1 Overview
2 Principles
3 Approach
4 Way Forward: Eight National Missions
   National Solar Mission
   National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
   National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
   National Water Mission
   National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan
   National Mission for a "Green India"
   National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
   National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for
     Climate Change
5 I m plem e nt at io n o f Mi ss io ns : I ns ti t ut io nal
  Arrangements for Managing Climate Change
6 Technical Document
                 National Action Plan on Climate Change

1. Overview                                              prosperous, but not wasteful society, an economy that
                                                         is self-sustaining in terms of its ability to unleash the
India is faced with the challenge of sustaining its      creative energies of our people and is mindful of our
rapid economic growth while dealing with the global      responsibilities to both present and future genera-
threat of climate change. This threat emanates from      tions.
accumulated greenhouse gas emissions in the                        Recognizing that climate change is a global
atmosphere, anthropogenically generated through          challenge, India will engage actively in multilateral
long-term and intensive industrial growth and high       negotiations in the UN Framework Convention on
consumption lifestyles in developed countries. While     Climate Change, in a positive, constructive and for -
engaged with the international community to collec-      ward-looking manner. Our objective will be to
tively and cooperatively deal with this threat, India    establish an effective, cooperative and equitable
needs a national strategy to firstly, adapt to climate   global approach based on the principle of common
change and secondly, to further enhance the ecolog-      but differentiated responsibilites and respective
ical sustainability of India's development path.         capabilities, enshrined in the United Nations
        Climate change may alter the distribution        Framework Convention on Climate Change
                                                         (UNFCCC). Such an approach must be based on a
and quality of India's natural resources and adversely
affect the livelihood of its people. With an economy     global vision inspired by Mahatma Gandhi's wise dic-
closely tied to its natural resource base and climate-   tum—The earth has enough resources to meet peo -
                                                         ple's needs, but will never have enough to satisfy
sensitive sectors such as agriculture, water and
forestry, India may face a major threat because of the   people's greed. Thus we must not only promote sus-
projected changes in climate.                            tainable production processes, but equally, sustain-
        India's development path is based on its         able lifestyles across the globe.
unique resource endowments, the overriding priority                Finally, our approach must also be compatible
of economic and social development and poverty           with our role as a responsible and enlightened
eradication, and its adherence to its civilizational     member of the international community, ready to
                                                         make our contribution to the solution of a global
legacy that places a high value on the environment
and the maintenance of ecological balance.               challenge, which impacts on humanity as a whole.
        In charting out a developmental pathway          The success of our national efforts would be signifi-
                                                         cantly enhanced provided the developed countries
which is ecologically sustainable, India has a wider
spectrum of choices precisely because it is at an
earlystage of development. Our vision is to create a

                                                  NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 3
affirm their responsibility for accumulated green-         sustainable development.
house gas emissions and fulfill their commitments
under the UNFCCC, to transfer new and additional           Effecting implementation of programmes through
financial resources and climate friendly technologies       unique linkages, including with civil society and
to support both adaptation and mitigation in devel-         local government institutions and through public-
oping countries.                                            private-pa rtnersh i p.
        We are convinced that the principle of equi -
ty that must underlie the global approach must allow       Welcoming international cooperation for research,
each inhabitant of the earth an equal entitlement to        development, sharing and transfer of technologies
the global atmospheric resource.                            enabled by additional funding and a global IPR
        In this connection, India is determined that        regime that facilitates technology transfer to
its per capita greenhouse gas emissions will at no          developing countries under the UNFCCC.
point exceed that of developed countries even as we
pursue our development objectives.

                                                          3. Approach

2. Principles                                             cerns of the country through a directional shift in the
                                                          development pathway, including through the
Maintaining a high growth rate is essential for           enhancement of the current and planned pro -
increasing living standards of the vast majority of our   grammes presented in the Technical Document.
people and reducing their vulnerability to the                     The National Action Plan on Climate Change
impacts of climate change. In order to achieve a sus-     identifies measures that promote our development
tainable development path that simultaneously             objectives while also yielding co-benefits for address-
advances economic and environmental objectives,           ing climate change effectively. It outlines a number
the National Action Plan for Climate Change               of steps to simultaneously advance India's develop-
(NAPCC) will be guided by the following principles:       ment and climate change-related objectives of adap-
                                                          tation and mitigation.
 Protecting the poor and vulnerable sections of
  society through an inclusive and sustainable devel-
  opment strategy, sensitive to climate change.
                                                          4. The Way Forward:
 Achieving national growth objectives through a             Eight National Missions
  qualitative change in direction that enhances eco -
  logical sustainability, leading to further mitigation   In dealing with the challenge of climate change we
  of greenhouse gas emissions.                            must act on several fronts in a focused manner simul-
                                                          taneously. The National Action Plan hinges on the
 Devising efficient and cost-effective strategies for    development and use of new technologies. The
  end use Demand Side Management.                         implementation of the Plan would be through
                                                          appropriate institutional mechanisms suited for
 Deploying appropriate technologies for both             effective delivery of each individual Mission's objec-
  adaptation and mitigation of greenhouse gases e-        tives and include public private partnerships and civil
  missions extensively as well as at an accelerated       society action. The focus will be on promoting
  pace.                                                   understanding of climate change, adaptation and
                                                          mitigation, energy efficiency and natural resource
 Engineering new and innovative forms of market,         conservation.
  regulatory and voluntary mechanisms to promote
The NAPCC addresses the urgent and critical con-
        There are Eight National Missions which          would result in a saving of 10,000 MW by the end of
form the core of the National Action Plan, represent-    11th Five Year Plan in 2012.
ing multi-pronged, long-term and integrated strate-                To enhance energy efficiency, four new ini-
gies for achieving key goals in the context of climate   tiatives will be put in place. These are:
change. While several of these programmes are
already part of our current actions, they may need a      A market based mechanism to enhance cost effec-
change in direction, enhancement of scope and            tiveness of improvements in energy efficiency in
effectiveness and accelerated implementation of          energy-intensive large industries and facilities,
time-bound plans.                                        through certification of energy savings that could be
                                                          Accelerating the shift to energy efficient appliances
4.1. National Solar Mission                              in designated sectors through innovative measures
                                                         to make the products more affordable.
A National Solar Mission will be launched to signifi-     Creation of mechanisms that would help finance
cantly increase the share of solar energy in the total   demand side management programmes in all sectors
energy mix while recognizing the need to expand          by capturing future energy savings.
the scope of other renewable and non-fossil options       Developing fiscal instruments to promote energy
such as nuclear energy, wind energy and biomass.         efficiency
        India is a tropical country, where sunshine is
available for longer hours per day and in great inten-
sity. Solar energy, therefore, has great potential as    4.3. National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
future energy source. It also has the advantage of
permitting a decentralized distribution of energy,       A National Mission on Sustainable Habitat will be
thereby empowering people at the grassroots level.       launched to make habitat sustainable through
Photovoltaic cells are becoming cheaper with new         improvements in energy efficiency in buildings, man-
technology. There are newer, reflector-based tech-       agement of solid waste and modal shift to public
nologies that could enable setting up megawatt           transport. The Mission will promote energy efficiency
scale solar power plants across the country. Another     as an integral component of urban planning and urban
aspect of the Solar Mission would be to launch a         renewal through three initiatives.
major R&D programme, which could draw upon
international cooperation as well, to enable the cre-    i.       The Energy Conservation Building Code,
ation of more affordable, more convenient solar          which addresses the design of new and large com-
power systems, and to promote innovations that           mercial buildings to optimize their energy demand,
enable the storage of solar power for sustained,         will be extended in its application and incentives pro-
long-term use.                                           vided for retooling existing building stock.

                                                         ii.       Recycling of material and Urban Waste
4.2. National Mission for Enhanced                       Management will be a major component of ecologi-
     Energy Efficiency                                   cally sustainable economic development. India
                                                         already has a significantly higher rate of recycling of
The Energy Conservation Act of 2001 provides a legal     waste compared to developed countries. A special
mandate for the implementation of the energy effi-       area of focus will be the development of technology
ciency measures through the institutional mecha-         for producing power from waste. The National
nism of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) in the     Mission will include a major R&D programme, focus-
Central Government and designated agencies in            ing on bio chemical conversion, waste water use,
each state. A number of schemes and programmes           sewage utilization and recycling options wherever
have been initiated and it is anticipated that these     possible.

                                                   NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 5
                                                         special effort to increase storage capacity. Incentive
iii. Better urban planning and modal shift to            structures will be designed to promote water-neutral
public transport. Making long term transport plans       or water-positive technologies, recharging of under-
will facilitate the growth of medium and small cities    ground water sources and adoption of large scale
in ways that ensure efficient and convenient public      irrigation programmes which rely on sprinklers, drip
transport.                                               irrigation and ridge and furrow irrigation.

In addition, the Mission will address the need to        4.5. National Mission for Sustaining the
adapt to future climate change by improving the              Himalayan Ecosystem
resilience of infrastructure, community based disas-
ter management, and measures for improving the           A Mission for sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
warning system for extreme weather events.               will be launched to evolve management measures
Capacity building would be an important component        for sustaining and safeguarding the Himalayan gla-
of this Mission.                                         cier and mountain eco-system. Himalayas, being the
                                                         source of key perennial rivers, the Mission would,
                                                         inter-alia, seek to understand, whether and the
4.4. National Water Mission                              extent to which, the Himalayan glaciers are in reces-
                                                         sion and how the problem could be addressed. This
A National Water Mission will be mounted to ensure       will require the joint effort of climatologists, glaciol-
integrated water resource management helping to          ogists and other experts. We will need to exchange
conserve water, minimize wastage and ensure more         information with the South Asian countries and
equitable distribution both across and within states.    countries sharing the Himalayan ecology.
The Mission will take into account the provisions of               An observational and monitoring network
the National Water Policy and develop a framework        for the Himalayan environment will also be estab-
to optimize water use by increasing water use effi-      lished to assess freshwater resources and health of
ciency by 20% through regulatory mechanisms with         the ecosystem. Cooperation with neighbouring
differential entitlements and pricing. It will seek to   countries will be sought to make the network com-
ensure that a considerable share of the water needs      prehensive in its coverage.
of urban areas are met through recycling of waste
                                                                The Himalayan ecosystem has 51 million peo-
water, and ensuring that the water requirements of
                                                         ple who practice hill agriculture and whose vulnera-
coastal cities with inadequate alternative sources of    bility is expected to increase on account of climate
water are met through adoption of new and appro-
                                                         change. Community-based management of these
priate technologies such as low temperature desali-
                                                         ecosystems will be promoted with incentives to com-
nation technologies that allow for the use of ocean      munity organizations and panchayats for protection
                                                         and enhancement of forested lands. In mountainous
         The National Water Policy would be              regions, the aim will be to maintain two-thirds of the
revisited in consultation with states to ensure basin    area under forest cover in order to prevent erosion
level management strategies to deal with variability     and land degradation and ensure the stability of the
in rainfall and river flows due to climate change.       fragile eco-system.
This will include enhanced storage both above and
below ground, rainwater harvesting, coupled with
equitable and efficient management structures.           4.6. National Mission for a Green India
         The Mission will seek to develop new regula-
tory structures, combined with appropriate entitle-      A National Mission will be launched to enhance eco-
ments and pricing. It will seek to optimize the effi-    system services including carbon sinks to be called
ciency of existing irrigation systems, including reha-   Green India. Forests play an indispensable role in the
bilitation of systems that have been run down
andalso expand irrigation, where feasible, with a

preservation of ecological balance and maintenance        4.8. Natinal Mission on Strategic Knowledge
of bio-diversity. Forests also constitute one of the          for Climate Change
most effective carbon-sinks.
        The Prime Minister has already announced a        To enlist the global community in research and tech-
Green India campaign for the afforestation of 6 mil-      nology development and collaboration through
lion hectares. The national target of area under forest   mechanisms including open source platforms, a
and tree cover is 33% while the current area under        Strategic Knowledge Mission will be set up to identify
forests is 23%.                                           the challenges of, and the responses to, climate
        The Mission on Green India will be taken up       change. It would ensure funding of high quality and
on degraded forest land through direct action by          focused research into various aspects of climate
communities, organized through Joint Forest               change.
Management Committees and guided by the                             The Mission will also have, on its research
Departments of Forest in state governments. An initial    agenda, socio-economic impacts of climate change
corpus of over Rs 6000 crore has been earmarked for       including impact on health, demography, migration
the programme through the Compensatory                    patterns and livelihoods of coastal communities. It
Afforestaion Management and Planning Authority            would also support the establishment of dedicated
(CAMPA) to commence work. The programme will              climate change related academic units in Universities
be scaled up to cover all remaining degraded forest       and other academic and scientific research institu-
land. The institutional arrangement provides for          tions in the country which would be networked. A
using the corpus to leverage more funds to scale up       Climate Science Research Fund would be created
activity.                                                 under the Mission to support research. Private sector
                                                          initiatives for development of innovative technolo-
                                                          gies for adaptation and mitigation would be encour-
4.7. National Mission for Sustainable                     aged through venture capital funds. Research to
     Agriculture                                          support policy and implementation would be under-
                                                          taken through identified centres. The Mission will
The Mission would devise strategies to make Indian        also focus on dissemination of new knowledge based
agriculture more resilient to climate change. It          on research findings.
would identify and develop new varieties of crops
and especially thermal resistant crops and alternative
cropping patterns, capable of withstanding extremes
of weather, long dry spells, flooding, and variable       5. Implementation of Missions
moisture availability.
        Agriculture will need to be progressively         These National Missions will be institutionalized by
adapted to projected climate change and our agri-         respective ministries and will be organized through
cultural research systems must be oriented to moni-       inter-sectoral groups which include in addition to
tor and evaluate climate change and recommend             related Ministries, Ministry of Finance and the
changes in agricultural practices accordingly.            Planning Commission, experts from industry, acade-
        This will be supported by the convergence         mia and civil society. The institutional structure
and integration of traditional knowledge and practice     would vary depending on the task to be addressed
systems, information technology, geospatial               by the Mission and will include providing the oppor-
technologies and biotechnology. New credit and            tunity to compete on the best management model.
insurance mechanisms will be devised to facilitate                 Each Mission will be tasked to evolve specific
adoption of desired practices.                            objectives spanning the remaining years of the
        Focus would be on improving productivity of
rainfed agriculture. India will spearhead efforts at
the international level to work towards an ecologi-
cally sustainable green revolution.

