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Lec2Intro2_Revised07_

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					  Epidemiology
      and
  Public Health

Introduction, Part II
      Changing Patterns of
       Community Health

• Health patterns in constant state of flux
• Infectious versus chronic diseases
• Population and age-related
         Chain of Infection
•   Etiological agent
•   Source/Reservoir
•   Portal of exit
•   Mode of transmission
•   Portal of entry
•   Susceptible host
Modes of Transmission

 • Contact transmission
 • Vehicle transmission
 • Vector transmission
   Classes of Epidemics

• Common source (vs. sporadic)
 Point source
                 Your Assignment:
 Intermittent    Define these terms
                 & identify which apply
 Continuous         to the following
 Propagated           three graphs
    Disease Investigation
• Establish diagnosis
• Identify specific agent
• Describe according to person, place
  and time
• Identify source of agent
• Identify mode of transmission
• Identify susceptible populations
 Epidemiology and Clinical
         Practice
• Clinical practice dependent on
  epidemiology
• Epidemiology defines natural history
  of disease
• Even descriptive information is
  useful
         The Epidemiologic
             Approach
•   Multistep process
•   First - determine association
•   Then prove causation
•   Not all associations are causal
•   Examine validity, false assumptions-
    e.g. - fluoride in water
      Analytic Studies

• Type of study
• Design
• Analysis of data
       Epidemiology and
          Prevention
• Identify high risk populations
• Modify risks
• Prevent exposures
   Levels of Prevention

• Primary
• Secondary
• Tertiary
 Levels of Prevention (cont’d)

• Primary

 Involves halting any occurrence of
  a disease or disorder before it
  happens
 Levels of Prevention (cont’d)

• Secondary

 Health screening and detection
  activities
 Levels of Prevention (cont’d)

• Tertiary

  Retard or block the progression of
   condition

				
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posted:5/23/2010
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