Teaching Listening Skills - Spoken Communication Skills

Communication Skills
      Developing Listening and
               Speaking Skills
   What should be the main goal of an English
    language cousre?
       To focus on developing students‟ mastery of the
        the language form
                             OR

       To focus on developing students‟ ability to
        effectively communicate for study, work or leisure
Features of using language for
   We communicate because we want to or need to,
    NOT just to practise the language

   Focus is on what we are communicating NOT on
    how we are communicating (ideas vs. language)

   The language that is used is VARİED in grammar
    and vocabulary, NOT made of a single structure or a
    few structures and NOT normally repeated over and
    over again
    Communication in the Classroom
   If you want to encourage real communication in
    the classroom you need to
     Establish English as the main classroom
     Try to use interesting topics and stimulating
       activities, which take the learners‟ minds off
       the language
         Real life events ( weather, the students‟ cloths, their
          health and mood, pictures and realia brought to
         Events in the world outside ( new films, a circus in
          town, national sports victory, the students‟ families,
   Focus on fluency vs. accuracy

       Support and encourage listeners in their
        efforts to communicate their ideas
       Don‟t try to control what they say
       Don‟t interrupt learners everytime they make a
        language mistake to correct them.
             Listening Skills
   Listening is not a „passive” skill but a
    “receptive” skill. It requires as much attention
    and mental activity as speaking.

   That of the time an individual is engaged in
    communication, approximately 9 per cent is
    devoted to writing, 16 per cent to reading, 30
    per cent to speaking, and 45 per cent to
Debates concerning the development
         of listening skills

   Debates focusing on the nature of listening input
       Whether or not listening should be made
        comprehensible for learners through simplification?

   Debates focusing on the role of listening in the
    early ELT curriculum
       Whether teachers should stress the importance of
        learners haing a “silent period” in the early stages of
        learning and wait for “readiness” to produce the
Debates concerning the development
         of listening skills
   Debates on the role of listening for
    comprehension and development of oracy (the
    ability to understand and participate in spoken
       How can classroom practice rehearse the kinds of
        listening purposes and situations that learners will
        experience outside the classroom?
       How can we help learners build confidence in dealing
        with authentic spoken English?
       What kind of classroom procedures will develop
        listening ability?
What do we know about the listening
   There are two types of listening processes
       Bottom-up process
       Top-down process
   Bottom-up:
       We use our knowledge of language and our ability to
        process acoustic signals to make sense of the sounds that
        speech presents to us
   Top-down
       We infer meaning from contextual clues and from making
        links between the spoken message and various types of
        prior knowledge which we hold.
What learners need to be able to
do in order to listen effectively
   Bottom-up processes
       Retain input while it is being processed
       Recognize word divisions
       Recognize key words in utterances
       Recognize key transitions in a discourse
         Another interesting development was…

         One of theproblems was.. / In contrast…

       Recognize grammatical relations between key elements in
       Recognize the function of word stress in sentences
       Recognize the function of intonation in sentences
What learners need to be able to
do in order to listen effectively
   Top-down processes
       Use key words to construct the schema of discourse
       Infer the role of the participants in a situation
       Infer the topic of a discourse
       Infer the outcome of an event
       Infer the cause and effect of an event
       Infer unstated details of a situation
       Infer the sequence of a series of events
       Infer comparisons
       Distinguish between facts and opinions
Types of Listening
   Participatory Listening
       Interactional (for the purpose of engaging in social rituals)
       Transactional (for the purpose exchanging information)
         İdentification of specific details

   Non-Participatory
       Listening to live conversations without taking part
       Listening to announcements to extract info.
       Listening to or watching films, plays, radio and songs
        where purpose is enjoyment
       Following instructions in orderto carry out a talk efficiently
       Attending a lecture or following a lesson
       Liistening someon egive a public address
    What are the implications for the
    English Language Classroom?
   Creating reasons for listening (motivate students)
       Teachers need to ensure that learners experience a range
        of listening purposes, especially those that might be
        immediately relevant to their lives outside the classroom.
         What purpose might there be for listening to this particular
         Is thatpurpose similar to the purpose a listener might have
           in real life?
         Does the task given to the learner encourage that listening
   Which is more authentic?
       Asking learners to listen to a short airport
        announcement to obtain information about a
        particular flight, as a passenger ?
                                 OR

       Asking learners to listen for the details of four
        different flights ?

                     Skills that are practised
       Listening for key words
       Picking out relevant information
       Retaining significant details
    Designing listening activities
         for the classroom
   The standard procedure used for listening
    activities are
     Pre-listening stage

     While-Listening stage

     Post-listening stage
Pre-Listening stage
   The purpose of the pre-listening stage is to
   Prepare the learners for what they are going to hear
       activating existing prior knowledge
       introducing necessary schematic knowledge
       Introducing the language which students will encounter
   Objectives
       Contextualize the text
       Provide any information to help learners appreciate the
        setting and the role relationships between particiapnts
    Activity types for the pre-listening
   Predicting content from the title of a talk
   Talking about a picture which relates to the text
   Discuss relevant experiences
   Discussing the topic
   Answering a set of questions about the topic
   Agreeing or disagreeing with opinions about the
   Associate vocabulary about the yopic
   Predict info. about the topic
   Write questions about the topic
While-Listening Stage
   Purpose of While-listening stage is
       TO HELP learners understand the text
       While learners listen they need to be involved in
        an authentic purpose for listening and
        encouraged to attend to the text more intensively
While-Listening activities
   Ticking multiple-choice items
   Filling in a chart
   Complete a table, map or picture
   Matching pictures with the text
   Making notes
   Answer questions
   Complete sentences
Post-Listening Activities
   The purpose of post-listening activities is to
    help learbners connect what they have heard
    with their own ideas and experienxe.
   Helps learners to move easily from listening
    to another skill.
Post-listening Activities
   Give opinions
   Relate similar experiences
   Role-play a similar interaction
   Write a brief report
   Write a similar text
   Debate the topic