                                                   NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 7
11th Plan and the 12th Plan period 2012-13 to 2016-      also, importantly, launch the economy on a path that
17. Where the resource requirements of the Mission       would progressively and substantially result in miti-
call for an enhancement of the allocation in the 11th    gation through avoided emissions.
Plan, this will be suitably considered, keeping in
mind the overall resources position and the scope for
re-prioritisation.                                       5.1. Institutional Arrangements for
         Comprehensive Mission documents detailing         Managing Climate Change Agenda
objectives, strategies, plan of action, timelines and
monitoring and evaluation criteria would be devel-       In order to respond effectively to the challenge of cli-
oped and submitted to the Prime Minister's Council       mate change, the Government has created an
on Climate Change by December 2008. The Council          Advisory Council on Climate Change, chaired by the
will also periodically review the progress of these      Prime Minister. The Council has broad based repre-
Missions. Each Mission will report publicly on its       sentation from key stake-holders, including
annual performance.                                      Government, Industry and Civil Society and sets out
         Building public awareness will be vital in      broad directions for National Actions in respect of
supporting implementation of the NAPCC. This will        Climate Change. The Council will also provide guid-
be achieved through national portals, media              ance on matters relating to coordinated national
engagement, civil society involvement, curricula         action on the domestic agenda and review of the
reform and recognition/ awards, details of which will    implementation of the National Action Plan on
be worked out by an empowered group. The Group           Climate Change including its R&D agenda.
will also consider methods of capacity building to                The Council chaired by the Prime Minister
support the goals of the National Missions.              would also provide guidance on matters relating to
         We will develop appropriate technologies to     international negotiations including bilateral, multi-
measure progress in actions being taken in terms of      lateral programmes for collaboration, research and
avoided emissions, wherever applicable, with refer-      development. Details of the institutional arrange-
ence to business as usual scenarios. Appropriate indi-   ment are at Annexure 1.
cators will be evolved for assessing adaptation bene-           The NAPCC will continue to evolve, based on
fits of the actions.                                     new scientific and technical knowledge as they
                                                         emerge and in response to the evolution of the mul-
These Eight National Missions, taken together, with      tilateral climate change regime including arrange-
enhancements in current and ongoing programmes           ments for international cooperation.
included in the Technical Document, would not only
assist the country to adapt to climate change, but

               Annexure - I

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1 Background to India's National Action Plan on Climate Change
2 Some Current Programmes on Adaptation and Mitigation
3 Way Forward: Eight National Missions
  3.1 National Solar Mission
  3.2 National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
  3.3 National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
  3.4 National Water Mission
  3.5 National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem
  3.6 National Mission for a Green India
  3.7 National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
    3.8 National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change
4 Other Initiatives
5 International Cooperation
6 References
1. Background to India's National Action                     cangenerate the required financial, technological and
   Plan on Climate Change                                    human resources. In view of the large uncertainties
                                                             concerning the spatial and temporal magnitude of
The Fourt h Asse ssme nt re port of t he                     climate change impacts, it is not desirable to design
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-             strategies exclusively for responding to climate
AR4)1 concluded from direct observations of                  change. Rather, the need is to identify and prioritize
changes in temperature, sea level, and snow cover in         strategies that promote development goals while
the northern hemisphere during 1850 to the                   also serving specific climate change objectives.
present, that the warming of the earth's climate                     It is imperative to identify measures that pro-
system is unequivocal. The global atmospheric                mote our development objectives, while also yield-
concentration of carbon dioxide has increased from a         ing co-benefits for addressing climate change
pre-industrial value of about 280 ppm to 379 ppm in          effects. Cost- effective energy efficiency and energy
2005. Multi-model averages show that the                     conservation measures are of particular importance
temperature increases during 2090-2099 relative to           in this connection. Similarly, development of clean
1980-1999 may range from 1.1 to 6.4°C and sea level          energy technologies, though primarily designed to
rise from 0.18 to 0.59 meters. These could lead to           promote energy security, can also generate large
impacts on freshwater availability, oceanic                  benefits in terms of reducing carbon emissions. Many
acidification, food production, flooding of coastal          health — related local pollution controls can also gen-
areas and increased burden of vector borne and               erate significant co-benefits in terms of reduced
water borne diseases associated with extreme                 greenhouse gas emissions. This document identifies
weather events..                                             specific opportunities to simultaneously advance
        The Prime Minister's Council on Climate              India's development and climate related objectives
Change, in its first meeting on 13 th July, 2007, had        of adaptation and GHG mitigation.
decided that "A National Document compiling                          It also describes India's willingness and
action taken by India for addressing the challenge of        desire, as a responsible member of the global com-
Climate Change, and the action it proposes to take"          munity, to do all that is possible for pragmatic and
be prepared.                                                 practical solutions for all, in accordance with the
        The National Action Plan for Climate Change          principle of common but differentiated responsibili-
responds to the decision of the PM's Council, as well        ties and respective capabilities. The purpose of this
as updates India's national programmes relevant to           document is also to create awareness among repre-
addressing climate change. It identifies measures            sentatives of the public at large, different agencies
that promote our development objectives, while also          of the government, scientists, industry — in short, the
yielding co-benefits for addressing climate change           community as a whole — on the threat posed by cli-
effectively. It lists specific opportunities to simultane-   mate change and the proposed steps to counter it.
ously advance India's development and climate related
objectives of both adaptation as well as greenhouse
gas (GHG) mitigation.                                        1.1.        The Imperative of Poverty Alleviation
        India's development agenda focuses on the
need for rapid economic growth as an essential pre-          Economic reforms, implemented since 1991, have
condition to poverty eradication and improved stan-          resulted in faster growth of the Indian economy. GDP
dards of living. Meeting this agenda, which will also        growth rates have averaged roughly 8% during
reduce climate —related vulnerability, requires large-       2004-2008. However, 27.5% of the population still
scale investment of resources in infrastructure, tech-       lived below the poverty line in 2004-05 and 44% are
nology and access to energy. Developing countries            still without access to electricity. The Approach Paper
may lack the necessary financial and technological           to the Eleventh Plan emphasizes that rapid econom-
resources needed for this and thus have very low             ic growth is an essential prerequisite to reduce
coping capacity to meet threats from climate                 poverty. The poor are the most vulnerable to climate
changes. Only rapid and sustained development
change. The former Prime Minister, late Smt. Indira                   1.3 Current Carbon Dioxide Emissions in India
Gandhi, had stated: 'poverty is the worst polluter'.
Therefore, development and poverty eradication                        India's CO2 emissions per capita are well below the
will be the best form of adaptation to climate                        world's average2. Per capita carbon dioxide emis-
change.                                                               sions of some regions in the world in 2004 are as fol-
        The impacts of climate change could prove                     lows:
particularly severe for women. With climate change,
there would be increasing scarcity of water, reduc-                   Table 1.3.1: A comparison of India's per capita GHG emissions
tion in yields of forest biomass, and increased risks to              with some other countries
human health with children, women and the elderly                     Country                   Per-Capita Carbon-dioxide
in a household becoming the most vulnerable. With                                                 emissions (metric tons)
the possibility of decline in availability of foodgrains,
the threat of malnutrition may also increase. All                     USA                                                   20.01
these would add to deprivations that women already                    EU                                                     9.40
encounter and so in each of the Adaptation pro-                       Japan                                                  9.87
grammes, special attention should be paid to the                      China                                                  3.60
aspects of gender.                                                    Russia                                                11.71
                                                                      India                                                  1.02
                                                                      World Average                                          4.25
1.2 Relationship between Human Development
    Index and Energy Consumption                                      India has a well-developed policy, legislative, regula-
                                                                      tory, and programmatic regime for promotion of
The strong positive correlation between energy use                    energy efficiency, renewable energy, nuclear power,
and human development is well recognized (Figure                      fuel switching, energy pricing reform, and addressing
1.2.1). It is obvious that India needs to substantially               GHG emissions in the energy sector. As a consequence
increase its per capita energy consumption to provide                 of these measures, India's energy intensity of the
a minimally acceptable level of well being to its                     economy has come down sharply since the 1980s and
people.                                                               compares favourably with the least energy intensive
                                                                      developed countries3.
Figure 1.2.1: Human Development Index versus per capita
electricity consumption

                                                                      Figure 1.3.2: India's Energy intensity of GDP based on
                                                                      International Energy Agency data4

 ;1 ,   0.9                                                                         Energy intensity of GDP (kgoel$ 2000 PPP)
        0.8                                                                       0 .3 1 -
 1   2 0. 7                                                                       0.29-
        0.6                                                            0_
 CL                                                                           8   0 .2 7 -
 7 0.5                                                                   Si 0.25 -
                                                                        t 0.23 -
 c    0.4 =                                                            (..0
                                                                              0.21 -
 .                                                                     cn
                             Ref: Human Development Report )2006)                 0.19 -

                                                                         le `,2
                             Published for the United Nations                     0.17 -

                             Development Programme (UNDP)              I-
         0.2                                                                  0.15
                      100                   1000              10000                             LC1
                                                                                                        rn r n r n   0 0 rsi 0
                                                                                                                     0    00        0
                                                                                                01      an rn          N• rsi
               Per Capita Electricity Consumption in kWh/year                                                        -•4
                                                                                                                                        rsi esi

                                                                                             NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 13
1.4. Observed Changes in Climate and                       and (ii) a significant decrease in the frequency of
       Weather Events in India                             moderate events over central India from 1951 to
There are some observed changes in climate param-
eters in India. India's Initial National Communication,     Rise in Sea Level
2004 (NATCOM 1)5 to UNFCCC has consolidated                Using the records of coastal tide gauges in the north
some of these. Some highlights from NATCOM I and           Indian Ocean for more than 40 years, Unnikrishnan
others are listed here. No firm link between the doc-      and Shankar have estimated, that sea level rise was
umented changes described below and warming due            between 1.06-1.75 mm per year. These rates are con-
to anthropogenic climate change has yet been estab-        sistent with 1-2 mm per year global sea level rise esti-
lished.                                                    mates of IPCC.

 Surface Temperature                                       Impacts on Himalayan Glaciers
At the national level, increase of — 0.4° C has been       The Himalayas possess one of the largest resources of
observed in surface air temperatures over the past         snow and ice and its glaciers form a source of water
century. A warming trend has been observed along           for the perennial rivers such as the Indus, the Ganga,
the west coast, in central India, the interior peninsu -   and the Brahmaputra. Glacial melt may impact their
la, and north-eastern India. However, cooling trends       long-term lean-season flows, with adverse impacts
have been observed in north-west India and parts of        on the economy in terms of water availability and
south India.                                               hydropower generation.

 Rainfall                                                        The available monitoring data on Himalayan
While the observed monsoon rainfall at the all-India       glaciers indicates that while recession of some gla-
level does not show any significant trend, regional        ciers has occurred in some Himalayan regions in
monsoon variations have been recorded. A trend of          recent years, the trend is not consistent across the
increasing monsoon seasonal rainfall has been found        entire mountain chain. It is accordingly, too early to
along the west coast, northern Andhra Pradesh, and         establish long-term trends, or their causation, in
north-western India (+10% to +12% of the normal            respect of which there are several hypotheses.
over the last 100 years) while a trend of decreasing             Under the National Action Plan, these data will
monsoon seasonal rainfall has been observed over           be updated and refined continuously and additional
eastern Madhya Pradesh, north-eastern India, and           reliable data will be collected.
some parts of Gujarat and Kerala (-6% to —8% of the
normal over the last 100 years).
                                                           1.5.    Some Projections of Climate Change over
 Extreme Weather Events                                   India for the 21st Century
Instrument records over the past 130 years do not
indicate any marked long-term trend in the frequen-        Some modelling and other studies have projected
cies of large-scale droughts and floods. Trends are        the following changes due to increase in atmospher-
however observed in multi-decadal periods of more          ic GHG concentrations arising from increased global
frequent droughts, followed by less severe droughts.       anthropogenic emissions:
There has been an overall increasing trend in severe
storm incidence along the coast at the rate of 0.011        Annual mean surface temperature rise by the end
events per year. While the states of West Bengal and       of century, ranging from 3 to 5° C under A2 scenario
Gujarat have reported increasing trends, a decline         and 2.5 to 4° C under B2 scenario of IPCC, with warm-
has been observed in Orissa. Goswami et al, by             ing more pronounced in the northern parts of India,
analysing a daily rainfall data set, have shown (i) a      from simulations by Indian Institute of Tropical
rising trend in the frequency of heavy rain events,        Meteorology (IITM), Pune.

• Indian summer monsoon (ISM) is a manifestation of       medicinal plants, and basmati rice. Pathogens and
complex interactions between land, ocean and              insect populations are strongly dependent upon tem-
atmosphere. The simulation of ISM's mean pattern as       perature and humidity, and changes in these param-
well as variability on interannual and intraseasonal      eters may change their population dynamics. Other
scales has been a challenging ongoing problem.            impacts on agricultural and related sectors include
Some simulations by IITM, Pune, have indicated that       lower yields from dairy cattle and decline in fish
summer monsoon intensity may increase beginning           breeding, migration, and harvests. Global reports
from 2040 and by 10% by 2100 under A2 scenario of         indicate a loss of 10-40% in crop production by 2100.
                                                          1.6.3. IMPACTS ON HEALTH
• Changes in frequency and/ or magnitude of
extreme temperature and precipitation events. Some        Changes in climate may alter the distribution of
results show that fine-scale snow albedo influence        important vector species (for example, malarial mos-
the response of both hot and cold events and that         quitoes) and may increase the spread of such diseases
peak increase in extreme hot events are amplified by      to new areas. If there is an increase of 3.8 °C in tem-
surface moisture feedbacks.                               perature and a 7% increase in relative humidity the
                                                          transmission windows i.e., months during which
                                                          mosquitoes are active, will be open for all 12 months
1.6. Possible Impacts of Projected                        in 9 states in India. The transmission windows in
      Climate Change                                      Jammu and Kashmir and in Rajasthan may increase
                                                          by 3-5 months. However, in Orissa and some south-
1.6.1. IMPACTS ON WATER RESOURCES                         ern states, a further increase in temperature is likely
                                                          to shorten the transmission window by 2-3 months.
Changes in key climate variables, namely tempera-
ture, precipitation, and humidity, may have signifi-      1.6.4. IMPACTS ON FORESTS
cant long-term implications for the quality and quan-
tity of water. River systems of the Brahmaputra, the      Based on future climate projections of Regional
Ganga, and the Indus, which benefit from melting          Climate Model of the Hadley Centre (HadRM3) using
snow in the lean season, are likely to be particularly    A2 and B2 scenarios and the BIOME4 vegetation
affected by the decrease in snow cover. A decline in      response model, Ravindranath et. al. 8 show that
total run-off for all river basins, except Narmada and    77% and 68% of the forest areas in the country are
Tapti, is projected in India's NATCOM I. A decline in     likely to experience shift in forest types, respectively
run-off by more than two-thirds is also anticipated       under the two scenarios, by the end of the century,
for the Sabarmati and Luni basins. Due to sea level       with consequent changes in forests produce, and, in
rise, the fresh water sources near the coastal regions    turn, livelihoods based on those products.
will suffer salt intrusion.                               Correspondingly, the associated biodiversity is likely
                                                          to be adversely impacted. India's NATCOM I projects
1.6.2. IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND FOOD PRODUCTION         an increase in the area under xeric scrublands and
                                                          xeric woodlands in central India at the cost of dry
Food production in India is sensitive to climate          savannah in these regions.
changes such as variability in monsoon rainfall and
temperature changes within a season. Studies by           1.6.5. VULNERABILITY TO EXTREME EVENTS
Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) and oth-
ers indicate greater expected loss in the Rabi crop.      Heavily populated regions such as coastal areas are
Every 1 °C rise in temperature reduces wheat produc-      exposed to climatic events,such as cyclones, floods,
tion by 4-5 Million Tonnes. Small changes in tempera-     and drought, and large declines in sown areas in arid
ture and rainfall have significant effects on the qual-
ity of fruits, vegetables, tea, coffee, aromatic and

                                                                  NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 15
and semi-arid zones occur during climate extremes.          2.1 Some Existing Adaptation related
Large areas in Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat,
                                                                14 -
and Maharashtra and comparatively small areas in                        • ••Expenditure on adaptation as % of total
Karnataka, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,                  12 -                                                                       •
                                                                            Expenditure on adaptation as % of GDP/
Bihar, West Bengal, and Uttar Pradesh are frequented
by drought. About 40 million hectares of land is                                     • • •4 • mmmm mm
                                                                                                                               m m m

flood-prone, including most of the river basins in the
north and the north-eastern belt, affecting about 30
million people on an average each year. Such vulner-
able regions may be particularly impacted by climate
change                                                           0
                                                                                          1    ,       1       "       C   r
                                                                                                               N       .
1.6.6. IMPACTS ON COASTAL AREAS                                              o                                                                     0
                                                                                          I        N       '       C       r
                                                                                          c,                                                   c,       o
                                                                                          I    N               I       N          I    N       I    N
                                                                                                               I       N

A mean Sea Level Rise (SLR) of 15-38 cm is projected        Programmes
along India's coast by the mid 21st century and of
46-59 cm by 2100. India's NATCOM I assessed the vul-        2.1.1. CROP IMPROVEMENT
nerability of coastal districts based on physical expo-
sure to SLR, social exposure based on population            The present programmes address measures such as
affected, and economic impacts. In addition, a pro-         development of arid-land crops and pest management,
jected increase in the intensity of tropical cyclones       as well as capacity building of extension workers and
poses a threat to the heavily populated coastal zones       NGOs to support better vulnerability reducing
in the country (NATCOM, 2004).                              practices.

