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					      An Analysis and Synthesis of
          Learning Styles
• Welcome to our session!

• We hope you learn much & get a better
  understanding of yourself and your students




May 2003                                        1
      An Analysis and Synthesis of
          Learning Styles




May 2003                             2
      An Analysis and Synthesis of
          Learning Styles
     •     Keirsey
     •     Gregorc
     •     Kolb
     •     A Synthesis



May 2003                             3
       A Framework for Examining
           Learning Styles
     • Structure
     • Percentages
     • Characteristics
           •   What they do best
           •   What makes sense to them
           •   What is hard for them
           •   What questions they ask when learning
           •   What they have a preference for
           •   What they respond to
     • Observations on their learning behavior

May 2003                                               4
           A Discovery of Learning
                 Styles
• Which one are you?
• Do you acknowledge the validity of the others?
• Do you try to change others to be like you?
• Do you appreciate others for what they are and
  for what you are not?
• Can you be all things to all people?




May 2003                                           5
           An Analysis of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey




May 2003                             6
                 Keirsey’s Learning Styles

    O u ter
    O rie n tatio n         K e irse y               K e irse y Id e a list
    U se s se n se s        G u a rd ia n
    U se s fe e ling s
    C o o p e ra tive

    In n e r O rie n tatio n
    U se s th o ug ht        K e irse y A rtist      K e irse y R a tio n a l
    U se s in tu itio n                                            .
    U tilita ria n

                            In tera cts w ith th e   U n d e rsta n d th e
                            w o rld , a ctive ,      w o rld , refle ctive ,
                            d o in g , co n cre te   o b se rve s, w a tch e s,
                            th o ug h t a n d        a b stra ct th o ug ht a n d
May 2003                    co m m u n ica tio n s   co m m u n ica tio n s 7
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey
                   Artisans: at a glance
   Artisans are most at home in the external world of
   solid objects that can be made and manipulated,
   and of real-life events that can be experienced in
   the here and now. Artisans have keen senses,
   and...




May 2003                                            8
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey
                  Idealists: at a glance
   Idealists believe that friendly cooperation is the
   best way for people to achieve their goals. They
   dream of removing the walls of conflict and
   selfishness that divide people, and...




May 2003                                                9
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey
               Rationals: at a glance
   Whatever their field, Rationals set out to
   comprehend the natural world in all its
   complexity. Rationals want to learn about...




May 2003                                          10
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey

                 Guardians: at a glance
   Guardians are sensible, down-to-earth people
   who are the backbone of institutions and the true
   stabilizers of society. They believe in following
   the rules and...




May 2003                                               11
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey

            • The SPs Artisans
• Myers had SPs probing around their
  immediate surroundings in order to detect and
  exploit any favorable options that came within
  reach. Having the freedom to act on the spur
  of the moment, whenever or wherever an
  opportunity arises, is very important to SPs.



May 2003                                       12
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey

             • The SPs Artisans
• No chance is to be blown, no opening missed,
  no angle overlooked -- whatever or whoever
  might turn out to be exciting, pleasurable, or
  useful is checked out for advantage.




May 2003                                       13
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey

   Though they may differ in their attitude
   toward tough-mindedness (T) and friendliness
   (F) in exploring for options, and though some
   are socially expressive (E) and some reserved
   (I), all of them make sure that what they do is
   practical and effective in getting what they
   want.


May 2003                                         14
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey


        Consistent with this view Myers described
   SPs as "adaptable," "artistic," and "athletic" --
   as very much "aware of reality and never
   fighting it" -- as "open-minded" and ever "on
   the lookout for workable compromises" -- as
   knowing "what's going on around them" and
   as able "to see the needs of the moment" -- as
   "storing up useful facts" and having "no use
   for theories" -- as "easygoing,"
May 2003                                           15
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey


• "tolerant," "unprejudiced," and "persuasive" --
  as "gifted with machines and tools" -- as
  acting "with effortless economy" -- as
  "sensitive to color, line, and texture" -- as
  wanting "first-hand experiences" and in
  general "enjoying life." So SPs, as seen by
  Myers, are very much like one another and
  very much different from the other types, the
  SJs, NFs, and NTs.
May 2003                                        16
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey


           • The SJs Guardians
• Myers had SJs, like SPs, observing their close
  surroundings with a keen eye, but for an
  entirely different reason, namely that of
  scheduling their own and others' activities so
  that needs are met and conduct is kept within
  bounds.




