strategic vehicle
14.38 The ODA, LOCOG and Transport for London 14.41 Games Family fleet vehicles will be further access points into the venue. All vehicles wishing to enter
recognise the critical importance of planning, building, protected by measures that may include remote tracking pass this point must display a valid Vehicle Access and
testing, and delivering the Olympic Transport and surveillance. Additionally, some vehicles or client Parking Permit (VAPP). Once vehicles have been
Operations Centre in a timely fashion. The process of groups may be further protected by the presence of processed through the VPC they will be required to pass
defining OTOC’s scope and objectives is well police or security officers on board vehicles. through a Vehicle Screening Area (VSA), where the
underway. vehicle will be screened by security.
14.42 A working group responsible for planning and
delivering the security of the ORN will be established, Passenger security
comprising the police and Olympic Security Directorate, 14.45 Spectators travelling to competition venues by
Transport for London, the Highways Agency, local public transport will be protected by enhanced security in
authorities and other key stakeholders. the form of increased policing, remote surveillance and
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