                                                            2.1.2. DROUGHT PROOFING

2. Some Current Actions for Adaptation                      The current programmes seek to minimize the
  and Mitigation                                            adverse effects of drought on production of crops
                                                            and livestock, and on productivity of land, water and
Adaptation, in the context of climate change, com-          human resources, so as to ultimately lead to drought
prises the measures taken to minimize the adverse           proofing of the affected areas. They also aim to pro-
impacts of climate change, e.g. relocating the com-         mote overall economic development and improve
munities living close to the sea shore, for instance, to    the socio-economic conditions of the resource poor
cope with the rising sea level or switching to crops        and disadvantaged sections inhabiting the pro-
that can withstand higher temperatures. Mitigation          gramme areas.
comprises measures to reduce the emissions of
greenhouse gases that cause climate change in the           2.1.3. FORESTRY
first place, e.g. by switching to renewable sources of
energy such as solar energy or wind energy, or              India has a strong and rapidly growing afforestation
nuclear energy instead of burning fossil fuel in ther-      programme. The afforestation process was acceler-
mal power stations.                                         ated by the enactment of the Forest Conservation
         Current government expenditure in India on         Act of 1980, which aimed at stopping the clearing
adaptation to climate variability, as shown in Figure       and degradation of forests through a strict, central-
2.1, exceeds 2.6% of the GDP, with agriculture, water       ized control of the rights to use forest land and
resources, health and sanitation, forests, coastal-
zone infrastructure and extreme weather events,
being specific areas of concern.
Figure 2.1: Expenditure on Adaptation Programmes in India

ma nda t ory re qui re me nt s of c ompe nsat ory         Two risk-financing programmes support adaptation
afforestation in case of any diversion of forest land     to climate impacts. The Crop Insurance Scheme sup-
for any non-forestry purpose. In addition an aggres-      ports the insurance of farmers against climate risks,
sive afforestation and sustainable forest manage-         and the Credit Support Mechanism facilitates the
ment programme resulted in annual reforestation           extension of credit to farmers, especially for crop fail-
of 1.78 mha during 1985-1997, and is currently 1.1        ure due to climate variability.
mha annually. Due to this, the carbon stocks in
Indian forests have increased over the last 20 years      2.1.8. DISASTER MANAGEMENT
to 9 -10 gigatons of carbon (GtC) during 1986 to
2005.                                                     The National Disaster Management programme pro-
                                                          vides grants-in-aid to victims of weather related dis-
2.1.4. WATER                                              asters, and manages disaster relief operations. It also
                                                          supports proactive disaster prevention programmes,
The National Water Policy (2002) stresses that non-       including dissemination of information and training
conventional methods for utilization of water,            of disaster-management staff.
including inter-basin transfers, artificial recharge of
groundwater, and desalination of brackish or sea
water, as well as traditional water conservation prac-    2.2. Some of India's Actions Relating to
tices like rainwater harvesting, including roof-top          GHG Mitigation
rainwater harvesting, should be practised to increase
the utilizable water resources. Many states now have      2.2.1. INDIA'S POLICY STRUCTURE RELEVANT TO
mandatory water harvesting programmes in several                GHG MITIGATION
                                                          India has in place a detailed policy, regulatory, and
2.1.5. COASTAL REGIONS                                    legislative structure that relates strongly to GHG mit-
                                                          igation: The Integrated Energy Policy was adopted in
In coastal regions, restrictions have been imposed in     2006. Some of its key provisions are:
the area between 200m and 500m of the HTL (high
tide line) while special restrictions have been            Promotion of energy efficiency in all sectors
imposed in the area up to 200m to protect the sensi-       Emphasis on mass transport
tive coastal ecosystems and prevent their exploita-        Emphasis on renewables including biofuels
tion. This, simultaneously, addresses the concerns of       plantations
the coastal population and their livelihood. Some          Accelerated development of nuclear and
specific measures taken in this regard include con-         hydropower for clean energy
struction of coastal protection infrastructure and         Focused R&D on several clean energy related tech-
cyclone shelters, as well as plantation of coastal          nologies
forests and mangroves.
                                                          Several other provisions relate to reforming energy
2.1.6. HEALTH                                             markets to ensure that energy markets are competi-
                                                          tive, and energy prices reflect true resource costs.
The prime objective of these programmes is the sur-       These include: Electricity Act 2005, Tariff Policy 2003,
veillance and control of vector borne diseases such as    Petroleum & Natural Gas Regulatory Board Act, 2006,
Malaria, Kala-azar, Japanese Encephalitis, Filaria and    etc. The provisions taken together are designed to:
Dengue. Programmes also provide for emergency
medical relief in the case of natural calamities, and      Remove entry barriers and raise competition in
to train and develop human resources for these

                                                                  NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 17
  exploration, extraction, conversion, transmission       An Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) was
  and distribution of primary and secondary energy        launched in May, 2007, which addresses the design of
 Accomplish price reform, through full competition       new, large commercial buildings to optimize the
  at point of sale                                        buildings' energy demand based on their location in
 Promote tax reform to promote optimal fuel              different climatic zones. Commercial buildings are
  choices                                                 one of the fastest growing sectors of the Indian
 Augment and diversify energy options, sources           economy, reflecting the increasing share of the serv-
  and energy infrastructure                               ices sector in the economy. Nearly one hundred
 Provide feed-in tariffs for renewables (solar, wind,    buildings are already following the Code, and com-
  biomass cogeneration)                                   pliance with the Code has been incorporated into
 Strengthen, and where applicable, introduce             the mandatory Environmental Impact Assessment
  independent regulation                                  requirements for large buildings. It has been estimat-
                                                          ed that if all the commercial space in India every year
The Rural Electrification Policy, 2006, promotes          conform to ECBC norms, energy consumption in this
renewable energy technologies where grid connec-          sector can be reduced by 30-40%.Compliance with
tivity is not possible or cost-effective. The New and     ECBC norms is voluntary at present but is expected to
Renewable Energy Policy, 2005, promotes utilization       soon become mandatory.
of sustainable, renewable energy sources, and accel-
erated deployment of renewables through indige-           2.2.4. ENERGY AUDITS OF LARGE INDUSTRIAL CONSUMERS
nous design, development and manufacture.
         The National Environment Policy, 2006, and       In March 2007 the conduct of energy audits was
the Notification on Environment Impact Assessment         made mandatory in large energy-consuming units in
(EIA), 2006, reform India's environmental assessment      nine industrial sectors. These units, notified as "des-
regime. A number of economic activities are required      ignated consumers" are also required to employ
to prepare environment impact assessments, and            "certified energy managers", and report energy con-
environment management plans, which are                   sumption and energy conservation data annually.
appraised by regulatory authorities prior to start of
construction. The EIA provisions strongly promote         2.2.5. Mass TRANSPORT
environmental sustainability.
                                                          The National Urban Transport Policy emphasizes
2.2.2. INTRODUCTION OF LABELLING PROGRAMME FOR            extensive public transport facilities and non-motor-
     APPLIANCES                                           ized modes over personal vehicles. The expansion of
                                                          the Metro Rail Transportation System in Delhi and
An energy labelling programme for appliances was          other cities and other mass transit systems, such as
launched in 2006, and comparative star-based              the Metro Bus project in Bangalore, are steps in its
labelling has been introduced for fluorescent tube-       i mple me ntat i on. The sta te gove rnme nt of
lights, air conditioners, refrigerators, and distribu-    Maharashtra recently announced that it will impose
tion transformers. The labels provide information         a congestion tax to discourage the use of private cars
about the energy consumption of an appliance,             in cities where it has created "sufficient public trans-
and thus enable consumers to make informed deci-          port capacity".
sions. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency has made it
mandatory for refrigerators to display energy effi-       2.2.6. CLEAN AIR INITIATIVES
ciency label and is expected to do so for air condi-
tioners as well. The standards and labelling pro-         In urban areas, one of the major sources of air pollu-
gramme for manufacturers of electrical appliances         tion is emissions from transport vehicles. Steps taken
is expected to lead to significant savings in electric-
ity annually.

to reduce such pollution include (i) introduction of       would also promote the integration of other renew-
compressed natural gas (CNG) in Delhi and other            able energy technologies, for example, biomass and
cities; (ii) retiring old, polluting vehicles; and (iii)   wind, with solar energy options.
strengthening of mass transportation as mentioned                  India is largely located in the equatorial sun
above. Some state governments provide subsidies for        belt of the earth, thereby receiving abundant radiant
purchase and use of electric vehicles. For thermal         energy from the sun. The country receives about
power plants, the installation of electrostatic precip-    5,000 trillion kWh/year equivalent energy through
itators is mandatory. In many cities, polluting indus-     solar radiation. In most parts of India, clear sunny
trial units have either been closed or shifted from        weather is experienced 250 to 300 days a year. The
residential areas.                                         annual global radiation varies from 1600 to 2200
                                                           kWh/m2, which is typical of the tropical and sub-
2.2.7 PROMOTION OF ENERGY SAVING DEVICES                   tropical regions. The average solar insolation inci-
                                                           dent over India is about 5.5 kWh/m2 per day. Just 1%
The Bureau of Energy efficiency has introduced "The        of India's land area can meet India's entire electricity
Bachat Lamp Yojana", a programme under which               requirements till 2030.
households may exchange incandescent lamps for                         Solar based power technologies are an
CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) using clean devel-        extremely clean form of generation with practically
opment mechanism (CDM) credits to equate pur-              no form of emissions at the point of generation.
chase price. Some states have made mandatory the           They would lead to energy security through displace-
installation of solar water heaters in hospitals, hotels   ment of coal and petroleum. T&D losses are very low
and large government and commercial buildings.             in decentralized systems. Deployment can be done
Subsidy is provided for installation of solar water        independently of the national grid and integrated
heaters in residential buildings.                          with the national grid when needed.

2.2.8. PROMOTION OF BIOFUELS                               3.1.1. SOLAR THERMAL POWER GENERATION

The Biodiesel Purchase Policy mandates biodiesel           Solar Thermal Power Generating Systems (STPG) or
procurement by the petroleum industry. A mandate           Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) use concentrated
on Ethanol Blending of Gasolene requires 5% blend-         solar radiation as high temperature energy source (>
ing of ethanol with gasolene from 1 st January, 2003,      500°C) to produce electricity.
in 9 States and 4 Union Territories.                                  The working mechanism for solar heat to
                                                           electricity is fundamentally similar to that of tradi-
                                                           tional thermal power plants. STPG technologies are
                                                           now on the verge of significant scale commercializa-
3. The Way Forward:                                        tion. Major technologies include parabolic trough or
 Eight National Missions                                   dish, dish-engine system, central tower receiver sys-
                                                           tem, and solar chimney (which drives an air draft tur-
The experience gained so far enables India to              bine, and does not raise steam).
embark on an even more proactive approach. The                     Solar power is, obviously available only dur-
following subsections describe the various pro-            ing sunlight hours. There are also significant seasonal
grammes that may be taken up under the National            variations. Moreover, the need to track the movement
Action Plan.                                               of the sun during the day, as also the seasonal
3.1. National Solar Mission                                variations in orientation, although fully predictable,
                                                           may add significantly to cost in respect of dish collector
The National Solar Mission would promote the use of        systems. However, design variants are available that
solar energy for power generation and other appli-         require movement of only the heat collector at
cations. Where necessary for purposes of system bal-
ance or ensuring cost-effectiveness and reliability, it

                                                                   NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 19
the focus, or only of individual mirrors in an array,     35cr/MW.This includes the cost of the solar panels
thus reducing costs.                                      and balance of system (BOS). The unit cost of gener-
        The cyclical (diurnal, annual) and episodic       ation is still in the range of Rs. 15-20 KWh, but may
(cloud cover) variations of solar insolation, and the     fall significantly for thin-film based systems.
impossibility of regulating the solar flux means that         Proposed R&D activities in respect of Solar
in order to ensure steady power supply, meet peak-        Photovoltaic generation, for the near and medium
ing requirements, as well as to ensure optimal uti-       term would include improvement in solar cell effi-
lization of steam turbines and generators, it is neces-   ciency to 15% at commercial level; improvements in
sary to either hybridize solar thermal systems with       PV module technology with higher packing density
alternative means of raising steam, or provide for        and suitability for solar roofs; and development of
high temperature thermal energy storage. The former       lightweight modules for use in solar lanterns and
may be accomplished by hybridization with con-            similar applications.
ventional fuels, or by biomass combustion systems.
The latter may be accomplished by insulated storage       3.1.3. R&D COLLABORATION, TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER,
of molten salts; however, in their case the rate of            AND CAPACITY BUILDING
heat loss may be significant, and storage for more
than 10-12 hours is uneconomic.                           In specific areas of both solar thermal and solar PV
        The investment cost of stand-alone (i.e. with-    systems, it would be useful to enter into collabora-
out hybridization) solar thermal power plants are in      tion with institutions working elsewhere, with shar-
the range of Rs 20-22 cr/MW. It usually includes the      ing of the resulting IPRs.
cost of the solar concentrators, balance of system                  Technology transfer in both Solar Thermal
(BOS), receiver (turbine) with generator and control      technologies and the PV technologies will be
equipments, etc. The estimated unit cost of genera-       required in respect of cost-effective and efficient
tion is currently in the range of 20-25 Rs/KWh.           technologies suitable for use in India. Support to
(Source Scientific American, January 2008)                commercial demonstration by entrepreneurs of Solar
        Proposed R&D activities in respect of Solar       Thermal and Solar PV, both stand-alone and distrib-
Thermal power generation would cover design and           uted generation systems, in particular in remote
development of concentrating solar thermal power          locations, and using these as training facilities for
systems, including parabolic troughs, central receiver    local entrepreneurs and O&M personnel would also
systems, and dish/engine systems. The R&D                 help develop this sector.
effort should be directed mainly at reducing costs              The National Solar Mission would be responsi-
of production and maintenance, and include both           ble for: (a) the deployment of commercial and near
production design and fabrication/assembly tech-          commercial solar technologies in the country; (b)
niques. In addition, R&D should cover balance of          establishing a solar research facility at an existing
systems issues involved in hybridization with bio-        establishment to coordinate the various research,
mass combustion based systems and/or molten salts         development and demonstration activities being car-
thermal storage.                                          ried out in India, both in the public and private sec-
                                                          tor; (c) realizing integrated private sector manufac-
3.1.2. SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATION                      turing capacity for solar material, equipment, cells
                                                          and modules (d) networking of Indian research
In photovoltaic generation, solar energy is directly      efforts with international initiatives with a view to
converted to electricity using a semi-conductor, usu-     promoting collaborative research and acquiring
ally a silicon diode. However, while there are other      technology where necessary, and adapting the tech-
semi-conductors (e.g. cadmium telluride) that may         nology acquired to Indian conditions; (e) providing
be used for power generation, most of them are at         funding support for the activities foreseen under (a)
various stages of R&D.                                    to (d) through government grants duly leveraged by
               The investment costs of solar PV based
power systems are in the range of Rs. 30-

funding available under global climate mechanisms,        als for solar energy conversion infrastructure, such as
and earnings from deployment of research sponsored        robust, and inexpensive, thermal management mate-
by the Mission. Policy and Regulatory measures for        rials.
promotion of solar technologies would also be                     The ultimate objective of the Mission would
enhanced as common to all renewables based tech-          be to develop a solar industry in India that is capable
nologies.                                                 of delivering solar energy competitively against fos-
        Over the 11 th and 12 th Plan periods (till       sil options from the Kilowatt range of distributed
2017) the Mission would aim to deliver at least           solar thermal and solar PV to the Gigawatt scale of
80% coverage for all low temperature (<150° C),           base load priced and dispatchable CSP within the
and at least 60% coverage for medium tempera-             next 20-25 years.
ture (150° to 250° C) applications of solar energy
in all urban areas, industries, and commercial
establishments. Rural solar thermal applications          3.2. National Mission for Enhanced Energy
would also be pursued under public-private part-             Efficiency in Industry
nerships where feasible. Commensurate local man-
ufacturing capacity to meet this level of deploy-         The industry sector is the largest user of commercial
ment, with necessary technology tie-ups, where            energy in India, accounting for 42% of the country's
desirable, would be established. Further, the             total commercial energy use during 2004-05. The
Mission would aim for local Photovoltaic (PV) pro-        Indian industry sector, comprising large, medium,
duction from integrated facilities at a level of 1000     and small enterprises registered a growth of 10.6%
MW/annum within this time frame. It would also            in April–December 2006 (MoF, 2007). Since the industry
aim to establish at least 1000 MW of Concentrating        sector is viewed as central for economic growth, it
Solar Power (CSP) generation capacity, again, with        would continue to play a major role in the overall
such technical tie-ups as essential within the stated     development of India.
time frame.                                                       The industrialization policies of the country
        The untapped energy potential of each of          have helped in setting up of several energy–intensive
the three generic solar based energy approaches (i.e.     primary manufacturing facilities such as iron and
solar PV, solar thermal, and biomass) is well beyond      steel, cement, fertilizer, refineries, with investment
current usage levels. In the long term the Mission        targets fixed in successive Five-year Plans of the
would aim to network Indian research efforts in solar     Government of India. The planners also encouraged
technology with global initiatives in these three         various small scale industries, providing huge
areas, so as to enable delivery of solar solutions to     employment. The small scale sector produces close to
India's energy needs in tandem with developments          7500 items in which 326 items are reserved by the
worldwide.                                                Government of India (MoSSI, 2007) to be exclusively
        In the long-term, the Mission would direct        produced by small units.
Indian solar research initiatives to deliver truly dis-            As per the national greenhouse inventory,
ruptive innovations that cut across more than one         the direct CO2 emissions from industrial sources
approach or technology. These include: (a) getting        accounted for nearly 31 % of the total CO2 emissions
the same electrical, optical, chemical and physical       from the country (data for base year 1994)
performance from cheap materials as that delivered        (NATCOM, I). The CO2 emissions from the industrial
by expensive materials; (b) developing new para-          sector can be broadly categorized into two heads, i.e.
digms for solar cell design that surpass current effi-    process related emissions, and emissions due to fuel
ciency limits; (c) finding catalysts that enable inex-    combustion in industries. Of the total estimated 250
pensive, efficient conversion of solar energy into        million tonnes of direct CO2 emissions from the
chemical fuel; (d) identify novel methods of self-        industry in 1994, nearly 60% were accounted for by
assembly of molecular components into functionally        energy use (NATCOM, I).
integrated systems; and (e) developing new materi

                                                                 NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 21
3.2.1. GHG MITIGATION OPTIONS IN THE INDUSTRY             energy consumption of many of the large plants
SECTOR                                                    compares well with the world's best, it is estimated
                                                          that CO2 emissions from fuel and electricity use in
GHG Mitigation options in the industry sector can be      the industry sector could be further reduced by
broadly grouped under three heads as given below:         about 605 million tonnes (approximately 16% reduc-
                                                          tion from the BAU scenario) in the year 2031.
 Sector specific technological options                   However, this will involve major incremental invest-
 Cross—cutting technologies options                      ment costs, as well as, overall, large economic costs,
 Fuel switch options                                     besides technology transfer.