May 2003                                       17
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey


           • The SJs Guardians
• Thus for SJs, everything should be in its
  proper place, everybody should be doing what
  they're supposed to, everybody should be
  getting their just deserts, every action should
  be closely supervised, all products thoroughly
  inspected, all legitimate needs promptly met,
  all approved ventures carefully insured.


May 2003                                        18
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey


    Though SJs might differ in being tough-
    minded (T) or friendly (F) in observing their
    schedules, and though they can be expressive
    (E) or reserved (I) in social attitude, all of them
    demand that ways and means of getting things
    done are proper and acceptable.



May 2003                                             19
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey

   And so Myers described the SJs as
   "conservative" and "stable" -- as "consistent"
   and "routinized" -- as "sensible," "factual,"
   and "unimpulsive" -- as "patient,"
   "dependable," and "hard-working" -- as
   "detailed," "painstaking," "persevering," and
   "thorough." This too is a clear-cut pattern of
   action and attitude, highly unlike that of the
   SPs, NFs, and NTs.

May 2003                                        20
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey

             • The NFs Idealists
• On the introspective side, Myers had NFs as
  friendly to the core in dreaming up how to give
  meaning and wholeness to people's lives.
  Conflict in those around them is painful for
  NFs, something they must deal with in a very
  personal way, and so they care deeply about
  keeping morale high in their membership
  groups, and about nurturing the positive self-
  image of their loved ones.
May 2003                                       21
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey

• Indeed, while they might differ from each other
  on how important judging schedules (J) or
  probing for options (P) is in acting on their
  friendly feelings, and while their social
  address can be expressive (E) or reserved (I),
  all NFs consider it vitally important to have
  everyone in their circle -- their family, friends,
  and colleagues -- feeling good about
  themselves and getting along with each other.
May 2003                                          22
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey


   Thus Myers, an INFP herself, saw her fellow
   NFs as "humane" and "sympathetic" -- as
   "enthusiastic" and "religious" -- as "creative"
   and "intuitive" -- and as "insightful" and
   "subjective." Again this is a distinct picture of
   attitude and action, showing NFs to be very
   much like each other and greatly different
   from SPs, SJs, and NTs.

May 2003                                           23
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey

             • The NTs Rationals
• Also on the introspective side, Myers had NTs
  as tough-minded in figuring out what sort of
  technology might be useful to solve a given
  problem. To this end, NTs require themselves
  to be persistently and consistently rational in
  their actions. Though they may differ in their
  preference for judging schedules (J) or
  probing for options (P) as they tackle
  problems, and though they can seem
  expressive (E) or reserved (I) around others,.
May 2003                                        24
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey

   all NTs insist that they have a rationale for
   everything they do, that whatever they do and
   say makes sense.
   So Myers described the NTs as "analytical"
   and "systematic" -- as "abstract,"
   "theoretical," and "intellectual" -- as
   "complex," "competent" and "inventive" -- as
   "efficient," "exacting" and "independent" -- as
   "logical" and "technical" -- and as "curious,"
   "scientific," and "research-oriented."
May 2003                                         25
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Keirsey


• Here again is a unique and easily recognizable
  configuration of character traits, the NTs a
  breed apart, starkly different from SPs, SJs,
  and NFs.




May 2003                                       26
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Gregorc




May 2003                           27
           A Taxonomy of Learning Styles

    O u ter
    O rie n tatio n       G reg orc C S            G reg orc A R
    U se s se n se s
    U se s fe e ling s
    C o o p e ra tive

    In n e r O rie n tatio n G reg orc C R         G reg orc A S
    U se s th o ug ht
    U se s in tu itio n                                          .
    U tilita ria n

