History of Science Part One The Development of Atomic by bzu20592

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									History of Science Part One: The Development of Atomic Theory

In order to appreciate scientific knowledge and inquiry, it is important to look back and see how we got to where we
are at present. One of the most significant theories in science is the one that attempts to explain the composition of
matter, Atomic Theory.
In this assignment you will be expanding on the information presented in your grade 9 science course related to
development Atomic Theory. You will begin with some ancient Greek philosophers and progress through to the
modern theory. The main question that you will be dealing with is "What is the composition of matter?" Other
questions to keep in mind are: "How can we classify matter?", "What are elements?", "Why does matter behave the
way it does?". As well, you will read of the development of scientific method and find that many of the early
contributors were called philosophers and only in the last 200 years characterized as meteorologists, chemists,
physicists or biologists

You will have two major tasks to complete:
        1.       Complete a summary table and transform this into an illustrated timeline.
        2.       Select two persons of interest and write a two page biography.

Task One: Table and Timeline for the Development of Atomic Theory

  A. The names in the table attached represent some of the best known but not the only contributors to Atomic
       Theory.
       Use a variety of reference sources to add information to this table.
       In some cases, a key word or question is given with a name to help you focus your search for information.
       You may find the table too restrictive for space. You may set up an alternate table format that gives you extra
       space but limit yourself as per the following description of what is required. This is meant to show evidence
       of your reading and research, not an exhaustive history essay.
         Date: approximate, birth to death or date of sited contribution
         Where from: nationality of origin and location of work related to contributions
         Contributions: key words, point form summary of idea or model or theory or law contributed
                            as per the questions stated above
         Evidence: key words, point form summary of methods or experiments that were used to support the
contributions
         Problem: either lack of ability to test theory or new evidence that theory could not explain or
                            questions that theory could not answer

  B. Produce an illustrated timeline which can fold to fit into a regular 8 1/2" by 11" paper notebook.
     (minimum size 8 1/2" by 28" or 11" by 17")
     Your time line need not be to scale. It should indicate dates, names, main contributions with illustrations of
     models, experiments, etc. Use space wisely and don't crowd. It should be easy to read and eye catching.




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History of Science Part Two: Biographies from the Development of Atomic Theory

As stated in Task One, the names in the table attached represent some of the best known but not the only
contributors to Atomic Theory. For this task you are to select two persons who you are interested in learning more
about and write a biography for each.

Who should you write about?

At least one person must be from the table completed for Task One.
The second could be:
          a)      from the table but must be in a different century from the first
          b)      from the table but must be a different gender than the first
          c)      a person not from the table that you came across in your research
                  that you feel should be recognized for his/her contribution.

What to include in your biography?

Your biography for each person should be three pages long. It should be about 750 words and include diagrams or
illustrations to enhance the presentation. You should include a bibliography that sites at least three sources for your
information. A title page is optional.

You should refer to the following information and do your own research into how to write an interesting biography.




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       How to Write an Interesting Biography By Grace Fleming, About.com

       A biography is defined as a written account of the series of events that make up a person’s life.
             Yikes, that sounds a little dry, doesn't it? Nonetheless, while researching the subject of your biography,
             you’ll want to collect all the basic facts of your subject’s life experience.
             These include:             Date and place of birth and death; Family information; Lifetime
             accomplishments;
                                        Major events of life; Effects/impact on science and society, historical
             significance
       While this information is necessary to your project, these dry facts don’t really make a quality biography.
       Once you’ve found these basics, you’ll want to dig a little deeper.
       You will choose your person because you think he or she is interesting, so you certainly don’t want to burden
       your paper with an inventory of boring facts. The last thing you want to do is bore your teacher. Your goal is
       to impress your reader!
       As always, you’ll want to start off with a bang and captivate your reader.
       It's a good idea to begin with a really interesting statement, a little known fact, or really intriguing event.
       After all, your teacher has probably read other biographies concerning your subject. You’ll want yours to
       stand out.
       Considering that, you should avoid starting out with a standard but boring line like:
       "Meriwether Lewis was born in Virginia in 1774."
       Try starting with something like this:
       "Late one afternoon in October, 1809, Meriwether Lewis arrived at a small log cabin nestled deep in the
       Tennessee Mountains. By sunrise on the following day, he was dead, having suffered gunshot wounds to the
       head and chest. His body was also slashed several times with a shaving razor."
       This opening is much more enticing, isn’t it? You can find lots of interesting things like this on the Internet.
       As always, be sure to keep track of your sources!
       You’ll have to make sure your beginning is motivating, but it should also be relevant. The sentences will
       appear gratuitous if they don’t lead to a point, so the next sentence or two should lead in to your thesis
       statement, or main message of your biography.
       “It was a tragic end to a life that had so deeply affected the course of history in the United States. Meriwether
       Lewis, a driven and often tormented soul, led an expedition of discovery that expanded a young nation’s
       economic potential, increased its scientific understanding, and enhanced its worldwide reputation.”
       Now that you’ve created an impressive beginning, you’ll want to continue the flow. Find more intriguing
       details about the man/women and his/her work, and weave them into the composition.
       Examples of interesting details:
       Some people believed that Lewis and Clark would encounter elephants in the western wilderness, having
       misunderstood the wooly mammoth bones discovered in the United States.
       The expedition resulted in the discovery and description of 122 new animal species and subspecies.
       Lewis was a hypochondriac.
       His death is still an unsolved mystery, although it was ruled a suicide.
       Fill the body of your biography with material that gives insight to your subject’s personality. For instance, in
       a biography about Meriwether Lewis, you would ask what traits or events motivated him to embark on such a
       monumental exercise.
       Questions to consider in your biography:
       Was there something in your subject’s childhood that shaped his/her personality?
       Was there a personality trait that drove him/her to succeed or impeded his progress?
       What adjectives would you use to describe him/her?
       What were some turning points in this life?
       What was his/her impact on history?
       Be sure to use transitional phrases and words to link your paragraphs and make your composition paragraphs
       flow. It is normal for good writers to re-arrange their sentences to create a better paper.

       The final paragraph will summarize your main points and re-assert your main claim about your subject. It
       should point out your main points, re-name the person you’re writing about, but it should not repeat specific
       examples.


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       As always, proofread your paper and check for errors. Create a bibliography and title page according to your
       teacher's instructions. Consult a style guide for proper documentation.

       A good source for help is the school website and the school library.




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     History of Science Part One: The Development of Atomic Theory

      Date       Person             Where from       Contributions           Evidence            Problem/
                                                     Idea/Model/Theory/Law   Method/Experiment   Unanswered Question
1                Thales

2                Democritus

3                Aristotle

4                Francis Bacon

5                Robert Boyle

6                Antoine
                 Lavoisier
7                Henry
                 Cavendish
8                Joseph Proust

9                Joseph Priestly

10               John Dalton

11               J. L. Gay-Lussac

12               J. A. Charles

13               Amedeo
                 Avogadro


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14               Humphry Davy

15               Jons Jakob
                 Berzelius
16               J. W.
                 Dobereiner
17               John A.
                 Newlands
18               Julius Meyer

19               Dmitri
                 Mendeleev
20               William
                 Crookes
21               Eugen Goldstein

22               J. J. Thomson

23               A. Becquerel

24               Marie & Pierre
                 Curie
25               Ernest
                 Rutherford
26               Max Plank

27               Albert Einstein

28               Niels Bohr


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29               Fritz Haber

30               Henry Mosely

31               Louis de Broglie

32               Erwin
                 Schodinger
33               W. Heisenberg

34               W. Pauli

35               F. Hund

36               James Chadwick

37               Linus Pauling

38




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