Various GHG mitigation technology options in              Energy-efficiency measures in the industrial sector
respect of the Chlor-Alkali, Cement, Aluminum,            also have some co-benefits due to reduction in fuel
Fertilizer, Iron and Steel, Pulp and Paper, and Textile   and material use leading to reduced emission of air-
sectors are currently being investigated.                 pollutants, solid waste, and waste water. In addition,
                                                          some options also lead to improvement in the quality
3.2.3. CROSS-CUTTING TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS                of product.

Apart from sector—specific options, there are certain     3.2.7 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
cross-cutting energy efficient technological options
that could be adopted in a wide range of industries.      Relevant technologies under development that
In general, in the industries sector, approximately       would reduce specific energy consumption need to
50% of the industrial energy use is accounted for by      be transferred to India when commercially viable.
cross-cutting technologies.
       The estimated energy saving potential for a        3.2.8. FINANCING
large number of plants is of the order of 5% to 15%.
                                                          The move to efficient technologies in the industry
3.2.4. FUEL SWITCH                                        sector generally involves significant incremental
                                                          investment, and in many cases, economic costs.
With the increasing availability of natural gas in the    These would have to be provided by multilateral
country (both as imported LNG [liquefied natural          funding arrangements. In particular, special
gas] and likely increased domestic natural gas sup-       financing mechanisms would need to be put in
ply), industries may have the option to switch over       place for the SMEs. Bundling and/or programmatic
from coal to the use of natural gas. Fuel—switch to       CDM could be a possible financing route for these
natural gas generally leads to increase in energy use     units.
        Another option is switching over from fossil      3.2.9. CAPACITY-BUILDING NEEDS
fuels to producer gas from biomass fuels for various
thermal applications. Industries with low temperature     Cooperative approaches by the government and
requirements (upto 100°C) (for example, textiles and      industry are needed to enhance awareness of ener-
pharmaceuticals) may also use solar thermal systems       gy-efficient options, and upgrade relevant technical
for water heating.                                        knowledge. The financial sector also needs capacity
                                                          building in appraisal of specific energy efficiency
3.2.5 POTENTIAL FOR EMISSIONS REDUCTION                   improvement investments in existing industries.

 Although the efficiency of most large industrial sec-
tors has been improving over time, and the specific

3.2.10. POLICY AND REGULATORY OPTIONS                               To further enhance energy efficiency, four
                                                           new initiatives may be considered. These are:
Under the Energy Conservation Act (2001), 9 energy
intensive industrial sectors, i.e. thermal power sta-       Mandated specific energy consumption decreases
tions, fertilizer, cement, iron and steel, chlor-alkali,    in large energy consuming industries and facilities
aluminum, railways, textile and pulp and paper, are         that have been notified as Designated Consumers
required to employ a certified energy manager, con-         under the Energy Conservation Act, and provide a
duct energy audits periodically, and adhere to spe-         framework to certify energy savings in excess of
cific energy-consumption norms that may be pre-             the mandated savings. The certified excess sav-
scribed.                                                    ings may be traded amongst companies to meet
        Currently, almost every industrial sector is        their mandated compliance requirements, or
characterized by a wide band of energy efficiencies         banked for the next cycle of energy savings
in different units. Several of them are at global fron-     requirements.
tier levels, but some others have relatively poor per-
formance. As an approach to enhancement of over-            Tax incentives for promotion of energy efficiency,
all energy efficiency in each sector, the efficiency        including differential taxation on appliances that
band-width of the sector is divided into 4 bands. The       have been certified as energy efficient through
energy efficiency improvement target, in percent-           energy labeling programme.
age, from current levels for each unit varies with its
band, being highest for the least energy efficient,         Creation of energy efficiency financing platforms
and the least for the most efficient. These targets         for enabling public-private-partnerships to capture
would have to be achieved within a period of 3 to 5         energy savings through demand side management
years within each group.                                    programmes in the municipal, buildings, and agri-
        Given the fact of fertilizer subsidies, individ-    cultural sectors.
ual fertilizer units have little incentive to undertake
energy-efficiency investments. It is, therefore, imper-     Fiscal Incentives
ative that fertilizer subsidies be restructured to elim-
inate such absence of incentive.                           3.2.11. DELIVERY OPTIONS
        To promote technology upgradation in the
SME (small and medium enterprise) sector, it would         The key delivery options for energy efficiency in
be essential to evolve sector—specific integrated pro-     industry are:
grammes for technology development. This would
require external support for significantly longer           Projects, including retrofits, by the corporate sec-
durations to address various technological barriers          tor, with institutional finance
                                                            Activities related to cluster development, particu-
and promote energy efficiencies at the unit level.
                                                             larly in SMEs
The information or knowledge gap is more pro-
                                                            Promotion of ESCOs (Energy Service Companies)
nounced in case of small industries and "hand-hold-
                                                             for providing energy efficiency solutions across
ing" to help industries install energy efficient tech-
                                                             industry sectors
nologies as well as to ensure their optimum perform-
ance through best operating practices will be
required.                                                  The Energy Efficiency Financing Platform initiated by
        Most of the energy-efficient equipment             the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, in conjunction with
require higher upfront investment. An accelerated          a robust ESCO industry could provide the necessary
depreciation up to 80% in the first year on energy-        impetus to energy efficiency. In respect of each deliv-
efficient equipment would help their deployment.           ery mode, carbon finance through the CDM would
Further, reduced rate VAT (value added tax) on ener-       also be relevant.
gy- efficient equipment would also help in
reducingthe required upfront investment.

                                                                  NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 23
3.3 National Mission on Sustainable Habitat                  a non-airconditioned building the consumption
                                                             patterns would be significantly different.
The Mission comprises three components, i.e. pro-                       Energy use in residential and commercial
moting energy efficiency in the residential and com-         buildings also varies significantly across income
mercial sector, management of municipal solid                groups, building construction typology, climate, and
waste, and promotion of urban public transport.              several other factors. There exists significant scope to
These are presented below:                                   reduce energy use, while also providing the requisite
                                                             energy services in case of both existing as well as new
3.3.1. PROMOTING ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THE                    constructions. Although the saving potential of each
RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL SECTOR                            option may vary with typology, climate, space condi-
                                                             tioning needs, and the initial base design proposed
The residential sector accounts for around 13.3% of          by the client/designer, on an average it is estimated
total commercial energy use in India. While several          that the implementation of energy efficient options
households, especially in the rural areas, continue to       would help in achieving around 30% electricity sav-
use biomass for cooking in traditional cookstoves,           ings in new residential buildings and 40% electricity
which leads to high levels of indoor air pollution and       savings in new commercial buildings. In case of exist-
poses a major health risk especially to women and            ing buildings, the energy saving potential for resi-
children, the use of modern fuels such as LPG (lique-        dential buildings is estimated to be around 20%, and
fied petroleum gas) and kerosene is increasing rapid-        that for commercial buildings around 30%.
ly. During 1990-2003, consumption of LPG increased                      Various studies have established that sub-
at an annual rate of 11.26%, while electricity use           stantial energy savings can be achieved in the resi-
increased at 8.25% annually in the residential sector.       dential and commercial sectors. Implementing carbon
         Electricity consumption in the residential sector   mitigation options in buildings is associated with a
is primarily for lighting, space conditioning, refrig-       wide range of co-benefits, including improved
eration, and other appliances. According to a study          energy security and system reliability. Other co-bene-
on energy consumption in the residential sector in           fits of energy efficiency investments include the cre-
the city of Delhi, while lighting accounted for around       ation of jobs and business opportunities, while the
8%-14% of total electricity consumption, space-con-          energy savings may lead to greater access to energy
ditioning accounted for nearly 52%, and refrigerators        for the poor, leading to their improvement and well-
accounted for around 28% (in the summer months).             being. Other co-benefits include improved indoor
Accordingly, energy saving measures related with             and outdoor air quality, and thereby improved
space conditioning (heating and cooling), refrigera-         health and quality of life.
tion, and lighting have great significance in moving
towards sustainable residential energy use.         COSTS AND FINANCING
         The commercial sector comprises various
institutional establishments such as banks, hotels,          The incremental cost of implementation of energy-
restaurants, shopping complexes, offices, and public         efficient measures is estimated to vary between 3%-
buildings. Electricity consumption has increased at          5% for residential buildings and 10%-15% for com-
the rate of 7.4% annually between 1990-2003 in the           mercial buildings on a case-to-case basis. Economic
commercial sector. It is estimated that on average, in       savings over the lifetime of the appliances would
a typical commercial building in India around 60%            depend upon the specific- usage patterns. Also, it is
of the total electricity is consumed for lighting, 32%       expected that in general, private home-owners
for space conditioning, and 8% for refrigeration.            would seek shorter pay-back periods than owners of
However, the end-use consumption varies signifi-             commercial property.
cantly with space conditioning needs. While a fully                    While the use of more efficient appliances
airconditioned office building could have about 60%          can play a key role in reducing final energy demands,
of the total electricity consumption accounted for
byair conditioning, followed by 20% for lighting, in

energy-efficient appliances typically have higher up-     The energy efficient lighting and space conditioning
front costs than their non-labeled counterparts.          technologies developed internationally are generally
Given that significant incremental investment costs       superior as compared to those available within the
are associated with the efficient technologies, appro-    country. There is therefore a need for technology
priate financing mechanisms need to be adopted in         transfer from the developed countries. However
order to promote these technologies.                      adopting these internationally developed technologies
         Adoption of energy-efficient lighting and        is associated with payment of additional costs due to
space-conditioning technologies should be integrated      the IPR component associated with these technologies.
into housing finance schemes of financial institu-        Mechanisms need to be put in place so that these costs
tions, appliance financing schemes need to incen-         do not impose an additional burden on the consumers.
tivize purchase of energy-efficient equipment, and               Solar evacuated tubular panel technology is
utility- based programmes should be put in place to       available internationally for solar water heating sys-
pay for the higher upfront capital costs of lighting      tems, but needs to be transferred for diffusion in the
systems in the utility bills.                             Indian market.
         Carbon-market financing would enable                      Lack of awareness of energy-saving options
access to these technologies where there are higher       and potential among architects, engineers, interior
investment costs, or higher economic costs of the         designers, and professionals in the building industry
required energy service, or both. This may be espe-       including plumbers and electricians is a major barrier
cially useful in view of the "split incentive" problem    to the construction of low-energy buildings.
in such cases, that is, the persons who incur the addi-   Realizing the potential of energy saving requires an
tional investment costs are different from those that     integrated design process involving all the stake-
might realize the energy savings.                         holders, with full consideration of opportunities for
                                                          passively reducing building energy demands. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT                                    Builders and developers need to be trained
                                                          and made aware of the options to save energy in new
The R&D needs for the residential and commercial          constructions. There is a need to create comprehen-
sectors is mainly related to energy efficient technolo-   sive integrated programmes at universities and other
gies. It needs to focus on the development of ener-       professional establishments to impart such training
gy-efficient products for the following applications:     for designing and constructing low-energy buildings.

 Energy-efficient buildings and building components POLICY AND REGULATORY ENHANCEMENTS
 Development of energy efficient windows
 Development of low-cost insulation material             A diverse portfolio of policy instruments would be
 Development of simulation software to predict the       required to address the barriers to efficient energy
  energy used in buildings                                use in the residential and commercial sectors.
 Energy efficient appliances                                   There is a need to continuously update appli-
 Development of energy-efficient ceiling fans            ance energy norms and building energy codes and
 Development of very-low-energy-consuming cir-           labeling, move towards rational energy pricing
  cuits for stand-by power                                based on long-term average economic cost, and pro-
 Development of low-cost light-emitting diode            vide fiscal benefits for efficiency improvements.
  (LED)-based lamps for space lighting                                The ECBC (Energy Conservation Building
                                                          Code) was developed after the adoption of the
                                                          Energy Conservation Act (2001). The ECBC aims to
The SAC-C (Scientific Advisory Committee of the           reduce the baseline energy consumption by support-
Cabinet) has recommended the launch of a National         ing adoption and implementation of efficiency say-
Networked Initiative for R&D on the development of
the next generation of LEDs, particularly white LEDs. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND CAPACITY BUILDING

                                                                 NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 25
ings and savings in GHG emissions, besides other ben-        codesrather than technology/options prescriptions
efits. ECBC intervention has encouraged design inno-         can help keep compliance costs low and may
vation in the building envelope and system design            provide incentives for innovation.
and specification, which have resulted in 50% energy
savings (as measured in ECBC compliant buildings)   DELIVERY OPTIONS
when compared to conventional constructions.
         Given the scale of energy savings that can be       The BLY (Bachat Lamp Yojana) model needs to be
achieved by the implementation of ECBC, it is impor-         pursued to promote energy efficient and high quali-
tant to direct policy towards encouraging/mandating          ty CFLs as replacement for incandescent bulbs in
energy savings. As an example, it would be pertinent         households. Comprehensive implementation of the
to address the cost of CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamp)        BLY can lead to a reduction of 10,000 MW
and T5 (Efficient Tube Light) which is a barrier to their    (Megawatt) of electricity demand. The BLY depends
wide spread use, and implement measures to increase          upon CDM (clean development mechanism) revenues
the demand in order to reduce prices through scale           to meet the incremental investment cost as well as
effects. Large-scale availability of appropriate             the incremental economic cost that would be the
materials and equipment to meet the requirement of           case in many participating households.
ECBC is also urgently needed. The energy codes are                   ESCOs (Energy Service Companies) need to
still new in India and the products (insulation, efficient   be promoted as vehicles to deliver energy-efficiency
glass, efficient HVAC systems, and so on) and                improvements, in particular because of the "split
services required by buildings to comply with the            incentives" problem, and facilitate access to carbon
code requirements are not readily and abundantly             finance through bundled CDM projects.
available, or competitively priced. Market power                     The energy efficient options in the residen-
monopoly of a handful of manufacturers of energy             tial and commercial sectors should be promoted as
efficient products has resulted in a non-competitive         bundles of programmatic CDM options.
market for products like insulations, chillers, and so
on.                                                          3.3.2 MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE (MSW)
         In addition to the above, the MoEF (Ministry
of Environment and Forests) has developed a manual           Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation reflects not
on norms and standards for environmental clearance           just income levels, but also lifestyle choices. Recycling
for large construction projects after wide consultation      of materials is an important option for reducing envi-
with experts from different disciplines. The manual          ronmental pressures. Figure below indicates
would be used as a technical guideline to assist the         that India has a significantly higher rate of recycling
project proponents/ stakeholders/ consultants for the        of materials in MSW than developed countries.
preparation environmental impact assessments of
projects and obtain environmental clearance. Both the        Figure Average rate of recycling (in %), excluding re-use
EACs (Expert Appraisal Committee) at MoEF and
SEACs (State Expert Appraisal Committee) at the
state/ UT level appraise and grade all new
construction projects requiring environmental
clearances on the basis of the manual. The state
pollution control boards are required to verify the
compliance of the Environmental Management Plan
and the observance of the criteria of gradation by           Source: TERI (2006)
the project proponents.                                      GHG emissions from MSW in India are also much
        Successful implementation of performance-            lower than in developed countries, reckoned per unit
based codes requires education and training of               of consumption (in $ 1000 at PPP), Figure
building officials and inspectors and demonstration          below:
projects.    Setting    flexible  performance-based