                          In tera cts w ith th e   U n d e rsta n d th e
                          w o rld , a ctive ,      w o rld , refle ctive ,
                          d o in g , co n cre te   o b se rve s, w a tch e s,
                          th o ug h t a n d        a b stra ct th o ug ht a n d
May 2003                  co m m u n ica tio n s   co m m u n ica tio n s 28
             A Summary of Learning
              Styles => Gregorc
• PERCEPTION
     – Abstract (mentally visualize
       data, to conceive ideas, to
       understand or believe that which
       one cannot see and which is
       formless to the senses)
     – Concrete (encounter data thru
       the physical senses, grasp and
       mentally register data thru the
       direct use and application of the
       senses)


May 2003                                   29
             A Summary of Learning
              Styles => Gregorc

• ORDERING
     – Linear, step by step process (sequence) information
       is assembled by gathering and linking elements of
       data and piecing them together in a chain-like
       fashion




May 2003                                                     30
             A Summary of Learning
              Styles => Gregorc
• ORDERING
     – Non-linear, quantum leaps (randomness) information is
       grasped and organized in chunks and in no particular
       order. Information is held in abeyance and, in any given
       time, each piece or chunk has equal opportunity of
       receiving attention.




May 2003                                                      31
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Gregorc

• Concrete-Sequential Learners -> prefer an
  orderly approach to organizing information,
  like order, logical sequence, following
  directions, predictability, and getting facts.
  They like to learn in a structured
  environment and apply ideas in pragmatic
  ways, and be faced with predictable
  situations

May 2003                                      32
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Gregorc

   Concrete-Random Learners are intuitive,
   independent thinkers who learn by trial
   and observation. They like experimenting
   to find the answers, and tend to take risks.
   They learn best when they are able to use
   trial-and-error approaches.
   They are able to compete and like being
   given the opportunity to work through a
   problem by themselves.
May 2003                                      33
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Gregorc

• Abstract-Sequential Learners -> prefer
  verbal information and tend to be
  analytical and logical. They like to have
  their points to be heard. They tend to apply
  logic in solving or finding solutions to
  problems. They learn best when they have
  access to experts or references, are
  placed in stimulating environments, and
  are able to work alone.
May 2003                                    34
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Gregorc

• Abstract-Random Learners function best in
  an unstructured learning environment
  offering a highly visual presentation of
  information. They like to listen to others,
  bringing harmony to group situations,
  establish healthy relationships with others
  and focus on the issues at hand.


May 2003                                    35
           A Summary of Learning
            Styles => Gregorc

• Abstract-Random Learners learn best in a
  personalized environment, when they are
  given broad or general guidelines. They
  are able to maintain friendly relationships
  and like to participate in group activities.




May 2003                                         36
           A Summary of Learning
             Styles => Kolb




May 2003                           37
                  A Taxonomy of Teaching
                        Styles
    O u ter                    K o lb T yp e 1          K o lb T yp e 2
    O rie n tatio n
    U se s se n se s
    U se s fe e ling s
    C o o p e ra tive
                               K o lb T yp e 3          K o lb T yp e 4
    In n e r O rie n tatio n
    U se s th o ug ht                                                 .
    U se s in tu itio n
    U tilita ria n

                               In tera cts w ith th e   U n d e rsta n d th e
                               w o rld , a ctive ,      w o rld , refle ctive ,
                               d o in g , co n cre te   o b se rve s, w a tch e s,
                               th o ug h t a n d        a b stra ct th o ug ht a n d
May 2003                       co m m u n ica tio n s   co m m u n ica tio n s 38
             A Summary of Learning
               Styles => Kolb
• VIEW of REALITY
     – Abstract Conceptualization (logical
       analysis of ideas, systematic
       planning, acting on an intellectual
       understanding of the situation)

     – Concrete Experience (learning from
       specific experiences, relating to
       people, sensitive to feelings and
       people)



May 2003                                     39
             A Summary of Learning
               Styles => Kolb
• OPERATIONS on REALITY
     – Reflective Observation ( careful
       observation before making a
       judgment, viewing things from
       different perspectives, and
       looking for the meanings of
       things)

     – Active Experimentation (ability to
       get things done, risk taking,
       influence events and people thru
       action)

May 2003                                    40
            A Summary of Learning
              Styles => Kolb


               Type I Learner   Type II Learner
Concrete        (Guardian)        (Idealist)




 Abstract    Type III Learner   Type IV Learner
                (Artisan)          (Rational)

              Active            Reflective
May 2003                                          41
           A Summary of Learning
             Styles => Kolb



• Type I Learners are primarily a “hands-on”
  learner. You rely on intuition rather than
  logic. You like to rely on other people’s
  analysis rather than your own. You enjoy
  applying your learning to real life
  situations.


May 2003                                   42
           A Summary of Learning
             Styles => Kolb


• Type II Learners like to look at things from
  many points of view. You would rather
  watch rather than take action. You like to
  gather information and create many
  categories for things. You like using your
  imagination in problem solving. You are
  very sensitive to feelings when learning.


May 2003                                     43
           A Summary of Learning
             Styles => Kolb


• Type III Learners like solving problems
  and finding practical solutions and uses for
  your learning. You tend to shy away from
  larger social issues and prefer to become
  immersed in technical tasks.




May 2003                                     44
           A Summary of Learning
             Styles => Kolb


• Type IV Learners are concise and logical.
  Abstract ideas and concepts are more
  important to you than people issues.
  Practicality is less important to you than a
  good logical explanation.




May 2003                                     45
               A Structuring of Learning
                      Styles
                                        .                       .
           Outer Orientation
           Uses senses
           Uses feelings
           Cooperative

                                        .
           Inner Orientation                                    .
           Uses thought
           Uses intuition
           Utilitarian

                               Interacts w ith the   Understand the w orld,
                               w orld, active,       reflective, observes,
                               doing, concrete       w atches, abstract
                               thought and           thought and
                               com m unications      com m unications
May 2003                                                               46
           A Taxonomy of Learning Styles

    O u ter                 K o lb T yp e 1          K o lb T yp e 2
    O rie n tatio n         K e irse y               K e irse y Id e a list
    U se s se n se s        G u a rd ia n            G reg orc A R
    U se s fe e ling s      G reg orc C S
    C o o p e ra tive              TYPE A                 TYPE B

                             K o lb T yp e 3         K o lb T yp e 4
    In n e r O rie n tatio n K e irse y A rtist      K e irse y R a tio n a l
    U se s th o ug ht        G reg orc C R           G reg orc A S
    U se s in tu itio n             TYPE C                 TYPE D
    U tilita ria n                                                 .

                            In tera cts w ith th e   U n d e rsta n d th e
                            w o rld , a ctive ,      w o rld , refle ctive ,
                            d o in g , co n cre te   o b se rve s, w a tch e s,
May 2003                    th o ug h t a n d        a b stra ct th o ug ht a n d
                                                                             47
                            co m m u n ica tio n s   co m m u n ica tio n s
           Percentage of Learning Styles

    Outer Orientation        TY PE A            TY PE B
    Uses senses               45%                9%
    Uses feelings
    Cooperative


    Inner Orientation        TY PE C           TY PE D
    Uses thought              40%                 6%
    Uses intuition                                        .
    Utilitarian

                        Interacts w ith the   Understand the w orld,
                        w orld, active,       reflective, observes,
                        doing, concrete       w atches, abstract
                        thought and           thought and
May 2003                com m unications      com m unications 48
           The Type “A” Learning Style
     O u ter                    K o lb T yp e 1
     O rie n tatio n            K e irse y
     U se s se n se s           G u a rd ia n
     U se s fe e ling s         G reg orc C S
     C o o p e ra tive                 TYPE A



     In n e r O rie n tatio n
     U se s th o ug ht
     U se s in tu itio n
     U tilita ria n

                                In tera cts w ith th e   U n d e rsta n d th e
                                w o rld , a ctive ,      w o rld , refle ctive ,
                                d o in g , co n cre te   o b se rve s, w a tch e s,
May 2003                        th o ug h t a n d        a b stra ct th o ug ht a n d
                                                                                 49
                                co m m u n ica tio n s   co m m u n ica tio n s
           Type “A” Learning Styles
(Guardian, Concrete Sequential, Kolb Type 1)


• What Do They Do Best?
     – Apply ideas in a practical way
     – Organize
     – Fine-tune existing ideas to make them more
       efficient
     – Produce concrete outcomes
     – Work well with time limits