Figure GHG emissions intensity from waste generation   of biodegradable matter in the waste stream.
          (in gm/$1000 at PPP GDP)                              Table Change in waste composition in selected cities
                                                                City               Compostables            Recyclables
                                                                                       (%)                     (%)
                                                                                  1982-1990     2005     1982-1990     2005
                                                                Lucknow             60.31      47.41       6.72       15.53
                                                                Kolkata             46.58      50.56       2.58       11.48
                                                                Kanpur              53.34      47.52       2.57       11.93
                                                                Mumbai              59.37      62.44       3.85       16.66
                                                                Delhi               57.71      54.42       8.24       15.52
Source: TERI (2006)                                             Chennai             56.24      41.34       6.60       16.34
                                                                Bangalore           75.00      51.84       2.70       22.43
MSW generation in Indian cities (around 5100 ULBs)              Ahemdabad           48.95      40.81       7.57       11.65
is estimated to have increased from 6 million tonnes
                                                                Source: 1982-90: Planning Commission; 1995, 2005: CPCB
in 1947 to 48 million tonnes in 1997, and to 69 mil-
lion tonnes in 2006 (Central Pollution Control Board
                                                       POLICIES AND REGULATIONS
2000, TERI 2001). In addition, Indian consumption of
plastics is around 4 MTPA (million tonnes per
                                                                The 74th Constitutional Amendment (1992) trans-
annum). About 60% of this comprises polyolefins,
                                                                ferred the responsibility for collection, treatment
which are primarily used as packaging material.
                                                                and disposal of MSW from State Governments to the
About 2.0 MTPA of total consumption is generated
                                                                Urban Local Bodies (ULBs). The outbreak of plague at
as plastic waste of which around 70% is recycled,
                                                                Surat (1994) focused policy attention on the impor-
mostly by the informal sector. The decadal growth in
                                                                tance of proper systems for MSW in the ULBs. In
consumption of plastics during the period 1991-2001
                                                                response to direction by the Supreme Court in a PIL
was around 14% (Indian Centre for Plastics in the
                                                                (WP No. 888/1996) MSW Rules 2000 were promulgat-
Environment and Central Institute of Plastic
                                                                ed, MSW service from generation to disposal was
Engineering Technology 2003). Although the quantity
                                                                mandated, and Local Governments made responsible
of plastic waste reaching disposal sites is fairly low
                                                                for compliance. Since then ULBs have gradually
(0.62% on a dry weight basis), testifying to the high
                                                                improved the systems of collection and transport of
rate of recycling/reuse, the management of thin plas-
                                                                MSW. However, major gaps exist in respect of treat-
tic bags remains a matter of concern due to low col-
                                                                ment and disposal. In particular, in respect of
lection efficiency in their case. The plastic waste-recy-
                                                                disposal, the compliance is poor (<5%), and while
cling sector therefore needs to be strengthened.
                                                                there are an increasing number of projects
                                                                incorporating safe disposal, most have inadequate
Table Characteristics of MSW in 59 cities
Parameter                       Unit           Range
                                                                        Efforts at composting, and generating ener-
Compostable                       %            30 - 73
                                                                gy from waste have generally not been successful for
Recyclable (Plastics,                                           a variety of systemic, technology, and pricing issues,
Paper, Metal, Glass etc)          %            10 - 37          including variable quality of waste, insufficient seg-
Moisture                          %            17 - 65          regation of MSW, opposition to siting the facilities
Carbon/Nitrogen (C/N)           Ratio          14 - 53          from local residents, and accordingly, the practice of
HCV                           kcal/kg         520 - 3766        open dumping continues. The dominant technology
                                                                choice remains composting.
Source: CPCB, 2005                                                       In addition, experience has made clear that
There is a trend of increase in the percentage of recy-
clables, accompanied by decreases in the percentage

                                                                          NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 27
Figure Compliance Status of MSW Rules (Survey: 2004)

                                                                    Treatment &

Segregation     Primary        Street        Covered   Covered        Processing        SLF
at Source     Collection      Sweeping       Storage   transport      of waste
                           Activity of SWM                  d Number of cities with 80% coverage

                                    NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 29
Source: World Bank WSP, 2007                              on their own, it is imperative that municipal finances
                                                          are placed on a sound footing prior to outsourcing this
MSW operations cannot overall be profitable, and          function. While the issue of municipal finance reform
while cost-effectiveness and revenue streams should       is complex with many dimensions, and needs to be
be pursued, MSW operations as a whole should be           pursued independent of MSW issues, a pre-
recognized as entailing the provision of a public         requisite is separation of the accounts of the local
good (or environmental service), generally requiring      bodies in respect of their different responsibilities,
net fiscal expenditures by the concerned local bodies.    such as MSW, water supply, sewage disposal and
         The MSW Rules under the Environment              roads. This separation would firstly, provide
Protection Act are currently somewhat focused on
specific treatment options, including the chain of col-
lection, transport and disposal. This focus is unduly
prescriptive, and prevents innovation in systems and
procedures, as well as update on new technologies
and techniques. The MSW Rules should be revised to
focus instead on performance or outcome norms
that are to be met, irrespective of particular systems
and procedures, or technologies. This would provide
benchmarks for monitoring and enforcement, as
well as give space for innovation in systems, proce-
dures, and technologies.
         There is an emerging consensus that MSW
Rules should enable (but not require) the sharing of
infrastructure, including transport and treatment
facilities, across a given region, including towns and
villages. This would help realize scale economies,
besides access to better and more cost-effective sys-
tems and treatment options for the smaller urban
centres and habitations.
         Broad guidelines for policy reform in the
MSW sector include:Common Regional Facilities: In
respect of smaller towns and villages located in a
region, say a district, disposal facilities should be
developed as a common regional facility.
 Integrated Systems for collection, transport, trans-
  fer, treatment, and disposal facilities: even if dif-
  ferent organizations implement different compo-
  nents, as opposed to stand-alone facilities and
  open dumping.

MSW operations cannot be financially viable: ULBs
should not expect to realize net royalties for treat-
ment and disposal of MSW, and a tipping fee would
be necessary (reckoned on tonnage of MSW or num-
ber of sources of different kinds) to be met from ULB
        While there are several potential benefits in
implementing MSW operations through public-pri-
vate partnerships, including cost-effectiveness, as
compared to operations carried out by the local bodies

guidance to setting user charges (however collected),     urban population with sewerage and sanitation by the
and a benchmark against which bids for provision of       end of the plan period. Under the JNURM, till January
MSW services may be judged.                               2008, funds amounting to Rs 900 crores were released
                                                          to ULBs. The required funding for upgrading MSW
The National Environment Policy, 2006, provides for:      facilities in all cities and towns would be much greater.

 Removal of barriers (incentives, regulation) for        3.3.3. PROMOTION OF URBAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT
  beneficial utilization of non-hazardous materials
 Implementing viable PPPs for operation of haz-          An increase in the demand for transportation servic-
  ardous and non-hazardous waste disposal facilities      es for both passengers and freight is inevitable,
  on payment of user fees, taking into account con-       given economic growth and increase of population.
  cerns of local communities                              The total number of registered motor vehicles in
 Survey and preparation of national inventory of         India has increased from 21.4 million in 1991 to 72.7
  toxic and hazardous waste sites and online moni-        million in 2004 at a CAGR of 9.9%, with the two
  toring of their movement                                wheeler segment comprising of motorcycles, scoot-
 Giving legal recognition to and strengthening infor-    ers, and mopeds growing most rapidly amongst per-
  mal sector systems of, collection and recycling and     sonalized modes of transportation. Road based
  enhancing their access to finance and technology        transportation is the main source of GHG emissions
                                                          in the transportation sector.
The significance of the last is that while the informal            Various studies have estimated that policy and
recycling sector is the backbone of India's highly        technological measures can lead to significant energy and
effective recycling system, unfortunately, a number       thereby emission savings in the transport sector.
of municipal regulations impede the operation of          Estimates of the Planning Commission indicate an energy
the recyclers, owing to which they remain at a tiny       saving potential of 115 mtoe (million tonnes of oil
scale without access to finance or improved recycling     equivalent) in the year 2031/32 by increasing the share of
technologies.                                             railways and improving efficiencies of different modes of
                                                          transport (Planning Commission, 2006). Similarly, TERI R&D NEEDS                                        estimates indicate an energy saving of 144 mtoe in 2031
                                                          by including efficiency improvement across modes as well
Technological requirements are listed as follows:         as considering enhanced use of public transportation and
                                                          rail based movement, use of bio-diesel as compared to
 Biomethanation technology for waste to energy           business-as-usual trends. The corresponding CO2
    including its decentralised application for segre-    emissions reduction is estimated at 433 million tonnes in
     gated waste streams like vegetable market waste,     2031.
  slaughterhouse waste and dairy waste.
 Development of indigenous gas engines for waste TRANSPORT OPTIONS
  to energy applications to reduce the overall cost of
  the package.                                            Mass transport options including buses, railways and
 Upgrading plastic waste recycling technologies to       mass rapid transit systems, etc. are the principal
  reduce occupational and environmental hazards.          option for reducing energy use in the urban transport
 Recycling technologies for construction and demo-       sector, and mitigating associated GHG emissions and
  lition wastes and e-waste streams.                      air pollution. The use of CNG has helped reduce air
                                                          pollution due to diesel use in some cities because of FINANCING
                                                          its lower particulates emissions. Regarding biofuels,
                                                          ethanol blending of gasoline upto 5% is required in 9
The 10th Plan emphasized provision of important
                                                          states, and is expected that this limit would be
infrastructure facilities and 100% coverage of urban
                                                          increased to10%. R&D has to be carried out on the
population with water supply facilities, and 75% of

                                                                  NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 31
combustion characteristics of motor engines for          improvements, and increased adoption of bio-diesel
blending of higher content of ethanol in petrol. Bio-    or CNG have important co-benefits at the regional
diesel production from Jatropha curcas and               and local levels.
Pongamia shrubs is also increasing. The National                 Pricing, taxes, and charges, apart from rais-
Mission on Bio-diesel aims in the first (demonstra-      ing revenue for governments, are expected to influ-
tion) phase to establish biodiesel plantations in 26     ence travel demand and choice of transportation
states, while the second phase will lead to the pro-     modes, thereby decreasing fuel demand and GHG e-
duction of sufficient bio-diesel to enable a 20%         missions. Transport pricing can offer important
blend in vehicle diesel in 2011/12. However, the oil     gains in social welfare by simultaneously reducing
content of bio-diesel crops from different parts of      local pollution and GHG emissions, accidents, noise
India is highly variable. R&D has to be carried to       and congestion, as well as generating state revenue for
identify superior genotypes and collect seeds, which     enhancing social wel-being and/or infrastructure
need to be inventorised, documented and stored           construction and maintenance.
under different agro-climatic zones. Introduction of                FCVs fuelled by hydrogen have zero CO2
bio-fuels should not divert land marked for food pro-    emission and high efficiency, address air quality (zero
duction and thus decrease the availability of food-      tailpipe emissions), and may promote energy security
grains to population. There is also some controversy     since hydrogen can be produced from a wide range
about the net GHG emission of some biofuels.             of sources.
        Hydrogen has the potential to replace fossil             With an expanding automobile sector, recy-
fuels in the future. In recent years, significant        cling of recoverable materials at end-of-life of auto-
progress has been reported by several countries for      mobiles would lead to considerable energy savings9.
overcoming problems in its storage and production.       It is estimated that by 2020, recoverable materials
In India, a National Hydrogen Energy Road Map has        annually will be of the order of 1.5 million tons of
been prepared. Some organisations have already           steel, 180,000 tons of aluminium and 75,000 tons
developed prototypes of two-and three-wheelers and       each of rubber and plastics. Recycling of these mate-
buses to run on hydrogen fuel. However, large scale      rials will also reduce mining, depletion of natural
penetration of the market by hydrogen propelled          resources, and degradation of environment. India
vehicles is not expected till a few decades from now.    has no formal regulations regarding recyclability and
                                                         disposal of end-of-life vehicles. COSTS AND FINANCING
                                                         The following actions are proposed for the transport
Most of the energy-efficiency measures require huge
investments in the creation of new infrastructure.        Promoting the use of coastal shipping and inland
Efforts to reduce CO2 emissions by the way of intro-       waterways, apart from encouraging the attractive-
duction of MRTS (mass-rapid transit system) would          ness of rail-based movement relative to long-dis-
involve diverting resources from other priority claims     tance road based movement
on fiscal resources.                                      Encouraging energy R&D in the Indian Railways
         Moreover, the possibility of substantially       Introducing appropriate transport pricing measures
reducing the dependence on petroleum products is           to influence purchase and use of vehicles in respect
constrained by the significantly higher costs of most      of fuel efficiency and fuel choice
alternative fuel options as of now. The main barrier      Tightening of regulatory standards such as enforcing
to the use of hydrogen based fuel cell vehicles (FCVs)     fuel-economy standards for automobile manu-
is that of high FCV drive-train costs.                     facturers
                                                          Establishing mechanisms to promote investments CO-BENEFITS                                       in development of high capacity public transport
                                                           systems (e.g. offer equity participation and/or via-
 Mitigation options such as enhanced shares of public
transport or rail-based movement, efficiency

  bility gap funding to cover capital cost of public        to agriculture in the form of irrigation. Key elements
  transport systems)                                        on surface water studies include the following:
 Abandoning of old vehicles to be made illegal              Estimating river flows in mountainous areas
  with suitable legislation and fixing the responsibility    Customizing climate change models for regional
  of handing over the end-of-life vehicle to col-             water basins
  lection centers on the last owner of the vehicle           Extending isotopic-tracer-based techniques of mon-
 Setting up of a demonstration unit to take up recy-         itoring river water discharge to all major river
  cling of vehicles, especially two wheelers, which           monitoring stations
  require new techniques                                     Developing digital elevation models of flood-prone
 Setting up a Combustion Research Institute to               areas for forecasting floods
  facilitate R&D in advanced engine design                   Mapping areas likely to experience floods and
 Providing tax benefits and investment support for           developing schemes to manage floods
  recovery of materials from scrap vehicles                  Strengthening the monitoring of glacial and sea-
                                                              sonal snow covers to assess the contribution of
                                                              snowmelt to water flows of Indian rivers that orig-
3.4. National Water Mission                                   inate in the Himalayas
                                                             Establishment of a wider network of automatic
India gets on an average 1197 mm of rainfall every            weather status and automated rain gauge stations
year. This amounts to a total precipitation of 4000          Planning of watershed management in mountain
billion m3. However, 3000 billion m3 of this is lost          ecosystems
due to run off, and only 1000 billion m3 is available
as surface and ground water sources, amounting to           3.4.2. MANAGEMENT AND REGULATION OF GROUNDWATER
c.1000 m3 per year per capita water availability. This           RESOURCES
is about 115th –1/10th of that of many industrialised
countries. Many parts of India are water stressed           Groundwater accounts for nearly 40% of the total
today and India is likely to be water scarce by 2050.       available water resources in the country and meets
The problem may worsen due to climate change                nearly 55% of irrigation requirements, 85% of rural
impacts. It is therefore important to increase the effi-    requirements and 50% of urban and industrial
ciency of water use, explore options to augment             requirements. However, overexploitation of the
water supply in critical areas, and ensure more effec-      resource has sharply lowered the water table in
tive management of water resources. New regulatory          many parts of the country, making them increasingly
structures with appropriate entitlements and pricing        vulnerable to adverse impacts of climate change. Key
and incentives to adopt water-neutral and water             areas in this programme may include the following:
positive technologies may be required. Integrated            Mandating water harvesting and artificial recharge
water policies will help to cope with variability in          in relevant urban areas
rainfall and river flows at the basin level. Some spe-       Enhancing recharge of the sources and recharge
cific aspects related to water resources are discussed        zones of deeper groundwater aquifers
in more detail below.                                        Mandatory water assessments and audits; ensuring
                                                              proper industrial waste disposal
3.4.1 STUDIES ON MANAGEMENT OF SURFACE WATER                 Regulation of power tariffs for irrigation
                                                            3.4.3. UPGRADING STORAGE STRUCTURES FOR FRESH
                                                            WATER AND DRAINAGE SYSTEMS FOR WASTEWATER
Rivers and lakes, the most visible sources of surface
water, often indicate the state of the environment
more clearly than many other indicators. Such               To address the problems of droughts and floods trig-
resources also have economic significance in the            gered by extreme weather events, it is essential to
form of waterways for transport, sources of clean
energy in the form of hydropower, and vital inputs

                                                                   NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 33
both augment storage capacity and improve                   In India, desalination has been recognized as a pos-
drainage systems. Effective drainage is also essential      sible means to argument the water supply through
to reclaim waterlogged and saline-alkali lands and to       natural resources for meeting the growing needs of
prevent the degradation of fertile lands. Key areas         water due to population and industrial growth.
are listed below:                                           Since desalination is an energy intensive process (the
 Prioritizing watersheds vulnerable to flow changes        energy required may vary from about 3 kWh to 16
  and developing decision support systems to facili-        kWh for separating 1000 litres depending on the
  tate quick and appropriate responses                      type of process used), the application of desalina-
 Restoration of old water tanks                            tion technology for increasing regional water sup-
 Developing models of urban storm water flows              plies strongly links to energy issues and thus GHG
  and estimating drainage capacities for storm-             emissions. Development activities have been initiated
  water and for sewers based on the simulations             i n va ri ous l a borat ori e s i n t he c ount ry.
 Strengthen links with afforestation programmes            Desalination has been recognized as an important
  and wetland conservation                                  cross disciplinary technology area for R&D in the
 Enhancing storage capacities in multipurpose              11th Plan. Technologies are being developed for the
  hydro projects, and integration of drainage with          following:
  irrigation infrastructure                                  Seawater desalination using Reverse Osmosis and
                                                               multistage flash distillation to take advantage of
3.4.4. CONSERVATION OF WETLANDS                                low-grade heat energy e.g. from power plants
                                                               located in the coastal regions or by using renew-
Wetlands provide a range of ecological services,               able energy such as solar
including water conservation, recharge of ground-            Brackish water desalination
water, and preservation of flora and fauna, including        Water recycle and reuse
species and varieties at risk and are a source of liveli-    Water purification technologies
hood to many. Wetlands face the threat of conver-
sion to other uses, which means a loss of their eco-
logical services, making those who depend on them           3.5. National Mission for Sustaining the
vulnerable. Actions identified for conserving wet-             Himalayan Ecosystem
lands are listed below:
                                                            The Himalayan ecosystem is vital to the ecological
 Environmental appraisal and impact assessment of          security of the Indian landmass, through providing
  developmental projects on wetlands                        forest cover, feeding perennial rivers that are the
 Developing an inventory of wetlands, especially           sourc e of d ri nki ng wa te r, i r ri ga ti on, a nd
  those with unique features                                hydropower, conserving biodiversity, providing a
 Mapping of catchments and surveying and assess-           rich base for high value agriculture, and spectacu-
  ing land use patterns with emphasis on drainage,          lar landscapes for sustainable tourism. At the same
  vegetation cover, silting, encroachment, conver-          time, climate change may adversely impact the
  sion of mangrove areas, human settlements, and            Himalayan ecosystem through increased tempera-
  human activities and their impact on catchments           ture, altered precipitation patterns, and episodes
  and water bodies.                                         of drought.
 Creating awareness among people on importance                     Concern has also been expressed that the
  of wetland ecosystems                                     Himalayan glaciers, in common with other entities
 Formulating and implementing a regulatory                 in the global cryosphere, may lose significant ice-
  regime to ensure wise use of wetlands at the              mass, and thereby endanger river flows, especially
  national, the state, and district levels                  in the lean season, when the North Indian rivers
                                                            are largely fed by melting snow and ice. Studies by

several scientific institutions in India have been          ties with "Incomparable Values", in developing
inconclusive on the extent of change in glacier             strategies for their protection
mass, and whether climate change is a significant          3.6. National Mission for a -Green India-
causative factor.
        It is accordingly, necessary to continue and       Forests are repositories of genetic diversity, and sup-
enhance monitoring of the Himalayan ecosystem, in          ply a wide range of ecosystem services thus helping
particular the state of its glaciers, and the impacts of   maintain ecological balance. Forests meet nearly
change in glacial mass on river flows. Since several       40% of the energy needs of the country overall, and
other countries in the South Asian region share the        over 80% of those in rural areas, and are the back-
Himalayan ecosystem, appropriate forms of scientific       bone of forest-based communities in terms of liveli-
collaboration and exchange of information may be           hood and sustenance. Forests sequester billions of
considered with them to enhance understanding of           tons of carbon dioxide in the form of biomass and
ecosystem changes and their effects.                       soil carbon. The proposed national programme will
        It is also necessary, with a view to enhancing     focus on two objectives, namely increasing the forest
conservation of Himalayan ecosystems, to empower           cover and density as a whole of the country and con-
local communities, in particular through the               serving biodiversity.
Panchayats, to assume greater responsibility for
management of ecological resources.                        3.6.1. INCREASE IN FOREST COVER AND DENSITY
        The National Environment Policy, 2006, inter-
alia provides for the following relevant measures for      The report of the Working Group on Forests for the
conservation of mountain ecosystems:                       11th Five-Year Plan puts the annual rate of planting
                                                           during 2001/02 to 2005/06 at 1.6 million hectares and
 Adopt appropriate land-use planning and water-           proposes to increase it to 3.3 million hectares during
  shed management practices for sustainable devel-         the 11th Plan. The final target is to bring one-third of
  opment of mountain ecosystems                            the geographic area of India under forest cover.
                                                                   The Greening India Programme has already
 Adopt "best practice" norms for infrastructure           been announced. Under the programme, 6 million
  construction in mountain regions to avoid or min-        hectares of degraded forest land would be afforest-
  imize damage to sensitive ecosystems and despoil-        ed wi t h t he pa rt ici pati on of Joi nt Fore st
  ing of landscapes                                        Management Committees (JFMCs), with funds to the
                                                           extent of Rs 6000 crores provided from the accumu-
 Encourage cultivation of traditional varieties of        lated additional funds for compensatory afforesta-
  crops and horticulture by promotion of organic           tion under a decision of the Supreme Court in
  farming enabling farmers to realize a price premi-       respect of forest lands diverted to non-forest use.
  um                                                               The elements of this Programme may include
                                                           the following:
 Promote sustainable tourism through adoption of
  "best practice" norms for tourism facilities and          Training on silvicultural practices for fast- growing
  access to ecological resources, and multistakeholder       and climate- hardy tree species
  partnerships to enable local communities to gain          Reducing fragmentation of forests by provision of
  better livelihoods, while leveraging financial,            corridors for species migration, both fauna and
  technical, and managerial capacities of investors          flora
                                                            Enhancing public and private investments for rais-
 Take measures to regulate tourist inflows into             ing plantations for enhancing the cover and the
  mountain regions to ensure that these remain               density of forests
  within the carrying capacity of the mountain ecol-        Revitalizing and upscaling community-based initia-
 Consider particular unique mountain scapes as enti-

                                                                   NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 35
  tives such as Joint Forest Management (JFM) and          Development of drought- and pest-resistant crop
  Van Panchayat committees for forest management            varieties
 Implementation of the Greening India Plan                Improving methods to conserve soil and water
 Formulation of forest fire management strategies         Stakeholder consultations, training workshops and
                                                            demonstration exercises for farming communi-
3.6.2. CONSERVING BIODIVERSITY                              ties, for agro-climatic information sharing and
Conservation of wildlife and biodiversity in natural       Financial support to enable farmers to invest in and
heritage sites including sacred groves, protected           adopt relevant technologies to overcome climate
areas, and other biodiversity 'hotspots' is crucial for     related stresses
maintaining the resilience of ecosystems. Specific
actions in this programme will include:                   3.7.2. RISK MANAGEMENT

 In-situ and ex-situ conservation of genetic             The agricultural sector may face risks due to extreme
  resources, especially of threatened flora and           climatie events. Priority areas are as follows:
 Creation of biodiversity registers (at national, dis-    Strengthening of current agricultural and weather
  trict, and local levels) for documenting genetic          insurance mechanisms
  diversity and the associated traditional knowledge       Development and validation of weather derivative
 Effective implementation of the Protected Area            models (by insurance providers ensuring their
  System under the Wildlife Conservation Act                access to archival and current weather data)
 Effect i ve i mpl e me nta ti on of t he Nat i onal      Creation of web-enabled, regional language based
  Biodiversity Conservation Act, 2001                       services for facilitation of weather-based insurance
                                                           Development of GIS and remote-sensing method-
3.7. National Mission for Sustainable                       ologies for detailed soil resource mapping and
Agriculture                                                 land use planning at the level of a watershed or a
                                                            river basin
Contributing 21% to the country's GDP, accounting          Mapping vulnerable eco-regions and pest and dis-
for 11 % of total exports, employing 56.4% of the           ease hotspots
total workforce, and supporting 600 million people         Developing and implementing region-specific con-
directly or indirectly, agriculture is vital to India's     tingency plans based on vulnerability and risk sce-
economy and the livelihood of its people. The pro-          narios
posed national mission will focus on four areas cru-
cial to agriculture in adapting to climate change,        3.7.3. ACCESS TO INFORMATION
namely dryland agriculture, risk management, access
to information, and use of biotechnology.                 Although many information channels are available
                                                          to farmers, none of them offers need-based informa-
3.7.1. Dryland Agriculture                                tion in an interactive mode. Supplying customized
                                                          information can boost farm productivity and farm
Out of the net cultivated area of approximately 141       incomes, and the following areas deserve priority:
million hectares , about 85 million hectares (60%)
falls under the dryland/rain-fed zone. Accordingly, to     Development of regional databases of soil, weather,
realise the enormous agricultural growth potential          genotypes, land-use patterns and water resources.
of the drylands in the country and secure farm-based       Monitoring of glacier and ice-mass, impacts on
livelihoods, there is a need to prevent declines in
agricultural yields during climatic stress. Priority
actions on dryland agriculture with particular rele-
vance to adaptation will be as follows:

  water resources, soil erosion, and associated            the quality and specificity of climate change pro-
  impacts on agricultural production in mountainous        jections over the Indian sub-continent, including
  regions                                                  changes in hydrological cycles
 Providing information on off-season crops, aro-         Strengthening of observational networks and data
  matic and medicinal plants, greenhouse crops, pas-       gathering and assimilation, including measures to
  ture development, agro-forestry, livestock and           enhance the access to and availability of relevant
  agro-processing.                                         data
 Collation and dissemination of block-level data on      Creation of essential research infrastructure, such
  agro-climatic variables, land-use, and socio-eco-        as high performance computing and very large
  nomic features and preparation of state -level           bandwidth networks to enable scientists to access
  agro-climatic atlases                                    and share computational and data resources

3.7.4 USE OF BIOTECHNOLOGY                               These broad themes are elaborated in the sub-sec-
                                                         tions below:
Biotechnology applications in agriculture relate to
several themes, including drought proofing, taking       3.8.1. CLIMATE MODELLING AND ACCESS TO DATA
advantage of elevated CO2 concentrations,
increased yields and increased resistance to disease     Although the IPCC-AR4 has addressed the general
and pests. Priority areas include:                       global trends on climate change, spatially detailed
                                                         assessments are not available for India. This is
 Use of genetic engineering to convert C-3 crops to     because of inadequate computing power available,
  the more carbon responsive C-4 crops to achieve        difficulties in getting climate related data, and
  greater photosynthetic efficiency for obtaining        dearth of trained human resources amongst climate
  increased productivity at higher levels of carbon      modelling research groups in India. The following
  dioxide in the atmosphere or to sustain thermal        actions will be taken:
 Development of crops with better water and nitrogen    3.8.2. ENHANCED RESEARCH ON CLIMATE MODELLING IN
  use efficiency which may result in reduced             INDIA
  emissions of greenhouse gases or greater toler-
  ance to drought or submergence or salinity             There is a need to develop high resolution Air Ocean
 Development of nutritional strategies for manag-       General Circulation Models (AOGCM) and nested
  ing heat stress in dairy animals to prevent nutrient   Regional Climate Models (RCM) that simulate
  deficiencies leading to low milk yield and produc-     regional climate change, in particular monsoon
  tivity                                                 behaviour, by pooling institutional capabilities and
                                                         computational resources.
                                                                 In respect of General Circulation Models
3.8. National Mission on Strategic Knowledge             (GCM), there is a need to build national level core cli-
    for Climate Change                                   mate modelling groups to develop high resolution
                                                         coupled AOGCM that effectively simulate monsoon
This national mission envisages a broad-based effort     behaviour. These would be employed for multi-
that would include the following key themes:             ensemble and multi-year simulations of the present
                                                         and future climate. Indigenous Regional Climate
 Research in key substantive domains of climate sci-    Models (RCM) are necessary to generate accurate
  ence where there is an urgent need to improve the      future climate projections upto (at least) district
  understanding of key phenomena and processes,          level. Regional data re-analysis projects should be
  including, for example, monsoon dynamics,              encouraged. A Regional Model Inter-comparison
  aerosol science and ecosystem responses
 Global and regional climate modelling to improve

                                                                 NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 37
Project (RMIP) for climate is required to minimize                 provide access to the data. A concept of 'registered
uncertainty in future climate projections.                         users' has been proposed, who will have easier access
                                                                   to climate related data held by the various scientific
3.8.3. PROMOTING DATA ACCESS                                       Ministries and Departments of the Government.
                                                                   There is a need to review the restrictions on data
There are several databases that are relevant for cli-             access. The Ministries and their agencies should also
mate research, along with the respective agencies                  take action to digitize the data, maintain databases
that are responsible for collecting and supplying that             of global quality, and streamline the procedures gov-
data. It is suggested that each of these Ministries and            erning access. Existing databases that will need to be
Departments may appoint a 'facilitator', who will                  expanded and improved are listed below.
Table 3.8.3 Some Databases for Climate Research
S. No. Database                          Data Collecting and Supplying Agency        F ac i li t at or r e p or t i ng t o
1     Oceans                             Ministry of Earth Sciences                  Secretary, Ministry of Earth Sciences
      Sea surface temperature Salinity
      Sea level rise
2     Cryosphere                                                                  a) Secretary, Department of Space
                                         a) National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) b) Secretary, Ministry of Mines
      Snow cover                         b) Geological Survey of India
      Glacial data                                                                c) Secretary, Department of Defence
                                         c) Snow and Avalanche Studies
                                                                                  Research and Development
                                         Establishment (SASE), Defence Research
                                         and Development Organization
3                                        India Meteorological Department,         Secretary, Ministry of Earth Sciences
      Meteorology                        Ministry of Earth Sciences.
      Surface temperature
      Air temperature
      Evaporation data
4                                        a) Survey of India                       a) Secretary, Department of Science
      Land Surface
      Topography                                                                     and Technology
                                         b) National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) b) Secretary, Department of Space
      Imagery (vegetation map)
      Forest cover
      Hydrological                       a) Central Water Commission                 a) Secretary, Ministry of Water
      Ground water                                                                      Resources
      Water quality                      b) State Water Resource Organizations       b) Chief Secretaries of the respective
      River water                                                                       States
      Water utilization
6                                        Ministry of Agriculture                     a) Secretary, Department of Agriculture
      Soil profile                                                                      and Co-operation
      Area under cultivation                                                         b) S e c r e t a ry , D ep a r tm en t o f
      Production and yield                                                              Agricultural Research and Education
      Cost of cultivation
7                                        Census of India                             Registrar General India, Ministry of
      Demography                                                                     Home Affairs
      Economic status
8     Forests                            a) Forest Survey of India
      Forest resources                   b) State Forest Department                  a) Secretary, Ministry of Environment
      Plant and animal                   c) Botanical Survey of India                    and Forests
      species distribution               d) Zoological Survey of India               b) Chief Secretaries of the respective
                                         e) Department of Space                          States
                                                                                     c) Secretary, Ministry of Environment
                                                                                        and Forests
                                                                                     d) Secretary, Ministry of Environment
                                                                                         and Forests
                                                                                     e) Secretary, Department of Space
9     Health Related Data                Department of Health Research                   Secretary, Department of Health

3.8.4. STRENGTHENING NETWORKS                                      and are responsible for most of the GHG emissions
                                                                   from the energy sector. During the 11 th Five-Year
The creation of an integrated National Knowledge                   Plan, utility-based generation capacity is expected to
Network (scalable and ultimately of multi-10 Gbps                  increase by 78,000 MW. A significant proportion of
capacity) as suggested by the National Knowledge                   this increase will be thermal-coal based. While the
Commission and the Principal Scientific Adviser's                  new investments in the thermal power sector, which
Office would obviously benefit climate modellers.                  are substantial, have high efficiencies, the aggregate
The upcoming Grid Computing stands out as a                        efficiency of the older plants is low. In addition, high
unique technology for handling terabytes of experi-                ATCL (aggregate technical and commercial loss) in
mental data requiring hundreds of teraflops of com-                power transmission and distribution is a key concern
puting power. Various Ministries of the Government                          There are three ways of lowering the emis-
are also taking steps to augment their super-comput-               sions from coal based plants: increasing efficiency of
ing resources in the Eleventh Plan.                                existing power plants; using clean coal technologies
                                                                   (relative emissions are c.78% of conventional coal-
3.8.5. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT                                  thermal), and switching to fuels other than coal,
                                                                   where possible. These measures are complementary
In order to meet the new challenges related to climate             and not mutually exclusive. Another option that has
change, human resources would require to be                        been suggested is carbon capture and sequestration
enhanced through changes in curricula at the school                (CCS). However, feasible technologies for this have
and college levels, introduction of new programmes                 not yet been developed and there are serious ques-
at the university level, and training of professionals             tions about the cost as well permanence of the CO2
and executives in relevant fields. An overall assess-              storage repositories.
ment of additional skills required will have to be car-                     Approximately 5000 MW out of total of
ried out at the national, state and local levels, so that          73,500 MW of present installed capacity (at the end
necessary measures can be undertaken for enhanc-                   of November, 2007) of coal thermal plants have low
ing the quality and quantum of human resource                      capacity utilization of less than 5%, as well as low
required in the coming years and decades. The latter               conversion efficiency. During the 11th Plan, these
would have to be viewed also in the context of the                 units would be retired, and during the 12th Plan, an
current difficulties faced in attracting young people              additional 10,000 MW of the least efficient operat-
to careers in science in general, to overcome which                ing plants would be retired, or reconditioned to
steps are being taken during the 11 th Plan.                       improve their operating efficiency.