May 2003                                            50
           Type “A” Learning Styles
(Guardian, Concrete Sequential, Kolb Type 1)

• What Makes Sense to Them?
     – Working systematically in a step-by-step,
       programmed manner
     – Paying close attention to detail
     – Having a schedule to follow
     – Literal interpretations
     – Knowing exactly what is expected of them
     – Routines, established procedures


May 2003                                           51
           Type “A” Learning Styles
(Guardian, Concrete Sequential, Kolb Type 1)

• What’s Hard for Them?
     – Working in groups
     – Discussion that seems to have no specific point
     – Working in an unstructured, unorganized
       environment
     – Following incomplete or unclear directions
     – Working with unpredictable people




May 2003                                            52
             Type “A” Learning Styles
(Guardian, Concrete Sequential, Kolb Type 1)

• What’s Hard for Them?
     –     Dealing with abstract ideas
     –     Jumping from point to point
     –     Demands to “use your imagination”
     –     Questions with no right nor wrong answers




May 2003                                               53
             Type “A” Learning Styles
(Guardian, Concrete Sequential, Kolb Type 1)

• What Questions Do They Ask While
  Learning?
     –     What are the facts I need?
     –     How do I do it?
     –     What should the results look like?
     –     When is it due?




May 2003                                        54
              Type “A” Learning Styles

• Have a preference for:
     –     Workbooks & manuals
     –     Compositions
     –     Demonstration teaching
     –     programmed instruction
     –     field trips
     –     hands-on material
     –     Drill
     –     Tests/quizzes
May 2003                                 55
              Type “A” Learning Styles

• Respond to:
     –     Goals and objectives
     –     Rewards with meeting goals
     –     Latitude and freedom
     –     Knowing the parameters of the project
     –     Executive summaries
     –     Responsibility
     –     Socializing
     –     Team approaches
May 2003                                           56
           Type “A” Learning Styles

• Get information through direct, hands-on
  experience
• Like order and logical sequence to the
  facts
• Like touchable, concrete materials
• Prefer step by step directions
• Look for and like to follow directions
• Like ordered presentations and quiet
  atmosphere
May 2003                                     57
              Type “A” Learning Styles

• Usually fit well with their teachers
• Accept the ideas of:
     –     Good study habits
     –     Doing homework
     –     Doing homework on time
     –     Learning one’s lessons as directed
• Do well with workbooks
• Like and need lots of structure

May 2003                                        58
           Type “A” Learning Styles

• Do best when lessons are presented
  sequentially in increments that make
  sense
• Is conscientious and will do his/her best as
  long as he/she receives clear directions so
  that he/she will know how to proceed
• Not apt to “wing it”
• Most comfortable if is prepared for class

May 2003                                     59
           Type “A” Learning Styles

• Likes many interactions between teacher
  and the student
• Responds somewhat to negative criticism
• Does not thrive on long-term independent
  projects
• Does not enjoy discussion groups
• Likes the class to be led by the teacher


May 2003                                     60
           Type “A” Learning Styles

• Tends to be obedient and conforms to the
  standards set by the teacher
• Is comfortable as long as he/she is
  studying facts or procedures
• Thrives on stability
• Studiousness may dissolve if asked to
  speculate, invent, guess, or improvise


May 2003                                     61
           The Type “B” Learning Style
    O u ter                                             K o lb T yp e 2
    O rie n tatio n                                     K e irse y Id e a list
    U se s se n se s                                    G reg orc A R
    U se s fe e ling s                                        TYPE B
    C o o p e ra tive

    In n e r O rie n tatio n
    U se s th o ug ht
    U se s in tu itio n
    U tilita ria n

                               In tera cts w ith th e   U n d e rsta n d th e
                               w o rld , a ctive ,      w o rld , refle ctive ,
                               d o in g , co n cre te   o b se rve s, w a tch e s,
                               th o ug h t a n d        a b stra ct th o ug ht a n d
May 2003                       co m m u n ica tio n s   co m m u n ica tio n s 62
             Type “B” Learning Styles
 (Idealists, Abstract Random, Kolb Type 2)

• What Do They Do Best?
     –     Listen to others
     –     Understand feelings and emotions
     –     Focus on themes and ideas
     –     Bring harmony to group situations
     –     Establish positive relationships with everybody
     –     Recognize and meet the emotional needs of
           others