                                                                   4.1.1. SUPERCRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES
4. Other Initiatives
                                                                   Supercritical and ultra-supercritical plants can
4.1. GHG Mitigation in Power Generation                            achieve efficiencies of - 40 and - 45% respec-
                                                                   tively, compared to about 35% achieved by subcriti-
The present energy mix in India for electricity gener-             cal plants. Since coal-based power generation will
ation is shown in Table 4.1 below:                                 continue to play a major role in the next 30-50 years,
                                                                   it would be useful, wherever cost-effective and oth-
Table 4.1: Present Energy Mix in Electricity Generation in India   erwise suitable, to adopt supercritical boilers, which
Source                    Percentage                               is a proven technology, in the immediate future, and
Coal                             55                                ultra-supercritical boilers when their commercial via-
Hydropower                       26                                bility under Indian conditions is established. At
Oil and gas                      10                                present, construction of several supercritical coal
Wind and solar power               6                               based power projects is in progress.
Nuclear power                      3
At present, fossil fuels account for 66% of the total,

                                                                           NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 39
         Research and development with regard to            GHG mitigation option in India.
ultra-supercritical technology needs to focus on the
following areas:                                            4.1.4. CLOSED CYCLE THREE STAGE NUCLEAR POWER
 Development of materials for use in steam gener-
  ator tubes, main steam piping, and high-pressure          Promotion of nuclear energy through enhancing
  turbines that can withstand high pressure and             nuclear capacity and adoption of fast breeder and
  high temperatures of more than 600°C, and are             thorium-based thermal reactor technology in nuclear
  resistant to oxidation, erosion, and corrosion            power generation would bring significant benefits in
 Development of know-how related to heat trans-            terms of energy security and environmental benefits,
  fer, pressure drop, and flow stability at ultra-super-    including GHG mitigation.
  critical conditions                                                India's uranium resources are limited but the
                                                            country has one of the largest resources of thorium
4.1.2. INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE               in the world. Therefore, right from inception, India
      (IGCC) TECHNOLOGY                                     has adopted a programme that will maximize the
                                                            energy yield from these materials. This is the three-
Integrated gasification combined cycle technology           stage nuclear power programme. The first stage of
can make coal-based power generation - 10% more             nuclear power generation is based on PHWR
efficient. For every 1% rise in efficiency, there is a 2%   (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) technology using
decrease in CO2 release. Besides, there is a substan-       indigenous natural uranium. The second stage is
tial reduction in NOx emissions. Demonstration of           based on FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor) technology
plants using high-ash, low-sulphur Indian coal needs        using plutonium extracted by reprocessing of the
to be pursued, while recognizing constraints such as        spent fuel obtained from the first stage. The third
high costs and availability of superior imported coal.      stage consists of using thorium resources.
Recent research has shown that these plants should                   The current installed capacity of nuclear
be based on the Pressurized Fluidized Bed (PFB)             power plants is 4200 MW, accounting for nearly 3%
approach.                                                   of total installed capacity. A 500 MW fast breeder
          Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL) already      reactor is under construction and is expected to go
has 3 R&D plants based on PFB, which have provided          on stream in about three years. A 300 MW Advanced
design information to scale up this technology".            Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) has been designed. Its
BHEL and APGENCO have signed an agreement                   construction is due to begin in the 11th Plan. The
recently to set up a 125 MW plant at Vijayawada             projected installed nuclear power by Department of
using indigenous IGCC technology.                           Atomic Energy (DAE) is shown in Figure 4.1 below.

                                                            Figure 4.1.4: Nuclear Power Generation Projections upto 2050
Natural gas based power generation is cleaner than          by DAE
coal-based generation as CO 2 emissions are only -
50% compared to coal. Besides, natural gas can be
used for electricity generation by adopting advanced
gas turbines in a combined cycle mode. Introduction
of advance class turbines with inlet temperature in
the range 1250 °C - 1350° C has led to combined
cycle power plant efficiency of about 55% under
Indian conditions. Many such plants are in operation
in India. With the discovery of significant reserves of
natural gas in the Godavari basin, setting up more
combined cycle natural gas plants is an attractive

For sustainability of nuclear energy as a mitigation        care.
option in the long term, it is important to close the
nuclear fuel cyclel 1. In this way one can produce
several tens of times more energy from the existing         4.2. Other Renewable Energy Technologies
uranium resources if the plutonium from the spent           Programmes
fuel is recycled in fast breeder reactors and this
potential can be increased by another order of mag-         Renewable energy sources, i.e. based on primary
nitude by closing the nuclear fuel cycle with thorium.      energy sources that are regenerated naturally in
Therefore, the three stage nuclear programme of             time-spans that are meaningful in terms of policy
India based on the closed fuel cycle philosophy             and planning horizons, represent genuine supply
assumes greater significance in the context of cli-         side sustainability of global energy systems.
mate change mitigation. The closed fuel cycle, in                   Renewable energy technologies (RETs) have
comparison to the once-through cycle, also reduces          several well-recognized advantages in relation to
the volumes of radioactive waste requiring treat-           conventional, largely fossil fuels based, energy sys-
ment and disposal.                                          tems. First, by displacing use of fossil fuels, in partic-
                                                            ular, petroleum based fuels, they promote energy
4.1.5. EFFICIENT TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION              security. Second, they are amenable to adoption at
                                                            different scales – from hundreds of megawatts
India's current technical losses during transmission        capacity to a few kilowatts. In many cases they may
and distribution are as high as 16%-19%. By adopt-          be deployed in modular, standardized designs. This
ing HVAC (high voltage AC) and HVDC (high voltage           enables RETS to be matched closely with end-use
DC) transmission, the figure can be brought down to         scales, enabling decentralized deployment, and thus
6%-8% by using amorphous core transformers and              avoiding the risk of failures, and unauthorized access
up-grading the distribution system (avoiding conges-        to large networks, which leads to non-commercial
tion etc.). Distribution losses can also be reduced by      losses. The feasibility of location close to the load or
adopting energy-efficient transformers, which use           consuming centres enables reduction of technical
high-grade steel in the transformer core.                   transmission and distribution losses. However, where
                                                            centralized grids (networks) exist, they may be inserted
4.1.6. HYDROPOWER                                           as individual modules in the grid (network) supply.
                                                            Third, they can help promote sustainable development,
The CEA (Central Electricity Authority) has estimated       broadly defined, through increased opportunities for
India's hydropower potential at 148,700 MW. The             local employment, especially the rural poor, and
hydroelectric capacity currently under operation is         environmental improvement through reducing GHG
about 28,000 MW, while 14,000 MW capacity is                emissions, local air pollutants, solid waste and waste-
under various stages of development. The CEA has            water generation, and (in case of forestry-based
also identified 56 sites for pumped storage schemes         sources), soil and water conservation, and maintaining
with an estimated aggregate installed capacity of           habitats of wild species.
94,000 MW. In addition, a potential of 15,000 MW in                    On the other hand, several RETs also have
terms of installed capacity is estimated from small,        disadvantages. First, some primary energy flows (e.g.
mini, and micro-hydel projects. Of this only about          solar, wind) are intermittent, and insufficiently pre-
2000 MW has been exploited at present. These proj-          dictable, requiring hybridization with systems more
ects are important, in particular, for electrification of   under human control. For another, some RETs forms,
remote hilly areas, where it may not be feasible for        such as biofuels compete with arable land and irriga-
the grid electricity to reach. Large-scale hydropower       tion water with food crops. If not implemented with
with reservoir storage is the cheapest conventional         great care, they may have adverse social and eco-
power source in India. However, resettlement of dis-        nomic consequences,
placed population due to submergence of large
areas of habitation lands has to be attended to with

                                                                    NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 41
         RETs easily have the potential to replace all      ed state-wise gross and net availability of agro-
current and foreseeable use of fossil fuels, for power      residues for power generation.
generation, transportation, and industrial use, for all           There are two basic technology pathways for
time to come. RETs represent a range of specific con-       biomass for power options currently being imple-
version pathways and technologies. These are at dif-        mented. These technologies are Straight Biomass
ferent stages of deployment, innovation, and basic          Combustion and Biomass Gasification.
research. Some that are fully established commercial-
ly, e.g. biomass combustion and gasification based COSTS AND FINANCING
power generation need up-scaling through policies
and regulations that would permit some unique               Plant capacities for straight primary biomass combus-
deployment models to be operationalized. In other           tion are not very large due to limited radius of eco-
cases, where commercial scale operation has been            nomic biomass collection. Investment cost for bio-
demonstrated, but costs are still high, with the possi-     mass combustion based power projects or co-genera-
bility that increased scale and further innovation in       tion projects varies between Rs. 4 to Rs. 5 crores per
both technology and deployment models will reduce           MW, depending upon project site, design and opera-
costs, tariff and regulatory support for a limited period   tion related factors. The cost of electricity generation
may be needed. Where technologies have been                 is around Rs. 3/kWh depending upon specific fuel
demonstrated at laboratory scale, further R&D to            consumption, which in turn depends on type of fuel
enable pilot and commercial scale demonstration             and operating pressure of the boiler and steam tur-
may involve facilitation of industry and research lab-      bine. This technology is, thus, generally cost-compet-
oratory partnerships, and may also involve public fis-      itive with conventional power delivered by the grid
cal (investment) support.                                   to rural areas.
                                                                     In respect of biomass gasification technolo-
4.2.1. RETs FOR POWER GENERATION                            gies, the investment cost, with IC engines as source
                                                            of power generation, comes between Rs. 25,000 –
Power generation technologies based on renewable            60,000 / kW, depending on the type of gasification
energy flows comprise the following major primary           system and type of fuel, including costs of gasifier
sources: Biomass, Hydropower, Solar, and Wind.              and IC engine. The cost of electricity generation cost
Technologies in each of these primary sources have          varies between Rs.3 kWh to Rs. 5/kWh for the cur-
already been deployed in India at commercial scale,         rently available technologies in India.
but there remain several challenges in respect of                 In both cases, the costs of biomass collection
policies and regulations, R&D and transfer of tech-         and transportation are key issues, which limit scale of
nologies, costs and financing, and deployment mod-          operation of individual units.
els, that need to be addressed in order to ensure
their mainstreaming in the commercial power sector. CO-BENEFITS BIOMASS BASED POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES        Biomass based power technologies avoid problems
                                                            associated with ash disposal from coal based plants.
Biomass based technologies include those involving          The ash from the biomass combustion may be
primary biomass combustion, and those that do not           returned to the fields to enhance agricultural pro-
involve direct biomass combustion, but may involve          ductivity. If the biomass is grown in energy planta-
conversion to a secondary energy form.                      tions on wastelands or common/panchayat lands,
        Historically, primary biomass combustion has        there would be increase in rural employment,
been the main source of energy for India. The               besides water, and soil conservation. T&D losses
Integrated Energy Policy (Planning Commission,              would be very low especially in decentralized sys-
2006) has estimated that around 80 mtoe is current-         tems, and deployment can be done independently of
ly used in the rural household sector. In addition, the
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has estimat-

the national grid and integrated with the national         addition, there are 56 assessed sites for pumped stor-
grid when extended.                                        age hydropower, totaling 94,000 MW. The total
                                                           small hydropower (upto 25 MW) potential is 15,000 RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT                           MW, of which only 1905 MW has been utilized.
                                                           Large-scale hydropower with reservoir storage is the
The technology for power generation through                cheapest conventional power source in India. Small-
straight primary biomass combustion is mature, with        scale hydropower is cost competitive with conven-
significant commercial deployment. R&D is required         tional generation options, in particular for rural elec-
for compacting different types of biomass for trans-       trification. In remote rural locations far away from
portation, and improved boiler design to enable the        the grid, it may be the only feasible and economic
use of multiple biomass feedstocks.                        power option.
        One significant area of R&D is development                   The technology options for hydropower at
of hot gas cleaning systems and optimum integration        all scales are commercially well established, except in
with the gasifiers. Another is the development of          the pico-turbine ranges i.e. < 1 kW.
gasifier systems based on charcoal and pyrolized bio-
mass, since volatile distillates of biomass feedstock COSTS AND FINANCING
may have significant economic value, which would
be lost if the biomass is directly burned.                 The cost of generation ranges from Rs. 2 to 4 per
                                                           kWh. The capital costs are higher than for conven- TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AND CAPACITY BUILDING       tional power, and usually in the range of Rs. 7 crore
                                                           per MW.
Biomass gasifiers available in the country are of very
low capacity compared to European and American    CO-BENEFITS
gasifiers, where the capacities vary from 1 MW to
100 MW. Biomass gasifiers with capacities upto 100         Small hydropower displaces diesel gensets, thereby
MW based on Circulating Fluidised Bed (CFB),               avoiding local pollution. By thus avoiding consump-
Bubbling Fluidised Bed (BFB) and Pressurised               tion of petroleum products, it also promotes energy
Fluidised bed (PFB) are available in the USA, Finland      security. Small hydropower is generally more pre-
and UK. Transfer of these technologies, and where          dictable than solar or wind based sources, with vari-
necessary adaptive R&D, would enable deployment            ations occurring over the year, rather than on a
models involving energy plantations on wastelands          hourly or daily basis.
or common/panchayat lands which would not com-    RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT AND CAPACITY BUILDING
pete with food crops.
        Capacity building needs include support to         The following are priorities for R& D:
commercial demonstration by entrepreneurs of bio-
mass based distributed generation systems and using         Design of pico turbines (< 500W range): This would
these as training facilities for local entrepreneurs and      enable very small scale generation at the house-
O&M personnel. Such demonstration and skills devel-           hold level, based on local hydro resources
opment would enable accelerated deployment of               Electronic Load Controller for micro hydro: This
these technologies.                                           would enable supply of power from micro-hydel
                                                              sources to village level grids SMALL-SCALE HYDROPOWER                             Cost reductions in E&M
                                                            Standardizing the modules and optimizing the
Hydropower, both large (reservoir storage) and small          usage of materials is critical for reducing equip-
scale, accounts for 18% of the total electricity gener-       ment, and hence generation, costs
ated in India. Of the total estimated large hydropower      Support to commercial demonstration by entrepre-
potential of 148,700 MW (storage and run-of-
river), so far only 35,000 MW has been utilized. In

                                                                   NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 43
 neurs of small/micro-hydel based distributed gen-          sources that are used for human food) may be set
 eration systems, in particular in remote locations,        at 5% of total grids purchase, to increase by 1%
 and using these as training facilities for local entre-    each year for 10 years. SERCs may set higher per-
 preneurs and O&M personnel would help develop              centages than this minimum at each point in time.
 this sector.
                                                            (ii) Central and state governments may set up a ver- WIND ENERGY                                         ification mechanism to ensure that the renewables
                                                             based power is actually procured as per the appli-
The installed capacity for using wind energy has             cable standard (DMRPS or SERC specified).
gone up rapidly during the last few years (presently         Appropriate authorities may also issue certificates
about 8000 MW). However, the capacity utilization            that procure renewables based power in excess of
factors are low due to the variations in the wind            the national standard. Such certificates may be
flow. Action is required to design, develop and man-         tradeable, to enable utilities falling short to meet
ufacture small wind energy generators (WEGs) upto            their renewables standard obligations. In the
10 kW capacity, that can generate power at very low          event of some utilities still falling short, penalties
speeds (- 2 to 2.5 m/sec). Effort is also required for       as may be allowed under the Electricity Act 2003
the development of low weight carbon fiber and               and rules thereunder may be considered.
other new generation composites, etc. for use in
wind turbines.                                              (iii) Procurement of renewables based power by
        An encouraging sign is the strong interest of        the SEBs/other power utilities should, in so far as
the private sector in the wind area. Some Indian pri-        the applicable renewables standard (DMRPS or
vate companies are involved in setting up wind tur-          SERC specified) is concerned, be based on compet-
bines in other countries in a big way.                       itive bidding, without regard to scheduling, or the
                                                             tariffs of conventional power (however deter-
4.2.2 GRID CONNECTED SYSTEMS                                 mined). Further, renewables based power may,
                                                             over and above the applicable renewables stan-
The Electricity Act, 2003 and the National Tariff            dard, be enabled to compete with conventional
Policy, 2006, provide for both the Central Electricity       generation on equal basis (whether bid tariffs or
Regulatory Commission (CERC) and the State                   cost-plus tariffs), without regard to scheduling (i.e.
Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERC) to pre-            renewables based power supply above the renew-
scribe a certain percentage of total power purchased         ables standard should be considered as displacing
by the grid from renewable based sources. It also            the marginal conventional peaking capacity). All
prescribes that a preferential tariff may be followed        else being equal, in such cases, the renewables
for renewables based power.                                  based power should be preferred to the compet-
         The following enhancements in the regula-           ing conventional power.
tory/tariffs regime may be considered to help main-
stream renewables based sources in the national            4.2.3. RETS FOR TRANSPORTATION AND INDUSTRIAL FUELS

power system:
                                                           Internal combustion engine based power plants for
 (i) A dynamic minimum renewables purchase                transportation modes require liquid or gaseous fuels.
  standard (DMRPS) may be set, with escalation             In addition, rail (inc. LRT) modes, and some niche
  each year till a pre-defined level is reached, at        personal transportation modes are based on storage
  which time the requirements may be revisited. It is      battery power, which may be recharged from mains
  suggested that starting 2009-10, the national            outlets. The focus in this section is on liquid fuels of
  renewables standard (excluding hydropower with           biological origin for transportation, and industrial
  storage capacity in excess of daily peaking capacity,    applications (prime-movers, heating fuels).
  or based on agriculture based renewables