May 2003                                                 63
           Type “B” Learning Styles
 (Idealists, Abstract Random, Kolb Type 2)

• What Makes Sense to Them?
     – Personalized learning
     – Broad, general guidelines
     – Maintaining friendly relationships
     – Enthusiastic participation in projects they
       believe in
     – Emphasis on high morale
     – Decisions made with the heart rather than the
       head

May 2003                                               64
             Type “B” Learning Styles
 (Idealists, Abstract Random, Kolb Type 2)

• What’s Hard for Them?
     –     Having to explain or justify feelings
     –     Competition
     –     Working with authoritarian personalities
     –     Working in a restrictive environment
     –     Working with people who do not seem friendly
     –     Concentrating on one thing at a time
     –     Giving exact details
     –     Accepting any type of criticism (even positive)
May 2003                                                 65
           Type “B” Learning Styles
 (Idealists, Abstract Random, Kolb Type 2)

• What Questions Do They Ask While
  Learning?
     – What does this have to do with me?
     – How can I make a difference?




May 2003                                    66
              Type “B” Learning Styles

• Have preferences for:
     –     Movies/videos/television
     –     Group discussions
     –     Short lectures
     –     Question and answer sessions
     –     Class discussions
     –     Group projects
     –     Shows/games
     –     Simulations
May 2003                                  67
              Type “B” Learning Styles

• Respond to:
     –     Being asked what they think
     –     Being given time to respond
     –     Long range plans
     –     Feeling part of the project
     –     Closeness
     –     Feedback & support
     –     Picture and analogies


May 2003                                 68
           Type “B” Learning Styles

• Oriented to relationships with people
• Likes assurance from others
• Learns by listening and then sharing ideas
  with a small group
• Unhurried, calm, friendly, can’t push until
  ready
• Creates with emotions
• Listens, observes, asks questions
May 2003                                    69
           Type “B” Learning Styles

• Pay attention to human behavior
• Attuned to the nuances of mood and
  atmosphere
• Equate the speaker’s manner and
  personality to the message being delivered
• Like group discussions
• Prefer freedom from rules and guidelines
• Like activities that make use of many
  senses
May 2003                                  70
           Type “B” Learning Styles

• Desires to communicate in a personal way
  to others
• Thrives on caring, recognition, personal
  attention, 2-way exchanges, and
  recognition of emotions
• It is important that the teacher know
  him/her by name and be recognized,
  known, and acknowledged

May 2003                                 71
           Type “B” Learning Styles

• Needs personal feedback on papers
  he/she prepares and personal notes can
  be a powerful motivator
• Negative reactions can provoke into
  rebellion or to inaction
• Enjoys interaction and a democratically
  run classroom
• Enthusiastically participates in group
  discussions
May 2003                                    72
           Type “B” Learning Styles

• Needs periodic feedback through dialogue
• Learns from discussions, role playing, and
  other involvement activities
• Tend to cooperate rather than to compete
• Prefer subjects which focus on people
• Seek to perfect the social climate of the
  classroom
• Like face-to-face dialogues
May 2003                                   73
           Type “B” Learning Styles

• Particularly responsive to teachers who
  are accepting, nourishing, who verbalize
  recognition of feelings, who individualize
  instruction, who use lots of small group
  interactions, and who respond to and
  accept the ideas/opinions of the class
  members



May 2003                                       74
           The Type “C” Learning Style
    O u ter
    O rie n tatio n
    U se s se n se s
    U se s fe e ling s
    C o o p e ra tive
                                                                   .
    In n e r O rie n tatio n K o lb T yp e 3
    U se s th o ug ht        K e irse y A rtist
    U se s in tu itio n      G reg orc C R
    U tilita ria n                  TYPE C

                            In tera cts w ith th e   U n d e rsta n d th e
                            w o rld , a ctive ,      w o rld , refle ctive ,
                            d o in g , co n cre te   o b se rve s, w a tch e s,
                            th o ug h t a n d        a b stra ct th o ug ht a n d
May 2003                    co m m u n ica tio n s   co m m u n ica tio n s 75
             Type “C” Learning Styles
   (Artists, Concrete Random, Kolb Type 3)

• What Do They Do Best?
     –     Inspire others to take action
     –     See many options and solutions
     –     Contribute unusual and creative ideas
     –     Visualize the future
     –     Offer a different way of doing things
     –     Accept many different types of people
     –     Think fast on their feet
     –     Take risks
May 2003                                           76
             Type “C” Learning Styles
   (Artists, Concrete Random, Kolb Type 3)

• What Makes Sense to Them?
     –     Using insight and instinct to solve problems
     –     Working with general time frames
     –     Using real world experience to learn
     –     Trying something themselves




May 2003                                                  77
             Type “C” Learning Styles
   (Artists, Concrete Random, Kolb Type 3)

• What’s Hard for Them?
     –     Restrictions and limitations
     –     Formal reports
     –     Routines
     –     Re-doing anything once it is done
     –     Keeping detailed records
     –     Showing how they got the answer
     –     Choosing only one answer
     –     Having no options
May 2003                                       78
           Type “C” Learning Styles
   (Artists, Concrete Random, Kolb Type 3)

• What Question Do They Ask When
  Learning?

     – How much of this is really necessary?




May 2003                                       79
              Type “C” Learning Styles

• Have a preference for:
     –     Games/contests
     –     Simulations/demonstrations
     –     Independent study projects
     –     Problem solving activities
     –     Optional activities
     –     Projects
     –     Shows


May 2003                                 80
              Type “C” Learning Styles

• Respond to:
     –     Verbal interaction
     –     Frequent, friendly checks
     –     Frequent feedback
     –     Team approaches
     –     Praise
     –     Concrete ideas



May 2003                                 81
           Type “C” Learning Styles

• Gets others’ opinions, feelings, and
  information
• Depends on other people for follow
  through
• Likes learning with people through
  projects, discussion, and doing
• Likes excitement, change, incentives


May 2003                                 82
           Type “C” Learning Styles

• Have an experimental attitude
• Get the gist quickly and make intuitive
  leaps in exploring unstructured situations
• Utilize trial and error approaches
• Do not like cut and dried procedures




May 2003                                       83
           Type “C” Learning Styles


• Operates on “gut” feel
• Do not respond well to teacher intervention
  in their efforts
• Work well independently or in small groups




May 2003                                    84
           Type “C” Learning Styles

• Need hands on, physical involvement
• Thrive on competition
• Love to entertain and to be entertained
• Good team member if in a contest
• Sees instructions as something to be
  outwitted
• Holding the same classroom routine leads
  to absenteeism
May 2003                                 85
           Type “C” Learning Styles

• Dislike paper/pencil work; verbalizing and
  visuals are far more appealing
• Disinterested in lectures, Socratic
  questioning, and workbooks
• Can be very cooperative if a person
  believes he/she is liked
• Somewhat flighty and jumps from project
  to project

May 2003                                       86
           The Type “D” Learning Style
     O u ter
     O rie n tatio n
     U se s se n se s
     U se s fe e ling s
     C o o p e ra tive

     In n e r O rie n tatio n                            K o lb T yp e 4
     U se s th o ug ht                                   K e irse y R a tio n a l
     U se s in tu itio n                                 G reg orc A S
     U tilita ria n                                            TYPE D
                                                                       .

                                In tera cts w ith th e   U n d e rsta n d th e
                                w o rld , a ctive ,      w o rld , refle ctive ,
                                d o in g , co n cre te   o b se rve s, w a tch e s,
May 2003                        th o ug h t a n d        a b stra ct th o ug ht a n d
                                                                                 87
                                co m m u n ica tio n s   co m m u n ica tio n s
             Type “D” Learning Styles
(Rationals, Abstract Sequential, Kolb Type 4)

• What Do They Do Best?
     –     Analyze ideas
     –     Research
     –     Provide logical sequence
     –     Use facts to prove/disprove theories
     –     Figure out what needs to be done
     –     Provide the “Big-picture”
     –     Show relationships of parts to the whole


May 2003                                              88
             Type “D” Learning Styles
(Rationals, Abstract Sequential, Kolb Type 4)

• What Makes Sense to Them?
     –     Using exact, well researched information/facts
     –     Learning more by watching then by doing
     –     Logical reasoning
     –     Using experts in the subject matter
     –     The world of abstract ideas
     –     Taking the time to thoroughly work thru an
           issue.