44 • NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE TECHNOLOGY PATHWAYS                              Disaster-specific vulnerability assessments and sec-
                                                           toral impacts assessments at the state and district
There are several possible pathways for deriving           level for preparing contingency plans
transportation and industrial fuels (not being feed-      Maintenance of critical facilities such as health care
stocks where the chemical composition rather than          services and water supplies
energy content is the main consideration).                Collaboration with insurance providers to insure
        At present, only biodiesel sourced from            infrastructure, mainstreaming disaster risk reduction
Jatropha or Pongamia plantations, and bioethanol           into Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Jawaharlal Nehru
using spoilt foodgrains are cost-effective in relation     National Urban Renewal Mission and Indira Awas
to petroleum based fuels. While significant R&D is         Yojana
being carried out in several countries, including in      Capacity building among design engineers, project
India, in respect of technologies based on several of      planners and financial institutions on incorporat-
the above pathways, at present, the costs are not          ing elements of disaster management
competitive with petroleum. However, it is probable       Development of prefabricated structures instead of
that several biofuels technologies would eventually        cast-in-place construction in vulnerable areas
become competitive with petroleum, and the                Enforcement of building codes; better urban plan-
policy/regulatory regime must enable them to be            ning and zoning of vulnerable areas
commercially deployed when that happens.
                                                         4.3.2. STRENGTHENING COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND
                                                         DISASTER MANAGEMENT FACILITIES
4.3. Disaster Management Response to
   Extreme Climate Events                                Ensuring that communication channels are not severed
                                                         during disasters can protect lives and expedite relief
With projected increases in the frequency and inten-     and rehabilitation operations. Furthermore, it is
sity of extreme events including cyclones, droughts,     essential to have a regular monitoring programme in
and floods attributable to climate change, disaster      place to provide early warning of imminent disasters to
management needs greater attention. In the 11th          facilitate a planned response, including evacuation
Plan, the approach towards disaster management           from vulnerable areas to minimize the impact of
has moved from relief to prevention, mitigation, and     disasters. Specific action areas will include:
preparedness. Two main planks of the new approach
are mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into infra-     Upgrading forecasting, tracking and early warning
structural project design and strengthening commu-         system for cyclones, floods, storms and tsunami
nication networks and disaster management facili-         Monitoring river flows and mapping flood zones
ties at all levels.                                       Generation of regional scenarios based on single or
                                                           multi-hazard mapping
4.3.1. REDUCING RISK TO INFRASTRUCTURE THROUGH            Disaster response training at the community level
BETTER DESIGN                                              to build infrastructure and human resources for
                                                           medical preparedness and emergency medical
As a planned adaptation strategy, reducing risks           response to manage mass casualties during
from natural disasters needs to be a part of infra-        extreme events
structure project design, especially in areas vulnera-
ble to extreme events. It is generally much cheaper
to incorporate appropriate features in the initial       4.4.   Protection of Coastal Areas
design and construction of infrastructure projects,
including siting, than to undertake retrofits later.     The coastal areas are an important and critical region
The various elements of this Programme may               for India not only because of the vast 7500-km coast-

                                                                  NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 45
line but also because of the density of population           triggers of asthma and respiratory diseases) and
and livelihoods dependant on coastal resources.              how they are affected by climate change
Coastal zones are particularly vulnerable and sensi-        Studies on the response of disease vectors to cli-
tive to such impacts of climate change as rise in the        mate change
sea level, rise in the high-tide level, and cyclones and    Enhanced provision of primary, secondary, and ter-
storms, which are projected to become more fre-              tiary health care facilities and implementation of
quent and intense. The programme will focus on two           public health measures, including vector control,
elements, namely (1) coastal protection and (2) early        sanitation, and clean drinking water supply
warning systems. Priority areas on coastal zones
                                                           4.6. Creating Appropriate Capacity at Different
 Development of a regional ocean modelling sys-           Levels of Government
  tem especially in the Bay of Bengal and the
  Arabian Sea                                              In view of several new initiatives that would be
 High-resolution coupled ocean–atmosphere vari-           required, both in respect of adaptation and mitigation,
  ability studies in tropical oceans, in particular the    creation of knowledge and suitable capacity at each
  Indian Ocean                                             level of Government to facilitate implementation of
 Development of a high-resolution storm surge             appropriate measures assumes great importance.
  model for coastal regions                                       At the level of the central government, there
 Development of salinity-tolerant crop cultivars          would be a need to carry out the following:
 Community awareness on coastal disasters and                    There should be support to relevant policy
  necessary action; plantation and regeneration of         research to ensure that adaptation and mitigation
  mangroves                                                takes place in a manner that enhances human well-
 Timely forecasting, cyclone and flood warning sys-       being, while at the same time minimizing societal
  tems                                                     costs. This should lead to the design of suitable legal,
 Enhanced plantation and regeneration of man-             fiscal and regulatory measures.
  groves and coastal forests                                      Appropriate capacity for implementing R&D
                                                           activities and promoting large-scale public aware-
                                                           ness and information dissemination on various
4.5 Health Sector                                          aspects of climate change is required. For adequate
                                                           R&D activities a proactive approach favouring part-
The proposed programme comprises two main com-             nerships between research organizations and industry
ponents, namely provision of enhanced public health        would be efficient and productive.
care services and assessment of increased burden of                At the level of state governments, several
disease due to climate change. Areas that can con-         agencies would need to enlarge and redefine their
tribute to enhanced health care services include the       goals and areas of operation. For instance, State
following:                                                 Electricity Regulatory Commissions would need to
                                                           concern themselves with regulatory decisions that
 Providing high-resolution weather and climate            ensure higher energy efficiency, greater use of
  data to study the regional pattern of disease            renewable energy, and other low carbon activities
 Development of a high-resolution health impact           that would ensure energy security, reduced local pol-
  model at the state level                                 lution, and increased access to energy in areas where
 GIS mapping of access routes to health facilities in     distributed and decentralized forms of energy pro-
  areas prone to climatic extremes                         duction would be economically superior to conven-
 Prioritization of geographic areas based on epi-         tional methods. State governments may also employ
  demiological data and the extent of vulnerability
  to adverse impacts of climate change
 Ecological study of air pollutants and pollen (as the

fiscal instruments to promote appropriate options         overriding priorities of the developing country parties."
and measures.                                             Thus, developing countries are not required to
         Local bodies would need to create capacity       divert resources from development priorities by
on regulatory measures, particularly for ensuring         implementing projects involving incremental costs –
energy efficiency in new buildings as well as through     unless these incremental costs are borne by developed
a programme of retrofits. In respect of adaptation        countries and the needed technologies are trans-
measures, local capacity and the involvement of com-      ferred.
munities in actions to adapt to the impacts of climate            The Global Environmental Facility (GEF)
change would be crucial.                                  finances implementation of projects in developing
         Public awareness on climate change would         countries under the Convention. Additionally, the
have to be spearheaded and driven by government           Kyoto Protocol created the Clean Development
at all levels. Emphasis on schools and colleges is        Mechanism (CDM), which allows developed countries
essential.                                                to meet part of their emission reduction commit-
         In some cases legislation may be required at     ments by purchasing credits from emission reduction
the central and state levels to arrive at appropriate     projects in developing countries, thus serving the
delegation of responsibility and authority for meeting    dual objective of facilitating compliance by devel-
some of the goals mentioned above.                        oped countries of their emission reduction commit-
                                                          ments and of assisting developing countries to
                                                          achieve sustainable development.

5.    International Cooperation: the
     Multilateral Regime on Climate Change                5.1. Some Technology Development and
                                                          Transfer Issues
As a party to the UN Framework Convention on
Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, India plays an     In the move towards a low-carbon economy, technol-
active role in multilateral cooperation to address cli-   ogy has a vital role to play. Technology solutions are
mate change. These agreements are based on the            also very important for enhancing adaptive capacity
principle of "common but differentiated responsibil-      and reducing vulnerability to climate change and its
ities and respective capabilities" of Parties. Thus,      impacts. In this respect, international cooperation in
they incorporate certain common commitments for           science and technology assumes great significance.
all Parties, including an obligation to "formulate and            It is important to ensure that within the mul-
implement programmes containing measures to mit-          tilateral process under the UNFCCC, the menu of
igate climate change". Additionally, the Convention       cooperation mechanisms is not constrained, and
requires the developed countries (listed in its Annex     indeed, proactive measures are taken for these
I) to stabilize and reduce their greenhouse gas emis-     mechanisms to be used. The stage of the technology
sions and the Kyoto Protocol establishes quantified,      in terms of its progression from research to wide-
time-bound targets in this regard. Countries with the     spread market adoption will play an important role
most advanced economies (listed in Annex II of the        in determining the mechanisms that are appropriate
convention) are also required to transfer financial       and relevant.
resources and technology to developing countries                  For example, when the technology solutions
for purposes of mitigation and adaptation.                are at a very early stage of development, the primary
         The Convention specifically notes that "per      focus is usually on cooperation in basic scientific
capita emissions in developing countries are still rel-   research. India has always been very actively
atively low and...the share of global emissions origi-    engaged in, and is making key contributions to inter-
nating in developing countries will rise to meet their    national scientific programmes that may have signif-
social and development needs." The Convention also        icant implications for the transition to a sustainable
recognizes       that    "economic       and     social
developmentand poverty eradication are the first and

                                                                  NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 47
e ne rgy fut ure , suc h a s t he Inte rnati onal          funds may be required that would finance the devel-
Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). At the          opment, deployment, diffusion and transfer of tech-
individual and institutional level, Indian participation   nologies for both mitigation and adaptation to
in scientific networks is also very strong. From a long-   developing countries.
term perspective, this scientific cooperation will                 One of the main barriers to technology
remain very important.                                     adoption lies in the low absorptive capacities of
        As ideas progress from the laboratory closer       developing countries. It is vital that mechanisms for
towards the market, the focus shifts towards tech-         technology transfer include measures that will
nology design and development. Mechanisms that             enable the enhancement of absorptive capacities,
enable joint technology development involving pub-         keeping in mind the targets of such technology
lic and private sector entities and with suitable          interventions.
norms for financing and IPR-sharing would be impor-
tant for ensuring that the process of technology
development and commercialization happens more
rapidly and effectively.                                   5.2. Clean Development Mechanism
        For the final stage of deployment and mar-
ket adoption of technologies in developing coun-           India has given host-country approval for 969 CDM
tries, two different contexts may be identified. For       projects as of June 2008. Renewable energy, includ-
technologies that are already mature and deployed          ing renewable biomass, accounted for the largest
in the developed countries, appropriate financing          number of projects (533), followed by energy effi-
models are essential, which may become operational         ciency (303). Very few projects in the forestry (6) and
through multilateral institutions, carbon markets          municipal solid waste (18) sectors were included,
and mechanisms like the CDM. However, as was               despite their large potential. The expected invest-
noted earlier, given the somewhat limited role that        ments in these 753 projects (if all go on stream) is
the CDM appears to have played with regard to tech-        about Rs. 106,900 crores.
nology transfer, this issue will merit detailed exami-              Of the 969 projects, 340 projects have been
nation.                                                    registered by the multilateral Executive Board (CDM
        However, the transition to a more sustain-         EB). India accounts for about 32% of the world total
able energy future will require a much more rapid          of 1081 projects registered with the CDM EB, fol-
progression towards a variety of newer, low-carbon         lowed by China (20%), Brazil (13%), and Mexico
and energy efficient technologies in different areas.      (10%) (Source: UNFCCC). About 493 million certified
The usual mechanism considered for this purpose is         emission reductions (CERs) are expected to be gener-
that of technology transfer from the developed to          ated until 2012 if all these host-country approved
the developing countries. The conventional model of        projects in India go on stream (National CDM
technology transfer, considers that technology devel-      Authority, November 2007). As of June 2008, 152.4
oped in the North is first established there, before it    million CERs had been issued to projects
is supplied to the South. The rapid changes in the         worldwide, of which India accounted for 28.16%%,
global economic and technology environment are             China (29.25%), Korea (17.87%), and Brazil
making this model less applicable. As the experience       (14.13%).
so far also suggests, this model may be inadequate in               Some cross-cutting challenges in CDM imple-
terms of satisfying the scale and scope of the tech-       mentation in India are listed below:
nology response required. New models and mecha-
nisms for technology transfer will need to incorpo-         The projects from India are generally small. Of the
rate at least three key elements: appropriate funding        283 projects registered with the CDM EB till
modalities and approaches; a facilitative IPR environ-       October 2007, 63% are small-scale projects (in
ment, and enhancing the absorptive capacity within           terms of the Protocol definition)
developing countries.                                       The portfolio is dominated by unilateral projects,
New multilateral technology cooperation

  i.e. the investors are Indian parties, employ locally    grow substantially in the future.
  available technologies, and use domestic financial
  resources. While this has provided a significant
  impetus to local innovation, CDM has not led to          5.3. Enhanced Implementation of the UNFCCC
  the technology transfer from industrialized to
  developing countries envisaged by the Protocol           India looks forward to enhanced international coop-
 Industrialized countries have not participated sig-      eration under the UNFCCC. Overall, future interna-
  nificantly in project financing and the project risks    tional cooperation on climate change should address
  are mostly taken up by the host industries               the following objectives:
 Insurance companies in general have shown little
  interest in CDM, which is unfortunate since they          Minimizing the negative impacts of climate
  can catalyse carbon trading by providing risk and          change through suitable adaptation measures in
  financial analysis skills                                  the countries and communities affected and miti-
 There is much subjectivity in the multilateral CDM         gation at the global level
  process, and divergent interpretations are given by       Provide fairness and equity in the actions and
  different designated operating entities (DOEs)             measures
  accredited by the CDM EB                                  Uphold the principle of common but differentiat-
 High transactions costs prevent the small-scale sector     ed responsibilities in actions to be taken, such as
  (in the Indian definition) from participating in CDM       concessional financial flows from the developed
 In the absence of an international transactions log        countries, and access to technology on affordable
  (ITL), there is lack of reliable information in the        terms
  carbon market on CDM transactions
                                                           India as a large democracy, with the major challenge
Despite the above, there is encouraging response           of achieving economic and social development and
from Indian entrepreneurs to the CDM across differ-        eradicating poverty, will engage in negotiations and
ent sectors. Besides, several recent enhancements of       other actions at the international level in the coming
CDM such as bundling and programmatic CDM need             months that would lead to efficient and equitable
to be mainstreamed. Alongside the carbon market            solutions at the global level.
under the Kyoto Protocol, a voluntary (non-compli-
ance) carbon market is emerging involving trades in
VERB (verified emission reductions). This market may

                                                                  NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 49
1.   Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change             Indian Ocean Coasts consistent with global
     (IPCC), Climate Change 2007: The Physical             esti-mates? by A.S. Unnikrishnan and D.
     Science Basis. (page 13)                              Shankar, Global and Planetary Change, 57,
                                                           301 (2007). (page 15)
2.   Growth and CO2 Emissions — How do different
     countries fare? by R.W. Bacon and S.            8.    Impact of Climate Change on Forests in India
     Bhattacharya, The World Bank Environment               by N.H.Ravindranath, N.V. Joshi, R. Sukumar
     Department, November, 2007. (page 14)                  and A. Saxena, Current Science 90, 354
                                                            (2006). (page 16)
3.   National Energy Map for India, Technology
     Vision 2030 by The Energy and Resources         9.    Re c yc lin g of Au tom obiles – Pr oblem
     Institute (TERI) for Office of the Principal           Definition and Possible Solutions in the
     Scientific Adviser to the Government of                Indian Context, by Captain N.S. Mohan Ram,
     India, PSA/2006/3. (page 14)                           INAE Seminar on Recycling, September, 2007.
                                                            (page 31)
4.   International Energy Agency (IEA) data cited
     by Planning Commission, India, 2007. (pagel4)   10.   Development of the Integrated Gasification
                                                            Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology as suited
5.   India's Initial National Communication, 2004           to Power Generation using Indian Coals,
     (NATCOM I) to UN Framework Convention                  PSA/2005/4. (page 39)
     on Climate Change (UNFCCC). (page 15)
                                                     11. Closing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle in the Context
6.   Increasing Trend of Extreme Rain Events               of the Global Climate Change Threat by R.
     Over India in a Warming Environment by                Chidambaram, R.K. Sinha and Anand
     B.N. Goswami, V. Venugopal, D. Sengupta,              Patwardhan, Nuclear Energy Review, 38
     M.S. Madhusoodanam, Prince K. Xavier,                 (2007). (page 40)
     Science, 314, 1442 (2006).(page 15)
7.   Area Sea Levels trends along the North

                                                            NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE • 50

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