May 2003                                                89
             Type “D” Learning Styles
(Rationals, Abstract Sequential, Kolb Type 4)

• What’s Hard for Them?
     –     Being forced to work with those of different views
     –     Too little time to thoroughly deal with a subject
     –     Repeating the same tasks over and over
     –     Lots of specific rules and regulations
     –     “Sentimental” thinking passed off as rational
           thinking




May 2003                                                  90
           Type “D” Learning Styles
(Rationals, Abstract Sequential, Kolb Type 4)

• What’s Hard for Them?
     – Being diplomatic when convincing others
     – Not monopolizing a conversation
     – Expressing their emotions verbally




May 2003                                         91
           Type “D” Learning Styles
(Rationals, Abstract Sequential, Kolb Type 4)

• What Questions Do They Ask When
  Learning?
     – How do I know this is true?
     – Are there any possibilities we have not yet
       considered?
     – What will we need in order to accomplish this?




May 2003                                            92
              Type “D” Learning Styles

• Have a preference for:
     –     Extensive reading opportunities
     –     Substantive lectures
     –     Analytic “thinking” sessions
     –     Audio/video tapes
     –     Tests
     –     Compositions
     –     Projects
     –     Large reports
May 2003                                     93
              Type “D” Learning Styles

• Respond to:
     –     Organization
     –     Timetables, flow charts
     –     Facts, numbers
     –     Few, periodic checks
     –     free rein
     –     written reports
     –     abstract ideas


May 2003                                 94
           Type “D” Learning Styles
•   Good theory builder, planner
•   Precise, thorough, careful
•   Organized, follows a plan
•   Works independently, thinking, and
    reading
•   Rational, logical
•   Pushes mind, analyzes ideas
•   Good synthesizer
•   Wants facts
May 2003                                 95
           Type “D” Learning Styles

• Like to work with words, symbols, and
  speech
• Like to read, hear, see graphs or pictorial
  models
• Like to use reading, listening, and visual
  translation skills
• Prefer presentations that have substance,
  rationality, and are sequential

May 2003                                        96
           Type “D” Learning Styles

•   Makes theories useful
•   Unemotional
•   Uses reason
•   Learn well from authorities and like
    vicarious experiences




May 2003                                   97
           Type “D” Learning Styles

• Applies ideas to solving problems
• Likes to be in control
• Acts independently and then gets
  feedback
• Uses factual data, books, theories
• Responsible, takes action on tasks



May 2003                               98
           Type “D” Learning Styles

• Loves to structure his/her cognitive world
• Enjoys the tracking of ideas of others and
  developing his/her own ideas
• Ordinarily filled with intellectual
• Comfortable with logical, didactic
  presentations
• Usually can independently follow-up
  through reading

May 2003                                       99
           Type “D” Learning Styles

• Tend to be loners in the classroom
• Interested in sharing ideas with those
  he/she respects and considers to be
  his/her own intellectual equal (Often this is
  only the teacher)
• Often needs coaching in the area of social
  skills
• Is turned off by manufactured compliments

May 2003                                     100
           Type “D” Learning Styles

• Needs help in establishing priorities
• Tends to be self-sufficient and respondes
  well to objective feedback
• Often seen as cold and unfeeling
• Responds well to verbal, logical, and well
  reasoned dialogue



May 2003                                       101
           Summary of Learning Styles

• Each learning style is different
• Each learning style is “OK”
• Most of us are strangers to each
  others learning style




May 2003                             102
     A Summary of Learning Styles

• Which one are you?
• Do you acknowledge the validity of the
  others?
• Do you try to change others to be like you?
• Do you appreciate others for what they are
  and for what you are not?
• Can you be all things to all people?



May 2003                                   103
           Summary of Learning Styles

• I have my desires, you have yours
• You keep yours and I’ll keep mine
  because each of us wants to be excellent.
  You have your talent and I have mine and
  I can admire yours. I hope you will
  reciprocate
• We can not accommodate all learning
  styles all of the time

May 2003                                  104